The Taqaddus of Allah and the Pillar of Salah
All of my life, one of the most striking things that has always been emphasised to me has been the Taqaddus of Allah. All of my family stressed this point to me, all of my teachers stressed this to me and every one of the elders of the past from the First to the Third Generation in the penultimate of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has reminded me of that.
In fact, the singlehanded defense of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in the presence of the government of the time and while the Mu`tazilah and representatives of the rest of the 72 sects were looking on, of the Orthodox creed was referencing the taqaddus of Allah.
It is when I was on Hajj in Makkah that I witnessed first-hand the Taqaddus of Allah. This is the place of the first qiblah but also the place where the Noble Ka`bah is housed. The Adhan, the curtains of the Ka`bah, the way the salah is upheld and all other affairs were loud and clear examples of this taqaddus.
Then you have the same thing seen in the era of Imam Ibn Rajab (d.795) when the Tatar had attempted to water down the theology and take away the creed, thus watering down the taqaddus.
This taqaddus, which I have been able to find the closest example in English being “holiness”, is throughout our Religion and what I have taught vigorously. This is all I have known from the Righteous, Holy, Mighty Lord that I have served. This is what we take from the ayah in which Allah said,
He is Allah! The One whom there is no god but Him! He is the Monarch, the Holy, the Source of Salvation, the Guardian of Iman, the Protector, the Almighty, the Compeller, the Proud! Glorified is Allah from that which they associate with Him!
Then we have the statement of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who declared,
«رَبُّنَا الله الّذِي في السّماءِ تَقَدّسَ اسْمُكَ»
“Our Lord, Allah! The One who is above the sky! Holy is Your Name!” 
So Holy is His Name! This has been what our elders fought for, what we sent out preachers for and everything else. It has been about this underlying principle that is couched in the testimony of: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
Every single hadith about the Foundations of the Religion mentions the very first thing as the Testimony of Faith. Let’s look at this example:
ثُمَّ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرُ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ قال: بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ، إِذْ طَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ شَدِيدُ بَيَاضِ
الثِّيَابِ، شَدِيدُ سَوَادِ الشَّعَرِ،
“Ibn `Umar then said: It was narrated to me by my father `Umar ibn Al-Khattab who narrated: One day we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, when a man came. He had exceedingly black hair and exceedingly white clothes.
لَا يُرَى عَلَيْهِ أَثَرُ السَّفَرِ، وَلَا يَعْرِفُهُ مِنَّا أَحَدٌ، حَتَّى جَلَسَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَأَسْنَدَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ، وَوَضَعَ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ، وَقَالَ:
«يَا مُحَمَّدُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِسْلَامِ»،
“None of us knew him and he had no signs of travel upon him. He then sat down facing the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, his knees touching his, and the man placed has hands on his own thighs. He said, ‘Muhammad, tell me about Islam’.
فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «الإِسْلَامُ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةَ، وَتُؤْتِيَ
الزَّكَاةَ، وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ، وَتَحُجَّ الْبَيْتَ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا»،
“The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, replied, ‘Islam is that you bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, you establish the Salah, you discharge the Zakah, make the Sawm of Ramadan and make the Hajj if you are able’.
قَالَ: «صَدَقْتَ»، قَالَ: فَعَجِبْنَا لَهُ يَسْأَلُهُ وَيُصَدِّقُهُ، قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِيمَانِ»، قَالَ: «أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ، وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ«
“The man said, ‘You have spoken the truth’. We found that strange, that he was asking questions when he knew the answer. The man then said, ‘So, tell me about Iman’. The reply was, ‘Iman is that you truthfully affirm Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and what He has ordained, the good and the bad’.
قَالَ: «صَدَقْتَ»، قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِحْسَانِ»، قَالَ: «أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ»،
“The man said, ‘You have spoken rightly’. He then asked, ‘Tell me about Ihsan’. The answer was, ‘That you worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you do not, indeed, He sees you’.
قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ السَّاعَةِ»، قَالَ: «مَا الْمَسْئُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ»،
“The man then enquired, ‘Tell me about the Hour’. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, said, ‘The one asked has as much knowledge as the one asking’.
قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ أَمَارَتِهَا»، قَالَ: «أَنْ تَلِدَ الأَمَةُ رَبَّتَهَا، وَأَنْ تَرَى الْحُفَاةَ الْعُرَاةَ الْعَالَةَ رِعَاءَ الشَّاءِ يَتَطَاوَلُونَ فِي الْبُنْيَانِ»،
“The man said, ‘So tell me about its portents’. The reply was, ‘When you see a female slave give birth to her master, then you see the barefoot, naked shepherds become leaders, competing with one another in building lofty buildings’.
قَالَ: ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ فَلَبِثْتُ مَلِيًّا، ثُمَّ قَالَ لِي: «يَا عُمَرُ أَتَدْرِي مَنِ السَّائِلُ؟» قُلْتُ: «اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ»، قَالَ: «فَإِنَّهُ جِبْرِيلُ أَتَاكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِينَكُمْ»)
“The man then left. I waited for a little while and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, asked, ‘`Umar, do you know who that was?’ I responded, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best’. He said, ‘That was Jibril, he came to teach you your Religion’.” And this is collected by Imam Muslim.
