23 RAMADAN 1442: A GROUP FROM A GROUP IS BETTER THAN ONE FROM ONE

23 Ramadan 1442

[ رأي الجماعة مقدم على الواحد عند الصحابة ]

The position of the jama`ah takes precedence over the statement of one according to the understanding of the Companions

»خطب علي الناس فقال: شاورني عمر في أمهات الأولاد، فرأيت أنا وعمر أن أعتقهن، فقضى به عمر حياته، وعثمان حياته، فلما وليت رأيت أن أرقهن. قال عبيدة: فرأي عمر وعلي في الجماعة أحب إلينا من رأي علي وحده«

الكافي في فقه الحنابلة للموفق .( 2 / 349).

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620) stated: “`Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, preached to the people and said, ‘`Umar ibn Al-Khattab held a shura with me regarding the topic of the umm walad and I and `Umar held that they should be freed. So `Umar held this ruling the duration of his life and afterward so did `Uthman. So when it was turned over to me I held the same position’. `Ubaidah said, ‘So the position of `Umar and `Ali in jama`ah is more beloved to us than the ruling of `Ali alone’.” Al-Kafi fi fiqh il-Hanabilah, vol.2, p.349

قلت : وقد سلك الخلفاء الراشدون هذا المسلك

I would like to say that the Four Rightly Guided Successors also kept this understanding.

فقد كانوا يجمعون الصحابة من أهل بدر وغيرهم ويسألونهم .

So the Companions used to gather together from the people of Badr and others and asked them and come to a ruling on a matter together.

والتعليل في ذلك ..هو أن الجماعة أوثق من الواحد .

The underlying understanding of this is that the jama`ah is more trustworthy in ruling than one alone.

وفيه هذا دليل على أن التمسك بقول الجماعة في مسألة خلافية مقدم على قول الواحد ، ما لم يعارضه معارض ، من مصالح متحققة ومقاصد شرعية .

And within this statement is an evidence that taking hold of the statement of a jama`ah of people in a difference of opinion holds more precedence than the one statement as long as it is not an open contradiction of a text, from the maslahah or the principles of the Revealed Law.

فارس الخزرجي.

As written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

14 RAMADAN 1442: KHATAM OF THE QUR’AN AND THE TIMING OF THEM

14 Ramadan 1442

[ مقدار قراءة القرآن العظيم عند السلف ]

The Recitation of the Grand Qur’an according to the First Three Generations

قال أبو الفرج ابن قدامة المقدسي رحمه الله :

Imam Abul Faraj Al-Maqdisi (d.698), may Allah be pleased with him, said:

 ” فأما مِقدار القراءة فقد اختلفت فيه عادات السلف، فمنهم من كان يختم كل يوم وليلة ختمة، ومنهم أكثر من ذالك، ومنهم من كان يختم في ثلاثٍ ختمة، ومنهم من كان يختم في كل شهر، اشتغالاً بالتدبر أو بنشر العلم أو بتعليمه أو بنوع من التعبد غير القرأة.

In terms of the completion of the Qur’an and how long it would take to do so, there was difference of opinion in the habits of the First Three Generations. Some of them would make a khatam of the Qur’an every one day and night. Some of them did more khatams than that. Some of them would make a khatam every three days while others would do so every month, busying themselves with reflecting on its meanins, spreading knowledge, learning and other forms of worship besides the recitation.

قال ابن عباس رضي الله عنه؛ لأن اقرأ البقرة وآل عمران وأرتلهما وأتدبرهما أَحبّ إلي من أن أقرأ القرآن كله هذرمة، ومن وجد خلسة في وقتٍ فاليغتنم القراءة ليفوز بكثرة الثواب، فقد كان عثمان رضي الله عنه يقرأ القرآن في ركعة يوتر بها، وكان الشافعي رحمه الله يختم في رمضان ستين ختمة “.

Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Recitation of Al-Baqarah and Ali `Imran with slowness and reflecting upon them is more beloved to me that reciting the Qur’an in totality with quickness”. So whoever is able to take pleasure in a particular time, then let him seek the riches of the recitation in order to be successful and gathering abundant reward. `Uthman ibn `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, used to recite and complete the Qur’an in one raka`ah of his witr. Imam Ash-Shafi`ii used to make some 60 khatams in the month of Ramadan.

مختصر منهاج القاصدين.

And this was cited by the Imam in Mukhtasar Minhaj ul-Qasidin.

13 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? CONCLUSION

13 Ramadan 1442

Sixthly, Ubayy ibn Ka`b narrated: I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Maintain Lailat ul-Qadr on the 27th of Ramadan. It is a night of immense and pure joy. The weather on that night is neither exceedingly cold or exceedingly hot. The sun comes up in the morning right after and it has no luminescence around the disk. Whoever is able to make ghusl for it and delay the suhur until the end of its time, then let him also make his iftar on pure milk”.

Seventhly, It is narrated by `Ubadah ibn As-Samit, who mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Lailat ul-Qadr is a night splendid with a moon in which the stars are not out and that night remains so until the morning comes. And the evidence of this night is that the sun comes up in the morning right after and it has no luminescence around the disk. It will resemble the moon on a full moon night and Allah has made it forbidden for the demons to come out at that time”.[1]

Eighthly, Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The angels that descend on that night are more than can be reckoned”.[2]

Ninthly, and there is also the narrative from Abu Hurairah to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Whoever should stand in salah on Lailat ul-Qadr with iman and longing shall have whatever sins he had committed previously forgiven”.[3]

And then finally, there is the statement Imam Al-Awza`ii narrated from `Abdah ibn Abi Lubabah who remarked, “I tasted some water from the ocean on 27th Ramadan and found that it had been given a sweet taste”.[4]

The answer to all of this is that some of these texts have already been narrated and discussed. And we have put answers in place that counter their application. Some of these texts only establish the rank of Lailat ul-Qadr in and of itself and this is not under discussion.

Our only difference of opinion is its rank over all other nights. And there is no evidence of Lailat ul-Qadr necessarily being more preferred or virtuous than the Jumu`ah night. And Allah knows best.

Praise be to Allah who is Alone and Unique in His Oneness. And peace and blessings be upon our master, Muhammad.

Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain Al-Farra’ Al-Baghdadi (380-458)

This manuscript was dictated by Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Salihi Al-Manbiji (d.785)


[1] Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hadith#22765

[2] Collected by Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi, hadith#2688 and Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, hadith#10734

[3] As collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim

[4] Al-`ilal by `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal, statement #2777.

12 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.10

12 Ramadan 1442

I looked into what was mentioned by Ahmad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Ya`qub ibn Muqsim Al-Maqri on this topic and he said, “As for the question which led to the difference of opinion on the Jumu`ah night and Lailat ul-Qadr, the discussion centred around which one was better in rank and virtue?”

So every one of our companions went to the position of the veneration of one of these two nights over the other and there are two statements on the matter. And using the principles and many indicative texts, there are outstanding proofs for either side and it is not for anyone to attribute a mistake to the one who holds either position.

The position of holding the rank of Jumu`ah night over others is conditioned on two things:

  1. Jumu`ah night is specified by times and it is well known to have been witnessed by the elite and laity – whether it be male or female, young or old, blind or sighted – and the blessing of this day reaches the living and the deceased while Lailat ul-Qadr is not specified and there is a boundary to this day at one moment that is not the case for the Jumu`ah night.
  • Jumu`ah night occurs again and again and its reward increases over just the one night of Lailat ul-Qadr. Do you know see that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when it was mentioned to him the rank of one man over the other that he also name both of them and declared they both had virtue? Then he declared one preferred over the other.

So when the preferred one died in his, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, lifetime and the one giving rank over him was still alive and then died not long after, he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, mentioned his rank and preferred him over the first one that had died. It was then said to him, “Messenger of Allah, Did you not mention that the one before was better?”

So the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “So where is his salah after the salah of the other one? And where is his sawm after the sawm of the other one? And where is his sadaqah after the sadaqah of the other one?”[1]

So he declared that the one preferred had his righteous deeds multiplied and the reward doubled. So then he mentioned that the rank of the one preferred was several and he made it clear. So that which we cited makes clear the virtue of Lailat ul-Qadr in and of itself as per the last point mentioned at the beginning of the text.

I also looked into what was mentioned by Abu Hafs ibn Shahin and he mentioned things indicating the favour and virtue of Lailat ul-Qadr over the Jumu`ah night and chose that position as per the following reasons:

Firstly, the first of what was sent down of the Qur’an was in the month of Ramadan on Lailat ul-Qadr and the whole Qur’an was waiting at the nearest sky. And then it came down in regular intervals like that for the next 20 years.

“The Qur’an was sent down all at once on Lailat ul-Qadr to the lowest sky. And thus when Allah so willed that some of it be revealed, He would bring that about when the time came”.[2]

And this rank and virtue is not paralleled by any night besides.

Secondly, it is preferred as He ordered mankind in masse to seek it out when He said,

Seek out what Allah ordained for you.[3]

Thirdly, Allah made it the night in which Allah hands down the judgement that is to come to pass for the coming year, everything to do with who is to live and who is to die. And it was narrated as the preferred night.

And it is narrated from Mujahid who recited this ayah:

Indeed We sent it down in Lailat ul-Qadr.[4]

Mujahid said, “This is the night of decisive judgement being handed down”.[5]

Fourthly, Allah made it the best night in the best month and out of all the nights, Lailat ul-Qadr was the best of all of this given. And this understanding was narrated from Ka`b in which he said, “Indeed Allah, Exalted be He, chose the hours and then He chose the hours set aside for the salah times. And He chose the days and chose out of them the Jumu`ah day. And He chose the months and out of that chose the month of Ramadan. And He then chose the nights and out of them chose Lailat ul-Qadr”.[6]

Fifthly, Allah, Exalted be He, did not reveal to anyone from those before, those after, the prophets and messengers in sleep or wakefulness like what was given to our Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, for indeed the Qur’an was sent down to him. He was given the Qur’an in wakefulness and visions and he was shown the truth until it dawned upon him.