There is also another hadith that mentions the Testimony of Faith as the very FIRST over of all the pillars.
(بُنِيَ الإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ وِإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وِإِيْتَاءَ الزَّكَاةَ وَصَوْمَ رَمَضَانَ وَحَجَّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ
“Islam is built on five: (1) the Testimony of Faith that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, (2) establishment of the Salah, (3) discharging Zakah, (4) Sawm in Ramadan and (5) making Hajj to the House for whoever finds a way”.
Notice that the Testimony is always the first of affairs. There is also something else that stands out in all of these instances. The salah is always the second all of these ahadith. It is the first thing that comes after the Testimony. There are some ahadith in which sawm and hajj are fourth and fifth, respectively in terms of their order of the Five Pillars. Sometimes they are in the opposite order.
But there is no time that the Salah is referred to in all of those texts in which it has its importance fall below the second.
The great Imam and Renewer of Islam in his time, `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d.1331), had this to say about the topic of Salah:
وفي الآداب: العلم أفضل الأعمال وأقرب العلماء إلى الله عز وجل وأولاهم به: أكثرهم له خشية.
“It is mentioned in Al-Adab, ‘Knowledge is the best of all deeds and the nearest of scholars to Allah, Majestic and Mighty, and the uppermost is the one with the most fear of Allah’.
ثم الصلاة لما روى سالم بن أبي الجعد عن ثوب رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليهوسلم قال:
“Then after this comes the prayer according to what is narrated by Salim ibn Abil Ja`d from Thawban, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,
(اسْتَقِيمُوا وَلَنْ تَحْصُوا وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ خَيْرَ أَعْمَالِكُمُ الصَّلَاةُ). رواه ابن ماجه في سننه.
‘Be upright and don’t reckon that all deeds are accepted. So know that the best of all your deeds is the Salah’. This is collected by Ibn Majah in his Sunan.
ولأن فرضها آكد أركان الدين بعد الشهادتين فتطوعا آكد التطوعات.
“The compulsory nature of the Salah is such that it is also one of the pillars of the Religion after the two Shahadahs. The optional prayers are among the most emphasised.
ولأنها تجمع أنواعًا من العبادة: الإخلاص والقراءة والركوع والسجود ومناجاة الرب والتوجه إلى القبلة والتسبيح والتكبير والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.
“This is because the Salah joins between many different branches of worship: sincerity of intention, recitation, bowing, prostrating, intimate conversation with the Lord, facing the Qiblah, glorification, takbir, prayers upon the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and so forth.
فلهذا كانت آكد أركان الدين بعد الإيمان كما يشير إليه قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحديث الصحيح:
“So this is the most emphasised thing after Iman just as is indicated in the authentic hadith”.
Imam Al-Qaddumi goes on to discuss the grave matter of the Salah and preserving it in the life of a believer:
وشرعاً: أقوال وأفعال مفتتحة بالتكبير مختتمة بالتسليم.
“In the Revealed Law, this word signifies words and deeds that open with takbir and end with taslim.
فرضت ليلة الإسراء خمسين صلاة في اليوم والليلة فراجع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ربه حتى صارت الخمسون خمساً كما قال عز وجل:
“It was during the Night Journey that fifty prayers were declared compulsory in the night and day. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, kept going back to His Lord for a reduction so that the fifty became five. So the Mighty and Majestic One said,
هي خمس أي: بحسب الفعل. وهي خمسون أي: بحسب الثواب ما يبدل القول لدي.
‘It is five according to the action but it is fifty according to reward’. This shows that His Decree does not change.
واستدل العلماء به على عدم فرضية شيء زائد على الخمس كالوتر وقيام الليل
“The scholars have brought this out as proof that nothing has been mandated over the five prayers, such as in the case of witr or qiyam ul-lail.
وعلى جواز النسخ قبل الفعل لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كلف بالخمسين ثم انتهى الأمر إلى خمس والله أعلم.
“It is also possible that the abrogation can come before the action as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was mandated with fifty prayers then the matter was allotted to five. And Allah knows best.
وروى البخاري في صحيحه عن أنس – رضي الله عنه – أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: (أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَن لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ
“Imam Al-Bukhari collected in his Sahih from Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘I have been commanded to fight the people until they bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
فَإِذَا قَالُوهَا وَصَلُّوهَا صَلَتَنَا وَاسْتَقْبَلُوا قِبْلَتَنَا وَذَبَحُوا ذَبِيحَتَنَا فَقَدْ حَرُمَتْ عَلَيْنَا دِمَاؤُهُمْ وَأَمْوَالُهُمْ إِلَّا بِحَقِّهَا وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).
‘When they say that and make our salah, face our Qiblah, slaughter as we do, then it is forbidden for us to shed their blood or take their property except with the Right of Allah. And their reckoning rests with Allah’.