And the first revelation came to him and dawned upon him and he informed people of that in the conviction that they would take joy in the revelation and he declared this to the first two men he approached and they forgot it. To the Ummah at large, he told them to seek Lailat ul-Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadan.

And it is not because they saw it revealed to them. But they looked for the favour of the day in the last ten nights. So these blessings of looking for Lailat ul-Qadr in the last ten nights is not matched by the Jumu`ah night or any other night. And this blessing was not seen by another after him.

And anyone who should claim after the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that they saw what he did, indeed they are on falsehood and when such a one is asked what he saw, he can’t qualify it in truth. And when that is seen, the claimant to prophethood is scandalised for his falsehood.


[1] Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hadith#16074

[2] Musannaf of Imam Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah, hadith#20813

[3] Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 187

[4] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 1

[5] Abdur-Razzaq in his tafsir, vol.2, pp.385-386

[6] Al-Asbahani’s Hilyat ul-Awliya’, vol.6, pp.14-15

11 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.9

11 Ramadan 1442

It has been said by some that an evidence of the superiority of the Lailat ul-Qadr is that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, forbade that the Jumu`ah night be specifically set aside for worship and then making sawm in its daytime.

And yet the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, enjoined people to carry through these actions on Lailat ul-Qadr. Remember that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever should stand in salah on Lailat ul-Qadr with iman and longing shall have whatever sins he had committed previously forgiven”.[1]

They thus see this as establishing the proof that Lailat ul-Qadr is higher in rank and virtue than the Jumu`ah night.

The answer to the statement above is that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, forbidding the singling out of Jumu`ah for certain action is not evidence of its lacking in rank when compared with Lailat ul-Qadr and that Lailat ul-Qadr is above it in rank.

Have you not seen that he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, forbade from salah after the `Asr and Fajr times? And then there is the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “There are two salahs in which the angels of the day and night bear witness to them and they ascend and descend at those times”.

And likewise he forbade from singling out the two `Eids and the Days of Tashriq for making sawm and yet they are better than all other days besides them.

And it has also been mentioned that he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, forbade from singling it out for standing in the night in salah out of respect for its day as one will be in the Jumu`ah salah. And in the same way we are not to precede by a day or two days the month of Ramadan out of respect for it.

And it stands to reason that the prohibition of standing in salah in the Jumu`ah night is on account of the fact that one might sleep and then possibly miss the salah on the day of Jumu`ah.

Answering the statement regarding the prohibition of making siyam on the day of the Jumu`ah

The answer to this claim can be tendered in two ways:

  1. The Jumu`ah is an `Eid and thus it is not permitted to make sawm on an `Eid
  2. One is not to make sawm as he might be weakened at the time of the Jumu`ah salah in the Central Masjid

[1] As collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim

10 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.8

10 Ramadan 1442

The Companions, `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Every single Jumu`ah night, Allah, Mighty and Majestic, looks at His Creation three times and He shall forgive whoever did not associate any partners with Allah at all”.

The Companion, Jabir ibn `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever died on the day or night of the Jumu`ah shall be saved from the Punishment of Allah, Mighty and Majestic, and on the Day of Resurrection shall be upon the way of the martyrs”.[1]

And there is also a narrative from Anas ibn Malik who mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Every single day or night of the Jumu`ah, Allah, Mighty and Majestic, looks at the whole of the earthly life and frees 100,000 souls from those who declare Him to be One and Unique from punishment and those who merit such”.[2]

And Anas ibn Malik also narrated a hadith in which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The night of Jumu`ah is a time of luminescence and its day is one of radiance and more so. Two angels, one in the east and one in the west, call out after the `Isha’ on the night of the Jumu`ah, the middle of the night and just before daybreak with the following: who is repenting so that he might have it accepted? Is there anyone asking anything so that it might be given? Is there anyone seeking safety so that he might have it guaranteed for him? Is there anyone interceding so that the intercession might be granted?”[3]


[1] Abu Nu`aim Al-Asbahani’s Hilyat ul-Awliya’ wal-Asfiya’, vol.3, pp.154-1555

[2] Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi’s Tarikh Baghdad, vol.11, pp.25-26

[3] Collected with different wording in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hadith#2346

9 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.7

9 Ramadan 1442

Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Lailat ul-Qadr is better than one thousand months”.

Ibn `Abbas explained that this means Lailat ul-Qadr is better than one thousand months of worshipping in the night and making sawm in the day. There is no month like the night it falls in so whoever should make worship at that time then he had been saved by making worship that is worth one thousand months.

Anas ibn Malik narrated: I heard the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saying, “When Lailat ul-Qadr has arrived, the Angel Jibril – peace be upon him – descends in a gathering of angels and he is bearing two special wings with jewels and rubies that he does not wear at any time except for one time in one night. And it is here where the Exalted One has said,”

The angels descend in ranks in that night and the Spirit by the permission of their Lord in every affair and peace is the order at the time…[1]

“The angels referened in this ayah are under the Lote Tree of the Uttermost Boundary while the Spirit is in reference to the Angel Jibril – peace be upon him – who descends”.[2]

Ma`mar narrated that Qatadah recited the following ayah:

in every affair…[3]

And Qatadah remarked about the portion, “It is ordered what is to be in the upcoming year and onwards”.

Al-A`mash narrated from Mujahid, who recited the portion,

in every affair and peace is the order at the time until the coming of the Fajr.[4]

Mujahid then remarked, “It is a night of peace and safety in which none is blotted out and no demon descends upon the people”.

The answer brought by those giving precedence to Lailat ul-Qadr is to state that these texts all indicate the favour, rank and bounty of Lailat ul-Qadr in and of itself. And this is correct. In the case of trying to use these texts to establish that it has rank over all other nights, then this is not the case.

Texts regarding the night of Jumu`ah that contradict the understanding that Lailat ul-Qadr is superior

It was narrated by Ibn `Umar who said that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, declared, “Whoever died on the day or the night of the Jumu`ah, Allah shall save him from the punishment of the grave and those who come to take account and question at the time”.[5]


[1] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayat 4-5

[2] Al-Baihaqi in Shu`ab ul-Iman, vol.5, pp.275-276

[3] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayat 4-5

[4] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayat 4-5

[5] Collected by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, hadith #s 6646 and 7050.

8 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.6

8 Ramadan 1442

And there is a further proof that they quote in which there is the statement of the Exalted One.

In this night every matter is resolved.[1]

And they state that this is in reference to Lailat ul-Qadr. The answer to deducing this ayah as proof is that it is also stated as referring to the 15th of Sha`ban. And according to most of what is discussed by this party we are agreed upon, namely that Lailat ul-Qadr has a rank and virtue in and of itself and we don’t negate this at all.

Our difference of opinion rests on giving Lailat ul-Qadr rank over all other nights in favour and virtue and not on the indication regarding the ayah in which Lailat ul-Qadr is explicitly mentioned.

And further to all the proofs and narratives cited regarding the rank of Lailat ul-Qadr, these same texts indicate its rank in and of itself and not over and above each and every other night.

The narratives making reference to the rank and virtue of Lailat ul-Qadr

Ikrimah narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with both of them, who stated, “The Qur’an was sent down all at once on Lailat ul-Qadr to the lowest sky. And thus when Allah so willed that some of it be revealed, He would bring that about when the time came”.[2]

Abul Jawza’ also narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with both of them, that he recited the ayah,

And seek out what Allah has ordained for you.[3]

Ibn `Abbas said of this, “It is in reference to Lailat ul-Qadr”.[4] Imam Al-Awza`ii narrated from `Abdah ibn Abi Lubabah who remarked, “I tasted some water from the ocean on 27th Ramadan and found that it had been given a sweet taste”.[5]

Abu Hurairah also narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said, “Whoever should stand in salah on Lailat ul-Qadr with iman and longing shall have whatever sins he had committed previously forgiven”.[6]


[1] Surat ud-Dukhan (44), ayah 4

[2] Musannaf of Imam Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah, hadith#20813

[3] Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 186

[4] Al-Jarh wat-Ta`dil, vol.1, pp.316-317

[5] Al-`ilal by `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal, statement #2777.

[6] As collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim

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7 Ramadan 1442

As for the scholars who hold the position that Lailat ul-Qadr is more virtuous and of higher rank than the Jumu`ah night have a number of things that they deduce for their position:

There are the words of the Exalted One:

Lailat ul-Qadr is better than one thousand months[1]

This would appear to advance the first position but those of the second position say that this ayah actually has another aspect to it that has to be considered.

It was narrated to us by Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Makhlad by way of recitation in class who said: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Mas`adah Al-Fazzari who said: It was narrated to us by Adam who said: It was narrated to us by Az-Zanji who said: It was narrated to us by Ibn Abi Najih who transmitted: There was a man among the Children of Israel who bore his weapons for 1000 months in the Cause of Allah without having put them down once. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, mentioned this to his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, and they marveled at this and then Allah, Mighty and Majestic, revealed:

Lailat ul-Qadr is better than one thousand months[2]

This means that Lailat ul-Qadr is better for you than the one thousand months which the man spent in the Cause of Allah having bore his weapons without having put them down once.[3]

When the reason for the revelation of this ayah is then understood in context, this would negate that the intent of the ayah is that Lailat ul-Qadr has a rank over every other night.

Thus the intent that can be gleaned is by looking at the expression:

Lailat ul-Qadr is better than one thousand months[4]

This means it is better than one thousand months that do not have the Jumu`ah night within them.[5] And just as this is the case, then the ayah also carries the intent and restriction that it is better than 1000 months that do not have Lailat ul-Qadr within them.

It was narrated to by Abul Hussain who said: It was narrated to us by Abu `Abdullah ibn Ja`far ibn Khashish who said: It was narrated to us by Al-Hussain ibn Abir-Rabi` who said: It was narrated to us by Abdur-Razzaq who said: It was narrated to us by Ma`mar as narrated from Qatadah who recited the following ayah:

Lailat ul-Qadr is better than one thousand months[6]

Qatadah then said in commentary: “This means one thousand months that do not have Lailat ul-Qadr within them”.[7]

It may be said by someone, “The understanding taken for the Jumu`ah using the above narration is not authentic as the months don’t go through their progression except that in each month are weeks and in each week is a Jumu`ah night; but this can be the case of Lailat ul-Qadr as this night did not come to pass until the coming of Islam and the Revelation”.

The response to this is to say that there is no difference between either of the two nights in terms of our discussion. This is the case as the night in which the Qur’an was revealed had not come to pass before but this was only after the revelation of Islam. And in the same capacity the Jumu`ah and its night had not come to pass beforein terms of its rank, although it was present as a day – but was only after the revelation of the Qur’an and the coming of Islam.


[1] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 3

[2] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 3

[3] Collected by Imam Al-Baihaqi in As-Sunan ul-Kubra, vol.4, pp.305-306

[4] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 3

[5] This is on account of the fact that this was more than 3,300 years ago and before the revelation of the Jumu`ah worship and covenant in the time of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. So the scholars that hold that Jumu`ah is superior are making the point that this ayah cannot be including the Jumu`ah in terms of the rank of Lailat ul-Qadr is the Jumu`ah had not yet been revealed. So this ayah may not be adduced as proof.  

[6] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 3

[7] Tafsir `Abdur-Razzaq, vol.2, pp.385-386

6 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.4

6 Ramadan 1442

Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The best of all days is the Jumu`ah. It is indeed the witness and that which is witnessed is the Day of `Arafah”.[1]

Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Allah shall resurrect the days on the Day of Resurrection in their form and practice. The Jumu`ah will be sent forward as a bright light and its people shall be walking in throngs as the groom sends forth a guide for the guests to light their way while coming to the wedding. Their countenance will be like the appearance of ice and they shall have a scent like musk. They shall go forward towards mountains of camphour with jinn and men observing them. They shall not be in wonder at all until they shall be admitted into the Paradise”.[2]

Abu Lubabah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The Jumu`ah is the best of all days and the noblest and most respected in the Sight of Allah. And it is greater and more respected in the Sight of Allah, Mighty and Majestic, than the days of `Eid ul-Fitr and `Eid ul-Adha!”[3]

It was narrated by Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “If any of you had acquired sins the number of trees and the leaves on their branches and then lived to the Jumu`ah and witnessed it, the rank and right of the Jumu`ah would have overwhelmed his sins”.

And Abu Dawud collected a hadith in his Sunan from the narrative of Abu Hurairah in which he mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The best day that the sun ever shined on the Earth was the Jumu`ah. In this day is an hour in which if the Slave of Allah makes a supplication to Allah at that time, He shall surely grant it for him.”


[1] Collected by Abu Bakr Al-Baihaqi in Shu`ab ul-Iman #3482

[2] Collected by Al-Hakim in Al-Mustadrak.vol.1, pp.276-277

[3] Collected by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Musnad, hadith #15548

5 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.3

5 Ramadan 1442

This is the position adopted by our companions of the School regarding the Jumu`ah night being of a higher rank than Lailat ul-Qadr.

It was narrated to us by Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Hatim Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahid ibn Zakariyya’ Ar-Razi who said: It was narrated to me by Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Al-Khalil who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Sama the scribe who said: It was narrated to us by `Utaiq ibn Muhammad.

And `Utaiq ibn Muhammad said: It was narrated to us by Ishaq ibn Bishr who said: It was narrated to us by Muqatil as narrated from Ad-Dahhak as narrated from Ibn `Abbas who said: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “On the Jumu`ah night, Allah does indeed forgive all the people of Islam”.

And this is a rank and virtue that has not been accorded to any other day.

In addition to this, it is narrated from him, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that he said, “Send abundant peace and blessings upon me on the shining night as the most luminous day is the night and day of the Jumu`ah”.[1]

And the shining brightness of the thing is the best of it just like the statement, “The newborn is the bright and shining child of the male or female slave”.

Consider well that the Jumu`ah night we know by exactitude when it is whereas for the Lailat ul-Qadr does not have this exactitude.

Furthermore, the day follows the night and the favour of the daytime of the Jumu`ah does not have an equivalent reference made for the day of Al-Qadr. Anas ibn Malik narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The sun has not risen on a day grander and more respected in the Sight of Allah than the day of Jumu`ah and there is no day more beloved to him than the Jumu`ah”.[2]

And Abu Hurairah also narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The sun neither rises nor sets on a day more virtuous and favoured than the day of Jumu`ah. And there is no creature in the earth except that every time this day comes, it is afraid. The only creatures that do not are the jinn and men”.[3]


[1] Collected by Imam As-Suyuti in Ma`rifat us-Sunan wal-Athar, vol.1, pp.418-419

[2] Al-Fawa’id, hadith#35

[3] Musnad of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hadith#

4 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.2

4 Ramadan 1442

It was narrated to me by Abu Tahir ibn Al-Ghubari[1] that Abul Hasan Al-Kharazi who used to say, “Indeed the Jumu`ah night is more virtuous”.

It was narrated to me by Abul Qasim Al-Mazrafi[2] from Abu `Abdullah Ibn Battah who used to say, “The Jumu`ah night is more virtuous”.

It was narrated to me by Abul `Abbas Al-Barmaki[3] that he found in the handwriting of his father, Abu Hafs Al-Barmaki,[4] the following, “The points of reference that necessitate this understanding[5]  of Jumu`ah night being more virtuous is the very statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘The Jumu`ah night is one of illumination and glory’.[6]

And with that being said, I have also seen other people from the people of knowledge repudiating this understanding and advancing the position that Lailat ul-Qadr is more virtuous.


[1] d.432 (AD1046). He is Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Ghubari. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 246-247

[2] d.423 (AD 1037). He is Abul Qasim `Abdus-Salam ibn Al-Faraj Al-Mazrafi. High ranking scholar and student of Ibn Hamid, he was one of the premier scholars of Iraq. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 332-333

[3] d.441 (AD 1055). Abul `Abbas Ahmad ibn `Umar ibn Ahmad Al-Barmaki. Scholar of high rank and narrator of early rulings in the School. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 350-351

[4] d.387 (AD 1001). Abu Hafs `Umar ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Barmaki. One of the authorities of his time and contemporary to Imam Ibn Battah, he wrote a large tome on fiqh. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 332-333

[5] Ar. dala’il (sing. dilalah).  Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the word carried the understanding, “So you should know that the dilalah of phrases posseses the meaning that can be put into the following points: 1) dilalah of agreement and complete meaning. So consider the use of the word ‘house,’ which is referring to all of the habitation that we know of when we use the word ‘house.’ 2) then there is the dilalah of the phrase that posseses part of the meaning. This would include the use of the word ‘roof’ or the word human being for body. 3) the dilalah of necessary knowledge. Like when you use the expression ‘roof,’ which is what goes over the walls. It is not a part of the roof but one cannot conceive of a roof without walls under it. So it is a composite part of the point of speech. So this type of speech cannot be used in investigating matters of the intellect as there are things that prove certain necessary statements. So there has to come a point when one understands another thing from just one word. Take for example the use of the word ‘roof,’ which necessitates that there must be walls under it. The walls are the foundation holding it up and the foundation of that is the Earth. So if there is a roof, there must be walls. Thus if there are walls, the rest of the house must be present which in turn is held in place by the earth and rock beneath it. These matters cannot be defined in a limited fashion but on the contrary can be limited to two points, namely that which corresponds and that which is part of the meaning.” Please see Rawdat un-Nazir wa Junnat ul-Munazir, vol.1, pp. 70-71.

The basic summation of all the different forms of dilalah is that the dilalah refers to something that must necessarily lead to another thing or another conclusion. So in the case of the roof, this leads to the understanding that there must be walls holding it up. This is so as there is only one understanding of roof that we have and if there is a structure held aloft and not be walls, then it is not a roof. The statement that the author used that the affair of the Ummah always being established until the Hour comes has a dilalah in it.

If the Ummah is always established rightly, then this means that this was the case before, is present now and will continue until the Day of Resurrection. Anything that would contradict that can thus be rejected. This is how the reader should understand the use of dilalah.

[6] cf. Al-Furu`, vol.5, pp.128-129; Al-Insaf, vol.7, pp.557-558

3 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.1

3 Ramadan 1442

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

And it is in Him that my success is realised.

It was narrated in the handwriting of Al-Qadi, the blessed father Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain Al-Farra’ Al-Hanbali Al-Baghdadi[1] – may Allah envelop him in His Mercy – who made the following statement:

Question

Our companions mentioned that the Jumu`ah night is more virtuous than Lailat ul-Qadr.

This was narrated by Al-Qadi Abu `Ali[2] who stated that Abul Hasan At-Tamimi[3] used to say, “Lailat ul-Qadr in which the Qur’an was sent down in is more virtuous than the night of Jumu`ah. As for the rest of the nights before or after the Lailat ul-Qadr, then the Jumu`ah night is surely more virtuous than them”.[4]


[1] d. 458 (AD1063). He is Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Farra’ Al-Baghdadi. Grand marja` and spiritual father to 40 other grand maraji`, he was the first to catalogue the rise of the Ash`ari jama`ah. The Imam’s extensive teaching record and written legacy gave us a number of classics. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 166-198

[2]  d. 428 (AD1042). He is Abu `Ali Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Musa Al-Hashimi. Scholar of creed, fiqh and other disciplines, he wrote a text on basic creed for students. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 335-341

[3] d. 371 (AD985). He is `Abdul `Aziz ibn Al-Harith ibn Asad. Faqih, Qadi and master of many sciences, he narrated three creed texts and countless fiqh rulings. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.347-348

[4] cf. Al-Maqdisi’s Al-Furu`, vol.5, pp.128-129

2 RAMADAN 1442: A MONTH LIKE NO OTHER

لا تجعل همتك تفتر إنه شهر الخير والبركة

Don’t make your aspiration come to nothing is indeed Ramadan is the month of immense good and blessing

شهر الحسنة المضاعفة ، إلى اضعاف كثيرة

Ramadan is the month of doubling of blessings in manifold ways.