وصح أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال:
“It is authentically narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:
(خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ كَتَبَهُنَّ اللهُ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ فَمَنْ جَاءَ بِهِنَّ لَمْ يُضَيِّعْ مِنْهُنَّ شَيْئاً اسْتِخْفَافاً بِحَقِّهِنَّ كَانَ لَهُ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَهْدٌ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ.
‘There are five salawat that Allah has written for the slaves. Whoever comes with them and does not abandon anything of them out of taking them for light and establishes their right, he shall have a covenant in the Sight of Allah and He will enter him into the Paradise’.
وَمنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ بِهِنَّ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَهْدٌ إِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ وَ إِنْ شَاءَ أَدْخَلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ).
‘And whoever did not come with them then he has no covenant in the Sight of Allah. If He wills, He punishes him and if He wills, He will enter him into the Paradise’.
رواه الإمام أحمد وأبو داود بإسناد صحيح.
“This is collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Abu Dawud with an authentic chain.
وروى أبو داود عن عبادة بن الصامت – رضي الله عنه – أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال:
“Imam Abu Dawud collected in his Sunan as narrated from `Ubadah ibn As-Samit, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,
(خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ افْتَرَضَهُنَّ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَنْ أَحْسَنَ وُضُوءَهُنَّ وَصَلَّاهُنَّ لِوَقْتِهِنَّ وَأَتَمَّ رُكُوعَهُنَّ وَسُجُودَهُنَّ وَخُشُوعَهُنَّ كَانَ لَهُ عَلَى اللهِ عَهْدٌ
‘Five salawat have been made compulsory by Allah, Might and Majestic. Whoever perfected his wudu’, made the salah in their times, completed the bowing, prostrating, having fear of Allah while in them shall have a covenant in the Sight of Allah.
أَنْ يَغْفِرَ لَهُ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عَلَى اللهِ عَهْدٌ إِنْ شَاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُ وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ).
‘Whoever did this shall be forgiven and whoever did not do that then he has no covenant in the Sight of Allah. If He wills, He will forgive Him and if He wills, He will punish him’.
وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ مَنْ حَافَظَ عَلَيْهِنَّ كَانَتْ لَهُ نُوراً وَبُرْهَاناً وَنَجَاةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ
“The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Five salawat have been declared and mandated. Whoever preserved them shall have a light, proof and salvation on the Day of Resurrection’.
وَمَنْ لَمْ يُحَافِظْ عَلَيْهِنَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ نُورٌ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا بُرْهَاناً وَلَا نَجَاةً وَكَانَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مَعَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَقَارُونَ وَهَامَانَ وَأُبَيِّ بْنِ خَلَفٍ).
‘Whoever did not preserve them shall have no light, proof or salvation on the Day of Resurrection. On the Day of Resurrection, this one will be with the Pharaoh, Qarun, Haman and Ubayy ibn Khalaf’.”
رواه ابن نصر في كتاب الصلاة عن أبي عمرو – رضي الله عنهما -.
“This was collected by Ibn Nasr in the Book of Salah from Abu `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him.
وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (إِذَا صَلَّتِ الْمَرْأَةُ خَمْسَهَا وَصَامَتْ شَهْرَهَا وَحَفِظَتْ فَرْجَهَا وَأَطَاعَتْ زَوْجَهَا دَخَلَتِ الْجَنَّةَ) رواه الْإمَام أحمد والطبراني الله أعلم.
“The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘When the woman has prayed her five salah, carried out her sawm in her month, preserved her chastity and obeyed her husband, she will enter the Paradise’. This is collected by Imams Ahmad and At-Tabarani. And Allah knows best.
When we understand this, we understand the severity of the matter of the Salah. Even more sever is abandoning it.
The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, stated the following,
Between a man and shirk and kufr is abandoning the salah.
He, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also proclaimed,
There is nothing between the slave and shirk except abandoning the salah. And when he abandons it, he has done shirk.
When discussing who is the Muslim and who is not, the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, revealed,
Whoever makes our salah, faces our Qiblah and eats the meat that we have slaughtered, then that is a Muslim who has the covenant and protection of Allah and His Messenger.
The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, told us about prayer when he said,
Between kufr and iman is abandoning the salah.
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also warned us,
Between a slave and kufr is abandoning salah. So whoever abandons the salah, then he has disbelieved.
The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, has said the following,
Whoever preserves it (the salah) will have a nur (light) a burhan (manifest proof) and najah (salvation) on the Day of Resurrection. And whoever does not preserve it will not have light, manifest proof or salvation.
This means that those have abandoned the prayer have no salvation. If they have no salvation, they are lost for all eternity.
The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, has also said,
I have been forbidden from fighting/killing the people who make salah.
The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, said the following,
Whoever preserves it (the salah) will have a nur (light) a burhan (manifest proof) and najah (salvation) on the Day of Resurrection. And whoever does not preserve it will not have light, manifest proof or salvation on the Day of Resurrection. And he will come with Qarun, Pharaoh, Haman and Ubayy ibn Khalaf.
It should be mentioned that all of the people in the hadith are kuffar and rejecters of faith when they knew the truth, especially the Pharaoh. If someone abandons the salah will be resurrected with them, what does this mean about the person?
The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, stated,
The first of what will be lost of your faith will be the trust (Amanah) and the last of it will be the Salah.
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal had the following said of him:
The Imam did not consider anyone from the common Muslims for any sin committed, large or small, to be an unbeliever except in the case of someone who abandoned the Salah. So whoever abandoned the Salah, then he has become an unbeliever and it is permitted for such a one to be executed. And this is the ruling of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (d. 620) pronounced the following ruling:
Whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the salah due to ignorance, then he is taught so that he is made aware of the matter. If he should deny the compulsory nature of the salah after that out of stubbornness, then he has become an unbeliever.
It is not permissible to delay the salah from the time that it is compulsory except in the case of a reasonable excuse that would allow two salah to be combined or a matter where it would be valid to delay it according to its conditions. If someone left the salah out of laziness or considering it light, then he is called to repent for three days. If he repents, the matter is resolved; but if he does not, then he is killed as an apostate.
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi (d. 624), said the following:
So whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the Salah due to ignorance is taught to know that it is compulsory. If he should then deny it out of stubbornness, then he has become an unbeliever. It is not permitted to delay the salah from its compulsory time except in the case where one may combine then or some reasonable excuse with conditions that has led to the delay. If he should leave the salah out of laziness, then he is told to repent for three days. If he repents then the matter is resolved; but if he does not, then he is killed with the sword as an apostate.
There is a difference of opinion regarding the one who must be killed in this circumstance. Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la has said, “There are two narrations regarding this matter. The first narration is that he is killed when he has left one salah and the time has come close for the next salah begin as when he abandoned the first salah one would have to wait for the second one to come to know that he had abandoned it for sure. So once the time for the first salah has left, we know that he has abandoned the first salah.
It is however not compulsory to kill him while the time has freshly left but rather he should wait until the time for the second salah is running out. In the second narration, it is not necessary to kill him until he has left three salahs and the time becomes late for the fourth prayer so that he has already left one salah for sure and two based on some doubt. When we have seen this and he has left four salahs, then we know that he has definitely left it. It is necessary to kill him due to the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Whoever left the salah with purposeful intent, then he has no covenant for him.’ This is the proof that it is permissible to kill such a person. He has also said, ‘I have been forbidden from killing the people who make salah.’ The understanding here is therefore that the one that does not make salah can be killed. He also said, ‘Between the slave and kufr is leaving the salah.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim.
So the kufr makes it permissible to kill that individual along with the further text, ‘It is not permissible to spill the blood of a Muslim except in one of three cases: 1) kufr after faith, 2) adultery in marriage and 3) killing a soul without a right attached to it.’ This is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim in their collections according to their understanding.” 
Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi (d. 968), may Allah have mercy upon him, made the following remarks about the prayer and leaving it:
Whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the prayer has become an unbeliever and the same holds true for the one who has abandoned it out of laziness. The Grand Imam or his representative calls him to the salah and insists on the matter and when the time for the second salah becomes close and the time is tightened he is warned of impending judgement of death.
He is not killed until he has been asked to repent for three days and if he has not repented by the time that has elapsed, he is killed.
Imam Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti (d. 1051), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave his ruling:
Whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the salah has become an unbeliever when he is not ignorant of it being compulsory if he did deny it, he is denying Allah, His Messenger and the Consensus of the Ummah. If he should claim ignorance due to being new to Islam, he is taught that it is compulsory and made to be acquainted with this knowledge and is not judged to have disbelieved as he was excused.
If he insisted on denying the salah after being taught he has indeed rejected faith. Likewise, whoever left the salah out of consideration that it was a light matter or due to laziness and not denying it being compulsory, then he is called to the salah and the one in charge of this act is the Grand Imam or his representative. He is called to perform the salah and he waits for the second time to come due to the hadith, “The first thing to be abandoned and lost of your Religion is the Amanah (Trust) and the last thing will be the Salah.”
Imam Ahmad said, “Anything that diminishes until its last has gone has nothing to remain of it so this is the case of the one who left the Salah”. So if he was not called to perform it, then he is not judged to have disbelieved due to the fact that the leaving of the salah was excused due to ignorance like in the case of the one who thought that it had been lifted from him due to some issue.
He is not killed until he is asked to repent for three days. Thus in the case of the one who denied it being compulsory or when he left it out of laziness, if they repent the matter is resolved. If not, then they are to be killed with the sword. Friday salah is like other salahs. The same holds true for someone leaving a pillar or condition of the salah. It is necessary that he be warned regarding leaving the salah so that he might take heed and then make salah. It is not necessary to give salam to the one that has left the salah or answer any invitation or good will gesture. This was mentioned by Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah as well. He becomes Muslim again by making a salah and he becomes a disbeliever by leaving the Salah and this is not the case for things like Zakah, Sawm and Hajj if he should abandon doing them out of laziness or stinginess.