كيف لا وقد جعل الله سبحانه ليلة واحدة فيه خير من ألف شهر ، والعمرة في رمضان تعدل حجة .

How could someone waste or miss out when Allah, Glorified be He, made one night in this month better than 1,000 months and `Umrah in this month equal to a hajj?

وهي من المسائل التي لاخلاف فيها

And these are the issues in which there is no dispute in at all.

وقد درج الأئمة على ذلك. قال النخعي رحمه الله :

And the Imams of the past have followed that path. Imam Ibrahim An-Nakha`ii (d.96), may Allah have mercy upon him, said,

 ” صوم يوم من رمضان أفضل من ألف يوم ، وتسبيحة فيه أفضل من ألف تسبيحة ، وركعة فيه أفضل من ألف ركعة “. لطائف المعارف ” لابن رجب 151 .

“Fasting one day in Ramadan is more virtuous and bountiful than 1,000 days outside of it. And one glorification of Allah made in Ramadan is more virtuous and bountiful than 1,000 glorifications of Allah outside of it”. And this was cited by Imam Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali in Lata’if, p.151

  قال الزهري رحمه الله :

And Imam Ibn Shihab (d.124), may Allah be pleased with him, remarked,

 ” تسبيحة في رمضان أفضل من ألف تسبيحة في غيره ” .فضائل رمضان لابن ابي الدنيا(51).

“One glorification of Allah in Ramadan is better than 1,000 glorifications of Allah outside of it”. And this was cited by Imam Ibn Abid-Dunya in Fada’il Ramadan, p.51

فلا تستقل التسبيحة والاستغفار والتهليلة ، ليلهج لسانك بالذكر فهو موسم الخيرات .

So do not let this time pass by in which you miss out on saying statements of Subhanallah (Glory be to Allah)! Istighfar (I seek the Forgiveness of Allah)! La ilaha illallah (There is no god but Allah)! So let your tongue be busied in the Remembrance of Allah as this is a time of immense good deeds.

فارس الخزرجي

As written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

1 RAMADAN 1442: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM SHAMS UD-DIN IBN `ABDUL HADI AL-MAQDISI

1 Ramadan 1442

محمد بن أحمد بن عبد الهادي بن عبد الحميد بن عبد الهادي بن يوسف بن محمد بن قدامة المقدسي، الجماعيلي الأصل، ثم الصالحي،

He is Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul Hadi ibn `Abdul Hamid ibn `Abdul Hadi ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah Al-Jamma`ili As-Salihi

ثم المقرئ الفقيه المحدث، الحافظ الناقد، النحوي المتفنن، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله بن العماد أبي العباس: ولد في رجب سنة أربع وسبعمائة. وقرأ بالروايات، وسمع الكثير من القاضي أبي الفضل سليمان بن حمزة، وأبي بكر بن عبد الدايم، وعيسى المطعم، والحجار، وزينب بنت الكمال، وخلق كثير.

Referred to as the Muqri’, the Faqih, the Muhaddith, the Hafiz, the insightful grammarian, Shams ud-Din Abu `Abdillah ibn Al-`Imad Abul `Abbas. He was born in Rajab in the year 704 and recited with numerous narratives in ahadith. He heard much knowledge from Al-Qadi Abul Fadl Sulaiman ibn Hamzah, Abu Bakr ibn `Abdud-Da’im, `Isa Al-Mut`im, Al-Hajjar, Zainab bint Al-Kamal and countless others.

وعنى بالحديث وفنونه، ومعرفة الرجال والعلل. وبرع في ذلك. وتفقه في المذهب وأفتى. وقرأ الأصلين والعربية، وبرع فيها. ولازم الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية مدة. وقرأ عليه قطعة من الأربعين في أصول الدين للرازي.

He specialised in hadith and its subsciences, the knowledge of the narrators and flaws in ahadith and excelled in the subject. He studied in the Madhhab intently and gave rulings. He read and recited from the two principles and Arabic language and excelled in that. He regularly attended the gatherings of the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah for a period of time. He recited a portion of the 40 principles of Usul ud-Din by Ar-Razi.

قرأ الفقه على الشيخ مجد الدين الحراني، ولازم أبا الحجاج المزي الحافظ، حتى برع عليه في الرجال، وأخذ عن الذهبي وغيره. وقد ذكره الذهبي في طبقات الحفاظ، قال: ولد سنة خمس- أو ست- وسبعمائة.

He also recited fiqh to Majd ud-Din Al-Harrani and regularly attended the gatherings of Abul Hajjaj Al-Mizzi the Hafiz until he excelled in the knowledge of narrators of hadith. He then took from Imam Adh-Dhahabi and others. Imam Adh-Dhahabi mentioned him in Tabaqat ul Huffaz by saying, “He was born in the year 705 or 706”.

واعتنى بالرجال والعلل، وبرع وجمع، وتصدى للإفادة والاشتغال في القراءة والحديث، والفقه والأصلين، والنحو. وله توسع في العلوم وذهن سيال.

وذكره في معجمه المختص، وقال: عنى بفنون الحديث، ومعرفة رجاله، وذهنه مليح، وله عدة محفوظات وتآليف، وتعاليق مفيدة. كتب عني، واستفدت منه.

The Faqih, Ibn `Abdul Hadi sufficed himself in the matter of knowledge of narrators and flawed transmissions in hadith and excelled in it and gathered together many different principles, sought and give benefit while also busying himself in the recitation of Qur’an, Fiqh and Creed and its subdiscipline along with grammar. He had vast knowledge in the sciences and a very sharp mind. It was said of him in Mu`jam ul-Mukhtass that he had an acuity in the area of Hadith, good acquaintance with the narrators and a sharp mind. He also had a number of things that he had memorised in addition to authoring works and writing beneficial marginalia. He wrote and I have also benefited from it.

قال: وقد سمعت منه حديثاً يوم عرسه بالصدرية.ثم قال: أخبرنا المزي إجازة أخبرنا أبو عبد اللّه السروجي أخبرنا ابن عبد الهادي- “فذكر حديثاً هذا لفظه: درس ابن عبد الهادي بالصدرية”، درس الحديث وبغيرها بالسفح. وكتب بخطه الحسن المتقن الكثير. وصنف تصانيف كثيرة بعضها كلمات، وبعضها لم يكمله، لهجوم المنية عليه في سن الأربعين.

I heard one hadith from him on the day of his wedding at As-Sadariyyah. It was narrated to us by Al-Mizzi by way of ijazah: it was narrated to us by Abu `Abdullah As-Suruji: It was narrated to us by Ibn `Abdul Hadi. This was the narrative and he taught it at As-Sadariyyah. He taught hadith and other things as well at the foot of Mount Qasiyun. He wrote with good handwriting and authored many works. Some of them were just a few words while others he did not finish on account of the onset of an illness that started in his forties.

فمن تصانيفه “تنقيح التحقيق في أحاديث التعليق” لابن الجوزي مجلدان “الأحكام الكبرى” المرتبة على أحكام الحافظ الضياء، كمل منها سبع مجلدات “الرد على أبي بكر الخطيب الحافظ في مسألة الجهر بالبسملة” مجلد “المحرر في الأحكام” مجلد “فصل النزاع بين الخصوم في الكلام على أحاديث:

So from his works is (1) Clarification of the Data in the Ahadith in the work At-Ta`liq which is a summary on Ibn Al-Jawzi’s work by the same title that covers two volumes, (2) Al-Ahkam ul-Kubra which is based upon the said work by Al-Hafiz Diya’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi that was completed in seven volumes, (3) Refutation of Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi on the topic of Reciting the Basmalah Aloud which was one volume, (4) The Clarifier in Hadith and Rulings which is one large volume, (5) Clarifying the Dispute in the topic of Ahadith

“أفطر الحاجم والمحجوم” مجلد لطيف الكلام على أحاديث مس الذكر جزء كبير “الكلام على أحاديث: “البحر هو الطهور ماؤه” جزء كبير “الكلام على أحاديث القلتين” جزء “الكلام على حديث معاذ في الحكم بالرأي” جزء كبير، الكلام على حديث “أصحابي كالنجوم” جزء، الكلام على حديث أبي سفيان “ثلاث أعطينهن يا رسول الله” والرد على ابن حزم في قوله: إنه موضوع. كتاب “العمدة” في الحفاظ، كمل منه مجلدان “تعليقة في الثقات” كمل منه مجلدان، الكلام على أحاديث “مختصر ابن الحاجب” مختصر ومطول، الكلام على أحاديث كثيرة فيها ضعف من “المستدرك” للحاكم، أحاديث الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، جزء منتقى من “مختصر المختصر” لابن خزيمة، ومناقشته على أحاديث أخرجها فيه، فيها مقال، مجلد،

(6) The Blood Letter and his client which is a slim volume, (7) Statement on the Hadith of Touching the Penis which is a large volume, (8) Statement on the Ahadith on the Animals of the Water being Purified by the Water which is a large text, (9) Statement on the Hadith of the Qullatain, (10) Statement on the Hadith of Mu`adh in giving a ruling with opinion which is one large volume, (11) Statement on the Hadith, My Companions are like the stars of the sky which is a small volume, (12) The Statement on the Hadith of Abu Sufyan, We were given three things, Messenger of Allah and the refutation on Ibn Hazm who graded it fabricated, (13) The Supporting Pillar on the Memorisers of Hadith which covers two large volumes, (14) Note on the Reliable Transmitters which is two volumes, (15) Statement on the Ahadith in Mukhtasar Ibn Hajib which is short but has large notes covering subjects, (16) Statement on the numerous ahadith in Al-Mustadrak by Al-Hakim that are da`if, (17) Ahadith of the Salah sent upon the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, which is a small portion taken from the Mukhtasar of the Mukhtasar of Ibn Khuzaimah and his discussion on the ahadith mentioned therein that are discussed. This is one large volume.     