Imam `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi (d. 1133), may Allah have mercy upon him, when giving his ruling, made the following point:
Whoever abandoned the Salah out of denial of it, then he has apostated and is treated as such according to all the laws that govern it. This is as long as he belongs to the category of people who are not ignorant about the Salah, for example the one who is raised in Dar ul-Islam.
Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti (d.1275), may Allah have mercy upon him, indeed concurred with these rulings.
Imam `Abdul Ghani Al-Lubadi (d. 1319), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated for the record:
So whoever abandoned the Salah out of denial of it, then he has apostated. This means that if he left the salah out of laziness, then the Imam or his representative calls him to make the salah. If he did not make the Salah and the time passed and the second prayer came, then he has disbelieved. The laws of the apostates are then held over him and this means that he is also asked to repent for three days and he repents the matter is resolved; but if he does not repent, he is killed just as we will mention later.
Whoever apostated and then returned to Islam, then he must make qada’ of what he left in the time of his apostasy. This ruling holds for the Salah and Sawm and this is in agreement to a ruling from Imam Ash-Shafi`ii. There is another ruling where qada’ is not necessary and this is in agreement to the ruling of Imam Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas but there has also been narrated Consensus on this matter.
This should be something clear in our minds when we think about this second pillar of Islam and the fact that this is the first thing mentioned after the Testimony of Faith. Our Holy, Righteous, Mighty Lord has told us we must carry out these obligations.
Throughout history, our Lord has laid down laws and things for us to make use of and make judgement to among men that He sees fit. When there are errors in the actions that we carry out, those actions are nullified as they do not meet with His Pleasure or will.
There are occasions where an action might be nullified in most instances but through the inclusion of another act or matter that acts as an apology or act of contrition, He then accepts that deed, compensates us and declares it fitting and righteous in His Sight.
Consider the case of the Sawm that we are obligated to carry out every Ramadan.
شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِيۤ أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْفُرْقَانِ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ ٱلْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
The month of Ramadan is the time in which the Qur’an was sent down – a guidance to mankind and clear evidences of the Guidance and the Criterion – so whoever should witness this month, then let him fast it. And whoever is ill or on a distant journey, then let him make up the number of days at another time. Allah desires for you ease and does not desire for you hardship and He desires that you complete the number, magnify Allah according to how He guided you so that you might be grateful.
So Holy is Our Lord, that if someone were to breach this time and knowingly eat in the time of day that one is to be fasting or commit any acts He has stipulated impermissible, a penalty has to be given to resolve it.
Reflect on this statement from Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi in order to appreciate the affair:
“The evidence for all of this is what has been narrated by Az-Zuhri from Humaid ibn `Abdur-Rahman from Abu Hurairah, who said, ‘We were sitting one day in the presence of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when a man came and said: I have been destroyed. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, answered: What did you do? The man said: I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was making sawm in Ramadan. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: Are you able to find one slave that you can free? The man remarked: No.
He was then asked: Are you able to fast two months consecutively to expiate this matter? He said: No. He was then asked: Are you able to feed sixty poor and needy people? He said: No. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, waited with us at the place for a long time and sat quietly. Then someone came with a basket of dates. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then said: Where is the man that came questioning just a moment ago? The man said: I am here. The man was told: Take this bundle of dates and give this in charity. The man said: There is no one poorer than me that deserves charity. By Allah, there is no family poorer than mine, Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, smiled until his canine teeth could be seen. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then said: Take this and feed your family. This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them to be authentic.”
Just reflect on this point. This month is so ennobled in the Sight of our Lord that to knowingly break fast through sexual intercourse would require something known as a kaffarah, which is laid out in the above statement.
Even if one has a valid excuse for not making sawm, such as old age or death, our Holy God has still set down rules that He has declared must be implemented to satisfy His Holiness. Consider this point mentioned.
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, declared,
“Thus the one in this situation has to have the sawm compensated, as is related by Ibn Majah from a chain with Ibn `Umar who mentioned that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Whoever died while there was a sawm due to him from the month of Ramadan, then the one left behind needs to feed a poor man in place of every day that he missed.’ This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi who said, ‘This hadith is authentic but documented and not rigorous.’ It was also narrated from `A’ishah, that she said, ‘So every day would be made up by feeding a poor man for every day the deceased missed and there would be no sawm done for him.’ This is narrated by Al-Baihaqi.
There is also the statement of Ibn `Abbas that he was asked regarding the man who died and had an oath to make sawm that he had made as well as days from Ramadan. The reply from Ibn `Abbas was, ‘As for Ramadan, let him feed one regarding every day missed. As for the oath that he made, then let someone make sawm in that regard.’ This was collected by Imam Abu Bakr Al-Athram in As-Sunan. And if he left making up the sawm until he died for some valid excuse, then there is no sin upon him. The reason for this is that the Right of Allah, the Exalted is necessary by the Revealed Law. Then the one who died before he could carry out the command is excused, and the matter falls to those who survive him just like in the case for Hajj.”
So this is known as the fidyah and has to be paid for even the one that had died. The same ruling also holds for the one who is too ill, infirm or too old to fast. By carrying out this principle, this satisfies the holiness and sanctity of our Lord and He deems it acceptable.
So weighty is this, that even women on their monthly cycle make up fasts missed.
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, remarked on the following,
“Both the woman that begins menstruating and the woman with post-natal bleeding nullify their sawm when this condition begins. This ruling is Consensus. If a woman with either one of these conditions does make sawm in the month of Ramadan, it will not be valid and this ruling is also Consensus. This was established in the hadith of `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, ‘We were commanded to make up the sawm that we missed and not make up the salahs missed.’ This is collected by Imam Al-Bukhari. The making up in the hadith was due to the monthly cycle and the post-natal bleeding is like it in ruling.”
This matter is so important that this is why the emphasis was put upon it for a kaffarah, fidyah or qada’ to compensate and meet the requirements of our Holy Lord.
The senior teacher, Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, gave the ruling,
“Breaking fast for the ill man or the traveller is more virtuous and both of them have to make up the fasts that they broke. This is due to what Allah, Glorified be He, said,
If you are ill or on a journey. [Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 43.]
There is also the statement of the Exalted One,
So whoever among you is ill or on a journey, then he will make up the fasts on other days. [Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 182.]
The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also said, ‘It is not righteousness to fast for the one that is travelling.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, came out on the day of the Conquest of Makkah which was in the month of Ramadan. He found that there were some people who were fasting and he said, ‘These are the disobedient ones.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim. If the ill or traveller does fast, it will be valid.”
Now let’s look at the case of the Zakat ul-Fitr. This is to act as a purification of our wealth and fasting and our Lord sees this as pleasing to Him when it is carried out.
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following,
“This is compulsory on every Muslim who finds what is in excess of his nourishment and that of his family and dependants on the day of `Eid which begins at sunset in the night-time. He subtracts one sa` from this wealth for distribution and this is based upon what was narrated by Ibn `Umar, who said, ‘The Prophet declared as compulsory Zakat ul-Fitr from the month of Ramadan on the male, female, the free and slave from the Muslims in the form of one sa` of dates, barley for the people and half a sa` of wheat to be given for every young child and old man or woman. He commanded that this amount should be given before the people set out for the `Eid prayer.’ This is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim. The amount of Zakat ul-Fitr is one sa` of wheat, barley – whether it be the grains or oatmeal derived from them – as well as dates, raisins, as this was narrated by Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, who stated, ‘We used to give out zakah in the time of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in the form of one sa` of food, which would be a sa` of dates, wheat, barley, cottage cheese or yoghurt or raisins. Then when Mu`awiyah came and the others came he said: Indeed one double handful of these things equals two double handfuls.’
“Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri further said, ‘The form of Zakah given out was always the same just as in the times that we had given it beforehand.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them as authentic.
If the individual did not find the items listed to give as Zakat ul-Fitr, then he takes out of this wealth anything that he can get as a sa`. This is whether or not it is seeds, the meat of fish or cattle. This particular statement is that of Imam Ibn Hamid as this is built upon approximations of what people use as nourishment. Abu Bakr `Abdul `Aziz mentions that the individual should set aside as Zakat ul-Fitr any nourishing grains and the like that would stand in place of foods mentioned in the aforementioned explicit texts.
“So one would give things such as seeds or fruits with things like corn, millet, rice and things such as this as these items are fitting substitutes for those explicitly mentioned matters. The one required to give Zakat ul-Fitr sets aside what is necessary not only for himself but any who are dependants under him asnd this is done on the night of `Eid when he possesses and takes hold of what is to be discharged as Zakat ul-Fitr. This is due to the fact that the Fitr follows on from the maintenance and this is the extra left over of his maintenance and the maintenance of his dependants on the day of `Eid and its’ night. He therefore takes out the zakah for himself and his dependents. This is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Discharge the Zakah for those under your care.’ This is collected by Imam Ad-Daraqutni. He gives the distribution of the zakah precedence over the maintenance as it is specifically stated by the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Take out the amount for the Zakah, starting with yourself.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim. There is another narration in which he also said, ‘Begin with those who are under your care.’ This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi.
“A condition for Zakat ul-Fitr becoming compulsory is the time entering in for that compulsory act. The compulsory time is sunset on the night of `Eid ul-Fitr. This is based upon the statement of Ibn `Umar, ‘The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, declared Zakat ul-Fitr compulsory from the end of the month of Ramadan.’ This is coming after the sunset. Whoever became Muslim, or got married or had a child born to him or owned a servant or slave or war captive after the sunset or they died before the sunset, then there is no Zakat ul-Fitr due. If the sun set and they were with him for the duration of time, then they died, then he must give the Zakat ul-Fitr for them as the necessary time and matter was met and these things are not nullified by death just like the expiation for disavowing one’s wife.”
We also have the case of the Hajj and the `Umrah. This is to be carried out once in the lifetime of a Muslim according to what Allah has revealed.