الكلام على “أحاديث الزيارة” جزء، مصنف في الزيارة مجلد، الكلام على أحاديث “محلل السباق” جزء، جزء في “مسافة القصر” جزء في قوله تعالى: “لمسجد أسس على التقوى” الآية. “التوبة: 108″، جزء في أحاديث “الجمع بين الصلاتين في الحضر”، “الإعلام في ذكر مشايخ الأئمة الأعلام”، أصحاب الكتب الستة. عدة أجزاء، الكلام على حديث “الطواف بالبيت صلاة”، “جزء كبير في مولد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم” تعليقة على “سنن البيهقي الكبرى” كمل منها مجلدان، جزء كبير في “المعجزات والكرامات” جزء في “تحريم الربا” جزء في “تملك الأب من مال ولده ما شاء”

(18) Statement on the Ahadith of Visitation of the Graves which is a slim volume on the topic, (19) Statement of the Ahadith of Late Comers to Salah and Marriage Matters which is a small volume, (20) Travel Rulings and what constitutes Travel which is small volume, (21) small volume on the Masjids are established upon Piety which is a number of volumes, (22) Short tract on the Ahadith on Joining between Prayers while one is resident, (23) Notice on making mention of the Shaikhs of the Imams of Guidance and Luminaries, (24) The Narrators of the Six Books which is in a number of volumes, (25) Statement on the hadith, Making Tawaf around the House is salah, (26) a large tract on the Mawlid o the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, (27) Short notes on As-Sunan ul-Kubra by Al-Baihaqi which is in two large volumes, (28) Miracles and Wonders which is in one large volume, (29) Prohibition of Riba which is a small tract and (30) The Father taking ownership of the wealth of his son according to what he so wills which is a small text.

جزء في “العقيقة” جزء في “الأكل من الثمار التي لا حائط عليها”، “الرد على ألْكيا الهِرَّاسي” جزء كبير، قي ترجمة الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية” مجلد “منتقى من تهذيب الكمال للمزي كمل منه خمسة أجزاء” إقامة البرهان على عدم وجوب صوم يوم الثلاثين من شعبان” جزء، جزء في “فضائل الحسن البصري” رضي الله عنه “جزء في حجب الأم بالإخوة، وأنها تحجب بدون ثلاثة” جزء “في الصبر” جزء “في فضائل الشام” “صلاة التراويح” جزء كبير،

(31) A text on the topic of Al-`Aqiqah, (32) Statement on eating fruit from trees which have no boundary wall for them, (33) Refutation of Al-Kiya Al-Hirrasi in one large volume, (34) Biography of the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, which is a volume, (35) Critique of the Summary of Al-Kamal by Al-Mizzi which is five volumes, (36) Establishing the proof on the non-compulsory nature of fasting on the thirtieth day of Sha`ban, which is one portion, (37) Virtues of Al-Hasan Al-Basri, may Allah be pleased with him, which is one volume, (38) The case where the woman does not inherit when brothers are involved, (39) tract on Sabr, (40) a tract on the Virtues of Sham, (41) a tract on Salat ut-Tarawih, which is a large volume.

الكلام على أحاديث “لبس الخفين للحرم” جزء كبير، جزء في “صفة الجنة” جزء في “المراسيل” جزء في مسألة “الجد والأخوة”، “منتخب من مسند الإِمام أحمد” مجلدان “منتخب من سنن البيهقي” مجلد “منتخب من سنن أبي داود” مجلد لطيف “تعليقه على التسهيل في النحو، كمل منها مجلدان، جزء في الكلام على حديث “أَفرَضَكم زيد” أحاديث “حياة الأنبياء في قبورهم”

(42) speaking on the ahadith of the one in ihram wearing khuffs, which is a large volume, (43) Description of the Paradise, which is one volume, (44) a selection on mursal ahadith, (45) tract on grandparents and brothers, (46) a selection of ahadith of the Musnad of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is two volumes, (47) a selection of ahadith from the Sunan of Imam Al-Baihaqi, which is one volume, (48), a selection of ahadith from the Sunan of Abu Dawud, which is a slim volume, (49) note on easy text on grammar which is two volumes, (50) selection from a statement on the hadith, The most knowledgeable of you in inheritance is Zaid, (51) the life of the prophets in their graves.  

جزء تعليقة، على “العلل”، لابن أبي حاتم، كمل منها مجلدان. تعليقة على “الأحكام” لأبي البركات ابن تيمية لم تكمل “منتقى من علل الدارقطني”، مجلد، جزء في الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر “شرح لألفية ابن مالك” جزء. ما أخذ على تصانيف أبي عبد اللّه الذهبي الحافظ شيخه عدة أجزاء. حواشي على كتاب “الإلمام” جزء في الرد على أبي حيان النحوي فيما رعه على ابن مالك وأخطأ فيه،

(52) a note on the flows in hadith by Ibn Abi Hatim, which is two volumes (53) a note on the rulings of Abul-Barakat Ibn Taymiyyah, which he did not complete, (54) Critique from the flaws in the Book by Ad-Daraqutni, and this is one volume, (55) a note on enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong, (56) commentary on the Alfiyyah of Ibn Malik, which is one volume, (57) a narrative in refutation of Abu Hayyan the grammarian in what was brought together in Ibn Malik and the mistake he made in the dispute he rose. He also took a number of texts from Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdullah Adh-Dhahabi who was his shaikh.

جزء في “اجتماع الضميرين” جزء “في تحقيق الهمز والإِبدال في القراءات” وله رد على ابن طاهر، وابن دحية، وغيرهما، وتعاليق كثيرة في الفقه وأصوله، والحديث، ومنتخبات كثيرة في أنواع العلم. وحدث بشيء من مسموعاته. وسمع منه غير واحد، وقد سمعت من أبيه، فإنه عاش بعده نحو عشر سنين.

(58) a treatise on two indicating markers grouped together in one statement, (59) blending of hamzah and replacement in the different recitations, (60) rebuke of Ibn Tahir, (61) rebuke of Ibn Dihyah and others. He also wrote numerous notes in fiqh and Usul as well the hadith. He also has numerous summaries in the branches of knowledge. He narrated numerous live gatherings and texts and more than one body narrated from him. I heard texts from his father as he lived about ten years after him.

توفي الحافظ أبو عبد الله في عاشر جمادى الأول سنة أربع وأربعين وسبعمائة ودفن بسفح قاسيون، وشيعه خلق كثير، وتأسفوا عليه، ورئيت له منامات حسنة. رحمه اللّه تعالى.

Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdillah died on 10 Jumada Al-Uwla in the year 744 and was buried at the foot of Mount Qasiyun and his janazah procession was attended by a large gathering who mourned his passing. Many people afterwards saw visions of him in dreams that conveyed a good end. May Allah, Exalted be He, have mercy upon him.

30 SHA`BAN 1442 – NO HILAL SEEN

How a blank sky appears when there is no hilal present on the 29th day of Sha`ban.

We went to sight the moon today at 7:00pm to our usual hillock and did not witness the hilal. Thus we checked with the closest portion of Dar ul-Islam to us that shared the same sky and found that they had not seen it either based upon this affair regarding Sha`ban.

This means that the month of Sha`ban will be 30 days and that Ramadan will start on Wednesday night (sunset on Tuesday) in accordance with the Revealed Law and what is commanded regarding sighting the moon.

And may Allah accept our sawm and all other affairs carried out in the month of Ramadan.

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

A MESSAGE FOR THOSE ABOUT TO BEGIN RAMADAN

الشيخ فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

[ جاءكم رمضان فمبارك عليكم ]

Now that Ramadan has come, I wish you blessings!

مشروعية التهنئة بقدوم رمضان

The things mandated at the onset of Ramadan:

قال الحافظ ابن رجب رحمه الله في اللطائف :

Al-Hafiz Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (d.795), may Allah have mercy upon him, said in Lata’if:

” وكان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يبشر أصحابه بقدوم رمضان كما خرجه الإمام أحمد والنسائي عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال: كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يبشر أصحابه يقول:

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to give his Companions glad tidings of the onset of Ramadan just as has been collected by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and An-Nasa’ii from the narrative of Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, “The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, gave glad tidings to his Companions by saying,

“قد جاءكم شهر رمضان شهر مبارك كتب الله عليكم صيامه فيه تفتح أبواب الجنان وتغلق فيه أبواب الجحيم وتغل فيه الشياطين فيه ليلة خير من ألف شهر من حرم خيرها فقد حرم” .

‘Ramadan has come to you, a month of blessing. Allah has written for you to make sawm for it and the gates of the gardens of the Paradise are opened, the gates of the Great Fire are closed and locked and the demons are chained up and restrained. There is one night in this month that is better than one thousand months. Whatever is declared impermissible in this month is indeed so’.

قال بعض العلماء: هذا الحديث أصل في تهنئة الناس بعضهم بعضا بشهر رمضان كيف لا يبشر المؤمن بفتح أبواب الجنان كيف لا يبشر المذنب بغلق أبواب النيران كيف لا يبشر العاقل بوقت يغل فيه الشياطين من أين يشبه هذا الزمان زمان.

Some of the scholars have said, “This hadith is a foundational principle for the conduct of the people towards one another in the month of Ramadan. How could a believer not rejoice at the opening of the doors of the gardens of Paradise? How could the sinner not rejoice at the locking of the gates of the Great Fire? How could the sensible one not rejoice at the chaining and restraining of the demons? And what time is like this time of ours that we have come into?”

وفي حديث آخر: “أتاكم رمضان سيد الشهور فمرحبا به وأهلا”.

There is another hadith in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The month of Ramadan has come to you. It is the best of all months. Glad tidings and welcome be to it!”

جاء شهر الصيام بالبركات … فأكرم به من زائر هو آت.

So the month of siyam has come with blessings. So take honour it in whoever has it visit him.

قال في حاشية اللبدي :

“وروي أن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – كان يبشر أصحابه بقدوم رمضان . قال بعض أهل العلم: هذا الحديث أصل في تهنئة الناس بعضهم بعضًا بشهر رمضان. قلت: وعلى قياسه تهنئة المسلمين بعضهم بعضًا بمواسم الخيرات وأوقات وظائف الطاعات “.

Imam `Abdul Ghani Al-Lubadi (d.1319), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked in his Hashiyah: “It is narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, would give glad tidings to his Companions at the onset of Ramadan. Some of the people of knowledge said, ‘This hadith is a foundational principle in the conduct of people towards one another in the month of Ramadan’. I would say that this is based upon the qiyas upon the conduct of Muslims towards one another during all stipulated times of goodness and times where blessings of obedience should be carried out”.

قال  ابن مفلح : ” أما التهنئة بنعم دينية تجددت فتستحب لقصة كعب بن مالك رضي الله عنه، وفي “الصحيحين” أنه لما أنزل

Imam Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih Al-Maqdisi (d.762), may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “As for the conduct which is for receiving a favour based upon the Religion and one renews such blessings, then this is praiseworthy based upon the story of Ka`b ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, which is narrated in the two Sahihs in which the following was sent down:”

إنا فتحنا لك فتحا مبينا﴾ [الفتح: 1] ﴿.

Indeed We have given a clear and manifest victory to you.

[Surat ul-Fath (48), ayah 1]

الآداب الشرعية ٣ / ٢٢٩

And this was cited by the Imam in Al-Adab ush-Shar`iyyah, vol.3, p.229

تقبل الله طاعاتكم

And may Allah accept from you all the righteous deeds that you might do.

نقله فارس الخزرجي

And this was dictated by the hand of (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

PREPARATORY MEASURES FOR RAMADAN

The late reciter, hadith teacher and tafsir master, Shaikh `Umar Abdur-Rahman

]حال طالب العلم وشهر رمضان [

The Condition of the Student of Knowledge while in the month of Ramadan

كان أئمة المسلمين إذا أقبل شهر رمضان يتركون مجالس التحديث والعلم ، ويتفرغون لقراءة القرآن والاجتهاد في العبادة .

The Imams of the Muslims, upon the onset of Ramadan, they used to leave the gatherings of hadith narration and knowledge and busy themselves with recitation of the Qur’an and exerting themselves in worship.

قال ابن عبد البر رحمه الله :   قال  يونس بن يزيد: “كان ابن شهاب إذا دخل رمضان فإنما هو تلاوة القرآن وإطعام الطعام، وكان ابن شهاب أكرم الناس وأخباره في الجود كثيرة جدا نذكر منها لمحة دالة” . ( 6 / 111).

Imam Ibn `Abdul Barr (d.463) stated, “Yunus ibn Yazid (d.159) stated that when the month of Ramadan entered, Ibn Shihab (d.124) would only be reciting the Qur’an and feeding the people. And Ibn Shihab (Az-Zuhri) was the most generous of people and the narratives about him in great generosity we could mention in abundance”. At-Tamhid, vol.6, p.111

قال ابن رجب رحمه الله

 “وكان الزهري إذا دخل رمضان قال: فإنما هو تلاوة القرآن وإطعام الطعام. قال ابن عبد الحكم: كان مالك إذا دخل رمضان يفر من قراءة الحديث ومجالسة أهل العلم وأقبل على تلاوة القرآن من المصحف .

Imam Ibn Rajab (d.795) stated, “(Ibn Shihab) Az-Zuhri at the time of Ramadan would state that it was only a time for recitation of the Qur’an and feeding people with food for sadaqah. Ibn `Abdul Hakam remarked that Imam Malik ibn Anas (d.179) in the month of Ramadan would leave from reading hadith and the gatherings of knowledge and focus himself on recitation of the Qur’an from the mushaf.

قال عبد الرزاق: كان سفيان الثوري: إذا دخل رمضان ترك جميع العبادة وأقبل على قراءة القرآن “. لطائف المعارف 171.

“Imam `Abdur-Razzaq As-Sana`ani (d.211) mentioned that Imam Sufyan Ath-Thawri (d.161) at the time of the entrance of the month of Ramadan would leave all other worship and focus on recitation of the Qur’an”. Lata’if ul-Ma`arif, p.171  

فجدوا واجتهدوا فإنها مواسم الخيرات .

So they became focused, exerted themselves in worship and these were only times for competing in good deeds.

فارس الخزرجي

As written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

LAYMEN HAVE TO KNOW EVIDENCE FOR EVERY MATTER

“But what’s your daleel!”

[ لا عبرة بقول من يريد إلزام الناس بمعرفة الدليل لكل مسألة ]

There are no satisfactory grounds for the one who desires to compel people to know the evidence for each and every point

قال الفقيه أبو الوفاء ابن عقيل رحمه الله :

The Faqih, Abul Wafa’ Ibn `Aqil,[1] may Allah be pleased with him, remarked:

» ولا عِبْرَة بقول من زَعَم أن على العامِّيِّ العلمَ بدليلٍ يرشِده إلى حكْم الحادثِة ؛ لأن ذلك يقطعه عن مصالحهِ، ولا يَتأَتى منه ولا له دَرْك البغْيَةِ؛ لكون ذلك يحتاج إلى تقدُّمِ معرفةِ أصولِ الفقهِ على ما قدَّمْنا، وأَنَّى ذلك للعامِّيِّ.«

“There are no satisfactory grounds for the one who would claim that the layman must have knowledge of an evidence in order to resolve a new affair as this will assuredly take him away from the affairs necessary for the upkeep of the earthly realm and its continuation.[2] And this is not of him or for him to know this level of information as that gives rise to also needing to access the aforementioned knowledge of Usul ul-Fiqh and how is that the providence of the layman?”

الواضح (1/270).

And this is taken from Imam Ibn `Aqil’s work, Al-Wadih, vol.1, p.270.

قلت : ويقصد ( قول من زعم أن على العامي …) المعتزلة ، لأنهم يوجبون على العوام معرفة الدليل لكل مسألة ، وقد صرح بذلك أبو الحسين البصري المعتزلي ، وكذا القدرية كما ذكر ذلك الموفق في الروضة ، وتقي الدين رحمهما الله .

I would like to mention that the intent of his expression the one who would claim that the layman must have knowledge of an evidence references to the Mu`tazilah, as they made it wajib for the laity to know the evidence and proof for each and every matter. And that was explicitly mentioned by the Mu`tazilah scholar Abul Hussain Al-Basri. And the same thing was the position of the Qadariyyah as that was mentioned by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah[3] in Ar-Rawdah and Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah,[4] may Allah be pleased with both of them.

فكل من يلزم أو يزعم أن على عامة الامة معرفة الدليل فهو في مصاف أهل البدع.

So anyone who requires or claims that it is required of the laity of the Ummah to know the evidence in all matters, then he is following on the pathway of the people of innovation and astrayness.

وكتب فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

And this was written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

21 / شعبان / 1442

21 Sha`ban 1442


[1] 431-513 (AD 1036-1118). He is Abul Wafa’ `Ali ibn `Aqil ibn Muihammad ibn `Aqil ibn Ahmad Al-Baghdadi Az-Zufri. One of the luminaries of his time, Shaikh ul-Islam and theologian of many areas, he is author of many works covering fiqh, usul and theology. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp.118-135.