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, remarked that the evidence for this point is coming from,
“The statement of the Glorified and Exalted One, Allah has required upon the people the Hajj to the House according to the one who is able to find the way. Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 97. Therefore ability has been required in order for something compulsory to come into effect. This is evidence that whoever does not have the ability has the compulsory nature of something lifted from him.”
If there are certain affairs that are missed, they likewise have to be resolved through fidyah or kaffarah or the action will not be accepted by our Lord.
Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following about fidyah,
“So in discussing the fidyah, it is according to what is necessary and deserves to be taken and one chooses the fidyah for something such as shaving or removing more than two hairs, cutting or trimming more than two nails, the man covering his head, wearing sewn clothes. When one commits a violation such as this, one must choose between either fasting three days, feeding six poor people – and for every poor person is one double handful of wheat or a half of a sa` of dates or barley – or slaughtering one sheep. All this is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when he said to Ka`b ibn `Ajarah, ‘Do you have a scalp ailment?’ He said, ‘Yes, Messenger of Allah.’ He said to him, ‘Shave your head and then fast either three days, or feed six poor people or sacrifice one sheep.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them as authentic.”
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, explicitly stated,
“Contracting and consecrating a marriage is impermissible due to the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘The one in ihram is not to contract or consecrate a marriage, nor should he be married and nor should he be engaged.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon as authentic from the narration from `Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him. This is a clear prohibition and the word of prohibition used in this ayah refers to impermissibility. If someone in a state of ihram should marry someone or be married, then there as no fidyah upon him as it is a covenant that has been nullified due to his ihram. So based upon this principle, the fidyah is not compulsory for him, just like in the case of someone purchasing wild game for killing and eating.”
Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following,
“So having direct sexual intercourse is forbidden. If the individual in ihram had sexual intercourse before the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, which is the time of slaughter, then his Hajj is nullified and he must do a make up the following year. As for the spoiling of his Hajj due to sexual intercourse, there is no difference of opinion about this matter at all.
Ibn Al-Mundhir said, ‘The People of Knowledge have made Consensus on that the Hajj is not nullified or spoiled by doing anything in the state of ihram except sexual intercourse.’ The foundational principle in that is according to what has been narrated from Ibn `Umar that a man asked him, saying, ‘I came to my wife while we were both in a state of ihram. What should we do?’ He said, ‘You have nullified your Hajj. You and your wife should go with the people and complete what they complete, finish and take off the ihram when they do so. When the next year comes, you need to go, you and your wife and make hajj again and give a gift. If the two of you do not find a gift, then you both need to fast for three days on the Hajj and seven when you have returned to your homeland.’
This is also what has been mentioned by Ibn `Abbas and `Abdullah ibn `Amr and we know of no different of opinion in their time. The hadith of these Companions has been narrated by Abu Bakr Al-Athram in his Sunan and something additional was mentioned in the hadith of Ibn `Abbas, ‘They should part ways from where they made ihram from and not come together until they repeat their Hajj so as not to fall into that again.’ Ibn Al-Mundhir mentioned, ‘The statements of Ibn `Abbas is the highest thing in authenticity that has been narrated on the topic of sexual intercourse on the Hajj.’ There is also another narration about this from `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him.”
Then we have this time now in which some people neglect – with purposeful intent – the five-time salah that are to be prayed every day by every adult Muslim under the ruling. Then upon this realisation, some have turned back to repent and then realised that they had a vast number of salah to make up.
They have said, “This is such a big number. Isn’t there some easier way to resolve this matter?”
This question seems easy enough, but it is sometimes used in the sense of dereliction of duty. In most instances previously, they were rightly told that they must make up these missed salawat and not cut corners.
But as of recent, there have been a spate of well-wishers telling Muslims not to make them up, that they can’t and that instead they should “just give sadaqah instead” or “give a good word” and move forward.
Strangely enough, these people are not pulling from some Consensus or laid down principles that have been established from time immemorial. They are pulling from a rare ruling from none other than Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (661-728).
This is very strange as in this current age, the takfir bop-gun is being released against him and his entire name is being serenaded with sobriquets such as mujassim, mushabbih, murtad, zindiq and so forth. Yet, this same Imam’s rare opinion, universally condemned in its time, is being used as an escape clause for low IQ figures to tell common Slaves of Allah to ignore what a Holy Lord has declared.
The point of the long introduction above was to establish that we serve a Holy and Righteous God and that only the things that He has stipulated and found pleasing to Him may be presented to Him as worship.
When Sawm, Hajj, `Umrah, Zakah or other affairs are breached, the only way to keep this act from being nullified in the Sight of a Holy and Righteous God is that a kaffarah, fidyah or some other compensatory affair is brought forth.
Yet those who are using a five-page fatwa from the aforesaid Imam (and we know they took it from him as a simple perusal through history will establish that none previous to 728 had this kind of ruling attached) do so in order to somehow “make things easy” on the Ummah (meaning Muslims in Dar ul-Kufr. Why is this “making it easy” always referenced to the whole Ummah but only parenthetically referring to one portion (?!) or “keep in mind the current milieu” and other sycophantic things designed to lower the status and rank of the Salah.
Understand this very well. When a salah is missed, it has to be made up.
“من نام عن صلاة أو نسيها، فليصلها إذا ذكرها. لا كفارة لها إلا ذلك”
“Whoever slept through a salah or forgot it, then let him pray it when he remembered it. There is no expiation due to him for it except that”.
Subhanallah! Look at this affair. There is no expiation (Ar. kaffarah) or the like to compensate this. The matter is so severe, only the make-up (qada’) of the salah will satisfy the Holiness of our Lord. And there is nothing else.
One cannot give Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, an expiation or something that He has not called for or declared that He would accept when He either declared Himself or told His Prophet or Consensus has been established that this is not the case.
And yet there are those latching onto the fatwa of Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah as if it is a panacea for satisfying Allah’s Holy Command when it is no such thing. In fact, Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah’s ruling, although not abided by, goes one step further in affirming the Holiness of our Lord.
The reason why Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah declared that the salah does not have to be made up is not because it does not have to but because it can’t. Once the time to glorify Allah in the compulsory salah has passed, one cannot reclaim it in qada’ or make up. This the time has passed.
As for the reason why someone who prayed sometimes and not others or for a period of time is exempt from qada’ of those salawat is because the individual (a) missed the time and (b) the said individual is a kafir, specifically a murtad.
The revilers of the Revealed Law and secret stans of Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah didn’t include that part of his ruling. They merely ignored it and presented the first part of it and not the underlying principles from the Usul of the Imam in question on the matter.
It is therefore my thought that the best thing to do would be to publish the ENTIRE fatwa in the next few days to show in reality what is at stake, so people understand the ramifications of the ruling.
So you follow Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah in his ruling about the abandoned salah. Wonderful. You were an apostate (Ar. murtadd) which impacts on the validity of your marriage, children, inheritance and a host of other things. You thought you’d find a way out of honouring the Righteous Command of your God but instead ran into an even more severe ruling on the topic.
Have it your way. This ruling will be published with all of its sourcing and texts so that the people might see it and not any longer be lied to about the true nature of abandonment of the salah in the life of a believer.
So very well then. You super scholars and throne polishers don’t like Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah. But just remember this the next time you bend your back to kiss the gnarled hand of the fake preacher you are genuflecting to or collecting toe-nail shavings for barakah to rub on your face (or turning a blind eye to the opposite/same sex orgies that he is carrying out, sometimes in the class (!) and remember it well:
If it wasn’t for Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah’s rulings on sadaqah for the salah, three talaqs in one sitting equalling one and much more, most of you mouth breathers wouldn’t have a thing to talk about in your fake institutions.
Until next time,
Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali
 Surat ul-Hashr (59), ayah 23
 Collected by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, vol.6, pp. 20-21
 Hidayah, pp.207-209
 Hidayah, pp.179-181
 Collected by Imams Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and as-Suyuti, hadith #2848 and classed as sahih.
 Collected by Imams Ibn Majah, as-Suyuti, hadith #5388 and classified as sahih.
 Collected by Imams al-Bukhari, an-Nasa’ii, as-Suyuti, hadith #6350, an-Nabahani, hadith #2146 and classed as sahih.
 Collected by Imams at-Tirmidhi and as-Suyuti, hadith #2849 and classed by them as sahih.
 Collected by Abu `Awanah in his Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 19-20 and classed as sahih.
 Collected in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, vol. 2, pp. 168-169 and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, hadith #1465
 Collected by Imams at-Tabarani and as-Suyuti, hadith #6785
 Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, vol. 2, pp. 228-229 and Ibn Hibban, hadith #253 and classed by both of them as sahih.
 Collected by Imams at-Tabarani, al-Hakim, as-Suyuti, hadith #’s 2570 and 2575 and classed as hasan.
 Al-I`tiqad, pp.22-23
 Al-`Umdah fil-Fiqh, pp. 18-19
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 70-71
 Zad ul-Mustaqni` fikh-tishar il-Muqni`, pp. 37-38
 Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp. 60-61
 Nail ul-Maarib bi-Sharhi Dalil it-Talib Li-Nail il-Matalib, pp. 55-57
 Matalib Uwl in-Nuha fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol. 1, pp. 272-283
 Hashiyat ul-Lubadi `ala Nail il-Maarib, pp.56-57
 Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 185
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 200-201.
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 201-200.
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 199-200.
 Please see Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 199-200
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 184-186.
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 216-217.
 Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp. 214-215
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 235-236.
 Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 237-238.
 Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, Section 3: Al-`Ibadat, vol.1, pp.488-491
 A truly curious thing is that none of the Muslims that I have dealt with in Dar ul-Islam or the entire family of the writer have ever abided by this understanding or called to it as they seem to have a better understanding of the Holiness of Allah than the “educated”, “civil”, “urbane” “wise” and “respectable” self-congratulators in Dar ul-Kufr who steadfastly speak with two tongues on Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah. Perhaps the reader can ask himself why this may be the case.