[2] This is in reference to taqlid. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, from the third blessed generation, said of the matter of taqlid, “Whoever says that he does not believe in taqlid and that he does not follow anyone in his religion, such is the statement of a rebellious sinner in the sight of Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Such a one only seeks by doing so to nullify and strip the footsteps given before, and to nullify the knowledge and the Sunnah. They want to stay isolated and alone with personal opinion, speculative theology, innovation and contradiction, and opposition to what came before them.” Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 33-34. Imam al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463 AH), may Allah be pleased with him, when commenting upon these and other statements of Imam Ahmad and other scholars, said: “We have already mentioned in detail the evidence that the mujtahid will use when he looks into knowing the rulings of the Revealed Law. Now all that remains is to discuss what authority the common person returns to in acting on an issue, and this is known as taqlid. The general meaning is that taqlid refers to accepting the statement of someone without knowing any evidence for it. Rulings are built upon two matters; rational and those pertaining to the Revealed Law. As for the rational, then it is not permissible to make taqlid in this area, in matters such as knowing the Creator, Exalted be He, and His Attributes, knowing the Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, testifying to his truthfulness and other matters that have to do with judgements and punishments to come in the Hereafter. It has, however, been narrated from `Ubaidullah ibn Al-Hasan al-`Anbari, who said that taqlid in the foundations of the religion is permissible, but this is a mistake due to the Words of Allah the Exalted, Follow what was sent down to you from your Lord and do not follow those besides Him as protectors. Little indeed do you reflect.  Surat ul-A`raf (7), ayah 3. Allah has also said, When it is said to them, ‘Follow that which Allah sent down,’ they say, ‘We shall follow what we found our fathers upon.’ And if your fathers did not know anything nor were they guided. Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 170. The Exalted One has further said, Likewise, we did not send before you to any town a warner except that its inhabitants said, ‘We found our fathers upon a religion and we shall follow in their footsteps.’ Say, ‘What if I have come to you with more guidance than that which you found our fathers upon.’ Surat uz-Zukhruf (43), ayah 23. When the following of their fathers prevented them from accepting that which is more guided, they said, We do not believe in that which you have sent to us. Surat uz-Zukhruf(43), ayah 24. The Exalted One has said, Recite to them the news of Ibrahim when he said to his father and people, ‘What do you worship?’ They said, ‘We worship idols and we are steadfast in maintaining them.’ Say, ‘Do they hear you when you call on them and can they benefit or harm you?’ They said, ‘We found our fathers doing likewise before us.’ Surat ush-Shu`ara’ (26), ayat 69-74. They, therefore, abandoned giving the answer to the issue due to their inablility to do so and the question actually exposed the falsity of their position. The people mentioned what they had not been asked regarding their fathers and their making taqlid of them. The Exalted One has also said, ‘They said, Our Lord, we obeyed our leaders and senior folk, and they led us astray from the path.’ Surat ul-Ahzab (33), ayah 67.The Exalted One also said, They took their priests and rabbis as lords besides Allah. Surat ut-Tawbah (9), ayah 31. `Adi ibn Hatim said, I came to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, while I was wearing a crucifix around my neck made of gold. He said, Ibn Hatim, remove this idol from your neck. I took it off and then he recited the whole of Surah Bara’ah until he reached, They took their priests and rabbis as lords besides Allah. Surat ut-Tawbah (9), ayah 31. I said, Messenger of Allah, we did not worship them. So the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, Did they make permissible the impermissible and you obeyed them and they made the permissible impermissible and you obeyed them? I said, yes and he said, Then that is worship of them. Abul Bukhtari said that Hudhaifah was asked about the ayah, They took their priests and rabbis as lords besides Allah, how the people worshipped their priests and rabbis. Hudhaifah answered, ‘They made permissible what Allah declared impermissible and they made impermissible what Allah had made permissible’.” Imam Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, may Allah be pleased with him, commented further after quoting all this, “So because the principles of the faith that we mentioned have to do with what is awareness and intellect, and the people all share in that matter, there is to be no taqlid in the foundations. As for the judgements and rulings of the Revealed Law, then there are two points regarding taqlid: 1) One knows by necessity from the religion of the Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, the compulsory nature of things like the five prayers, zakah, fasting the month of Ramadan, Hajj. It is also known by necessity the impermissibility of fornication and adultery, taking intoxicants and other such things. In these matters, there is no taqlid, for all people share in knowing them and having knowledge of them, so taqlid has no basis in this matter. 2) There are the things that are not known except by investigation and gathering evidence, such as the branches of worship, transactions, marriage, divorce matters and other things that are connected to the foundational rulings. This is a matter in which one does taqlid, according to the evidence of the statement of Allah the Exalted, Ask the People of Knowledge if you do not know. Surat un-Nahl (16), ayah 43. If we should stop taqlid in these matters that are from the branches of the religion, it would have been necessary for everyone to learn that knowledge, and by obligating this it would stop all occupations, the cultivation of the earth, whether it be crops, livestock or the movement of people from place to place. Thus it is necessary that everyone is not responsible for this knowledge. The one who does taqlid is the layman. The layman does not know the different ways that the rulings of the Revealed Law are found, so it is permissible for such a person to make taqlid of a scholar and act by his words. Allah the Exalted has said, Ask the People of Knowledge if you do not know. `Amr ibn Qais said of the ayah, ‘Those to be asked are the People of Knowledge’. It is narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that there was a man with a head injury in the time of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who had a wet dream and was commanded to make ghusl, and upon doing so died. Once this reached the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he said, ‘They have killed him. May Allah kill them. The only cure for when someone does not know something is to ask a question’. When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was asked after that, he answered, ‘If he had washed his body, but left his head and wiped over it, this would have been sufficient’. Because that man was not from the people of ijtihad, it was compulsory for him to make taqlid just as the blind person makes taqlid regarding the direction of prayer. If he does not have with him the tool of ijtihad in the direction of prayer, he is to make taqlid of the person with sight regarding the matter. It is narrated from one of the Mu`tazilah, who said that it is not permissible for the layman or common man to act by the statement of the scholar until he knows the ruling for it. When he has asked the scholar the matter, then he only asks him to know the ruling and when he finds the evidence behind it, he acts by it. This is a clear mistake, as there is no way for the layman to go to the evidences except after studying for years and keeping the company of and mixing with the scholars of fiqh for a long period of time. He will then have to investigate the rules and ways of analogy, know what validates and nullifies it and what is compsulory to give preference to in regards to other evidence and the preference of one evidence over another, but by making the layman responsible for this, one is charging him with what he is not able to do and has no way to reach it. As for the scholar, is it permissible for him to make taqlid of another scholar? The matter has to be investigated. If there is plenty of time to look into the issue and it is possible for him to make ijtihad, then it is necessary for him to make ijtihad for the ruling and it is not permissible for the scholar to make taqlid. There are some who have declared it permissible for the scholar to make taqlid, and this has been stated by Imam Sufyan ath-Thawri. He said, ‘Whatever the scholars of fiqh have differed in, I do not forbid any one of my brothers from taking hold of it. When the man sees an action being done that the scholars of fiqh have differed in and you have another position besides him, do not forbid him from the action’. Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan ash-Shaibani remarked, ‘It is permissible for the scholar to make taqlid of the one with more knowledge than him and it is not permissible for him to make taqlid of the one equal in knowledge to him’. The reason for the principle that it is not permissible for him to make taqlid of one of the same calibre is because of the length of time that he has and the the tools of ijtihad that he can use to make the ruling sought. In this case, it is not permissible for him to make taqlid of someone besides him as we have said of the matters of the intellect. Now if the time should be short and he believes that worship may be left if he spends much time in ijtihad, then there are two points to this matter: 1) It is permissible for him to make taqlid in that affair, 2) It is not permissible for him to make taqlid so long as he has the tools of ijtihad, so the ruling is the same as if he had plenty of time. It is said that this is the more correct of the two positions. Allah knows best. Abu Ibrahim al-Muzani said of this affair, ‘It should be asked of the one who makes ruling by taqlid whether he has proof. If he should say that he does, then he has nullified the taqlid, as the proof makes that compulsory for him to follow and not taqlid. If the person should say that it is by other than the proof, then it should be asked about the rulings on judicial punishments and rulings on the lives of people and the charity in wealth Allah has made all that impermissible then you have made it permissible without evidence. If he should say that he knows the proof and that if he does not know it he will ask his teacher, as he is from the senior scholars, and his opinion in the knowledge takes more precedence. Anything that he might say is only with proof that is hidden from me at the moment. It should then be said to to him that the taqlid of the teacher of your teacher is more befitting of taqlid than that of your very own teacher, as he does not speak except by the proof that has been concealed from your own teacher, and your teacher speaks of things and has the proof concealed from him. If he should agree to this, he has abandoned taqlid of his teacher to taqlid of the teacher of his teacher and, likewise, whoever is higher until he reaches the scholars from the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. If he should refuse to do that, he has contradicted his own words. It should be asked of him how it is permissible for him to make taqlid of the one who is less than him and has less knowledge, and it is not permissible for him to make taqlid of one who is greater than him and has more knowledge? Is this not a contradiction? If he should say that the matter is because the person is his teacher and that even if he has less knowledge, he has gathered knowledge of those above him and added it to his knowledge, so he has greater insight and more knowledge of what has been left. It should be said that, likewise, whoever learned from your teacher, has added the knowledge of your teacher and the knowledge of those above him to his knowledge. It then becomes compsulsory to make taqlid of him and abandon taqlid of your teacher. Likewise, you have more right to make taqlid of yourself than your teacher, as you have added his knowledge and the knowledge of those above him to his knowledge, so by the words of this person mentioned he has contradicted himself. He has made the one who is less and speaks from the lesser in knowledge of the scholars greater than the taqlid of the companios of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and he put taqlid of someone less than a companion over them and the taqlid of the one who is higher, subservient to the one who is less, and this is the case in the analogy. He has made it necessary for whoever is correct to follow other than his teacher in the mistakes of his teacher, and he is mistaken in this matter regarding his teacher and his taqlid alone’.” Kitab al-Faqih wal-Mutafaqqih, vol.2, pp. 66-70. Thus, those who are not people of ijtihad of any calibre are obligated in this area to accept the evidence that the scholars have given, even though we do not know all the texts on the topic. One example is Consensus. Allah has indeed mentioned it in the Qur’an, And whoever contends with the Messenger after the guidance has been made clear to him and he who follows other than the path of the believers, We will hand him over to whatever he has turned to and We will roast him in the Fire. What an evil destination. Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 115.

We know this is the case, but the scholars have given the verses and explained them in such a manner that means, if we ask them the evidence for an understanding (i.e. abrogation, the categories of strong, authentic, weak in Hadith science etc), they state that this is Consensus, but if we ask them for an explicit text upon that which they have all agreed, there is not one present, but just the general texts on Consensus. This goes back to what the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said of the scholars, “Whoever travels a path seeking knowledge, Allah makes him travel a path to Paradise. The angels spread out their wings in pleasure for the one seeking knowledge. Every creature in the skies and the Earth seeks forgiveness for the scholar, even the fish in the sea. The virtue of the scholar over the worshipper is like the virtue of the moon over the rest of the stars in the sky. Indeed, the scholars are the inheritors of the prophets. They do not believe behind any coin or measure of wealth, but it is the knowledge that they leave behind. Whoever should take hold of it, takes hold of much good indeed.” Musnad Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.16, pp. 70-71

[3] 541-620 AH (AD 1146-1223). He is Muwaffaq ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah. One of the Revivers of Islam in his time, scholar of fiqh, hadith, ihsan, math and many other disciplines, he is one of the highest voices of authority in the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Please see Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 105-119.

[4] 661-728 (AD 1263-1328). He is Abul `Abbas Taqi ud-Din Ahmad ibn `Abdul Halim ibn `Abdus-Salam ibn Taymiyyah. Born in Harran to a family of scholars, he learned from his father, Imam Shihab ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 682 (AD 1283) and read the books of his grandfather, Imam Abul Barakat Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 653 (AD 1256), who is the second highest authority in the school and was the chief judge in Iraq. At a young age, Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah showed promise and studied with various scholars until he was given the title of Mujtahid Murajjih. A vast pillar of knowledge, he made restricted juridical reasoning in the creed and some areas of Consensus and was opposed by scholars from the schools. A quiet man who was known for his referencing, he was often pardoned due to his retraction of some of his positions that were divergent. Some of his more novel rulings include prophets committing sin, three pronouncements of divorce in one sitting being counted as one, the three categories of Tawhid  as well as rulings he passed against scholars of the Ash`aris and Maturidis, two groups within Muslim Orthodoxy. Scholars of the school sifted through his works and corrected the things in them, i.e. in books such as Al-Ikhtiyarat ul-Fiqhiyyah, Kitab ul-Furu`, Tashih ul-Furu` and others. It is in the best interest of the wise man to read these documents first, to know what can be kept or discarded from the works of Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah.

C-NINETEEN VACCINATION IN RAMADAN AND THE SAWM

سؤال ورد عن حكم التطعيم بلقاح كورونا في نهار رمضان يفطر أم لا ؟.

 Question: Is the ruling on ingesting the c-nineteen (korona) vaccine in the daytime of Ramadan that it is a nullifier of the sawm or not?

ينبغي بداية تصور اللقاح تصورًا طبيًا صحيحًا أي معرفة ماهيته ومعرفة طريقة أخذه  ، لأنهما أساس بناء الحكم

At the beginning of the answer, it has to be the case that the vaccine is a valid medicine, namely that (1) its ingredients are known[1] and (2) the way it is given is known or how it is administered,[2] as both of these are what the ruling is built upon in the first place.

فاللقاح في عرف الأطباء : هو مستحضر بيولوجي، يقدم المناعة الفاعلة المكتسبة تجاه مرض معين . ويعطى اللقاح في عضلة الكتف غالبًا .

The expression “vaccine” in the technical language of the doctors is a biological substance that is given for a predominately acquired benefit that results in the treatment of a specific illness. And the vaccine is usually given in the upper arm.

فينبني على هذا التصور الصحيح الحكم الصحيح .

So it is necessary to have the right understanding in order to have the right ruling.

فنقول ومن الله الإعانة :

So we say at this point, looking for assistance from Allah:

أن من تلقى اللقاح في نهار رمضان فإن صومه صحيح والتعليل لصحته :

So whoever should take the vaccine in the daytime of Ramadan, indeed his fast is valid and the indicating principle and necessary understanding that leads to this conclusion is the following that splits into two points:

أولًا .الجرعة علاجية ليست غذائية ولا يتقوى بها البدن على الصوم وليس طعامًا وشرابًا ولا بمعناهما الذي يغذي الجسم ويقويه .

Firstly, the injection given is for a remedy and not nourishment and the body is not strengthened by it. Thus it is not food or drink and this means that the body neither takes nourishment from it nor is it strengthened by it.

ثانيًا . الجرعة تؤخذ عن طريق عضلة الكتف ولا تصل الى الجوف فإنها تكون قريبة من الجلد  .

Secondly, the injection remedy is administered in the upper arm (usually the muscle) and does not reach the opening of the body like the mouth as that is near the flesh that is under the ruling that would impact the sawm if it is ingested, similar to food or drink.

والله اعلى وأعلم .

And Allah is Most High and knows best.

وكتب

فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

As written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

24 Sha`ban 1442

24 / من شعبان / 1442


[1] Thus if one does not know what is in a food, drink or medicine, it is not permitted to consume something someone does not know the ingredients of and necessarily someone would be taking a risk on himself (and if the individual went ahead and did so anyway, he would necessarily bear the responsibility in most cases, these being outside of darurah.). If someone should know the comprehensive ingredients of a food, drink or medicine and ingests it, this is correct action. If someone ingests the aforementioned when there is some issue discussed or present, he or she still has the choice to consume it. The outcome of it is then his responsibility as he took the liability upon himself. Thus no qawd could be required from his relatives if something should result or survivors if he should die. cf. Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah’s Al-Kafi, vol.4., pp.29-30; 60-62 and 63-65

[2] So how it is administered and the way it is administered as well. Thus it can sometimes be seen whether something is medicine or not based upon how it is ingested. Thus things that are eaten, drank or intravenously given in the vein or arm are usually medicines while those that are smoked, injected in between toes, in the genitals (and this is different to topical anesthetic) are usually drugs, poisons but are not medicines. cf. Fatwa fi Hukmi Ahl il-Qat, pp.20-24; Al-Ba`li in Al-Ikhtiyarat, pp.298-300

INHALERS, INJECTIONS AND OPERATIONS pt.2

The following question was part to a marja`:

What is the ruling on injections that are given? Does this nullify the fast?

The Imam, `Abdul Majid `Abdul Majid Ad-Dumi (d.1418), may Allah have mercy upon him, states the following about injections: “Whatever the case may be, it does not nullify the fast. And this is whether the injection was in the muscle or the vein”.

Al-Faqih ul-Murshid ul-Qudwah, pp.100-101

And this is a continuation of another ruling that was cited in the past.

IMAM TAQI UD-DIN IBN TAYMIYYAH AND QADA’ OF SALAH

Here is the second portion of the discussion we had started some time back.

وسئل رحمه الله عن رجل من أهل القبلة ترك الصلاة مدة سنتين، ثم تاب بعد ذلك، وواظب على أدائها‏.‏ فهل يجب عليه قضاء ما فاته منها أم لا‏؟‏

Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him, was asked about a man from the laity who abandoned salah for a period of two years, then repented after that and was stringent in discharging the obligation. Is it compulsory for him to make qada’ of what he missed or not?[1]

فأجاب‏:‏ أما من ترك الصلاة، أو فرضًا من فرائضها، فإما أن يكون قد ترك ذلك ناسيًا له بعد علمه بوجوبه، وإما أن يكون جاهلاً بوجوبه، وإما أن يكون لعذر يعتقد معه جواز التأخير، وإما أن يتركه عالمًا عمدًا‏.‏

Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah: My answer regarding the one who left the salah or one fard from it – whether he abandoned it out of forgetfulness after he knew of it being compulsory, was ignorant of it being wajib due to an excuse while thinking that it was permitted to delay it or one who left it knowingly and on purpose – is to be addressed to each of the two categories just mentioned.

فأما الناسي للصلاة، فعليه أن يصليها إذا ذكرها بسنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم المستفيضة عنه، باتفاق الأئمة‏.‏ قال صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ ‏من نام عن صلاة أو نسيها، فليصلها إذا ذكرها‏.‏ لا كفارة لها إلا ذلك‏”‏ وقد استفاض في الصحيح وغيره‏:‏ أنه نام هو وأصحابه عن صلاة الفجر في السفر فصلوها بعد ما طلعت الشمس السنة والفريضة بأذان وإقامة ‏.‏

In the case of the one who forgot the salah, he is to pray it when he remembered it as per the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that is the indicator of that by the agreement of the Imams. So the hadith from him, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, runs, “Whoever slept through a salah or forgot it, then let him pray it when he remembered it. There is no expiation due to him for it except that”.[2] And so this is indicated in the authentic position and other than that in the narrative in which he and his Companions slept through Salat ul-Fajr on a journey. They prayed it after the sun had risen, both the sunnah prayers before and the fard salah, including giving the Adhan and the Iqamah with it.[3]

وكذلك من نسي طهارة الحدث، وصلى ناسيًا‏:‏ فعليه أن يعيد الصلاة بطهارة بلا نزاع، حتى لو كان الناسي إمامًا كان عليه أن يعيد الصلاة، ولا إعادة على المأمومين إذا لم يعلموا عند جمهور العلماء، كمالك والشافعي وأحمد في المنصوص المشهور عنه‏.‏ كما جرى لعمر وعثمان رضي الله عنهما‏.‏

And likewise, whoever forgot taharah from hadath and made salah having forgotten that, then he is to repeat the salah with taharah and this is without dispute. And the same ruling holds whether he was praying alone or the imam, thus he is to repeat the salah; but it is not required for the followers of the imam to repeat it when they did not know about him having taharah and this is according to the vast majority of scholars, such as Imams Malik, Ash-Shafi`ii and Ahmad in popularly known and explicit texts from him. And this was the methodology adopted by the Companions `Umar ibn Al-Khattab and `Uthman ibn `Affan, may Allah be pleased with both of them.

وأما من نسى طهارة الخبث، فإنه لا إعادة عليه في مذهب مالك وأحمد في أصح الروايتين عنه، والشافعي في أحد قوليه؛ لأن هذا من باب فعل المنهى عنه، وتلك من باب ترك المأمور به، ومن فعل ما نهى عنه ناسيًا فلا إثم عليه بالكتاب والسنة‏.‏

In the case of the one who forgot to make taharah from impurities, then there is no repeat of the salah due to him based upon the madhhab of Imam Malik, Imam Ahmad in the most authentic of the two narratives from him and Imam Ash-Shafi`ii in one of the two narratives mentioned of him. This is due to the fact that this is part of the subject heading of actions forbidden from and leaving something he was commanded while whoever did this out of forgetfulness, there is no sin upon this one according to the Book and the Sunnah.

كما جاءت به السنة فيمن أكل في رمضان ناسيًا‏.‏ وهو مذهب أبي حنيفة والشافعي وأحمد‏.‏ وطرد ذلك فيمن تكلم في الصلاة ناسيًا، ومن تطيب ولبس ناسيًا، كما هو مذهب الشافعي وأحمد في إحدى الروايتين عنه‏.‏وكذلك من فعل المحلوف عليه ناسيًا كما هو أحد القولين عن الشافعي وأحمد‏.‏

And this is what has been brought in the Sunnah in the case of the one who ate forgetfully in the month of Ramadan when he should be discharging his sawm. And this is the madhhab of Imams Abu Hanifah, Ash-Shafi`ii and Ahmad. And the same thing goes for the one who spoke forgetfully in salah, who put on sent and wore sewn cloths on hajj forgetfully. And this is the ruling of the madhhab of Imams Ash-Shafi`ii and Ahmad ibn Hanbal in one of the narratives listed from him. And likewise, whoever made an oath forgetfully it is the same according to two rulings from Imams Ash-Shafi`ii and Ahmad.

وهنا مسائل تنازع العلماء فيها‏:‏ مثل من نسى الماء في رحله وصلى بالتيمم، وأمثال ذلك ليس هذا موضع تفصيلها‏.‏ وأما من ترك الصلاة جاهلاً بوجوبها مثل من أسلم في دار الحرب، ولم يعلم أن الصلاة واجبة عليه، فهذه المسألة للفقهاء فيها ثلاثة أقوال‏.‏ وجهان في مذهب أحمد‏:‏

Herein lie some issues in which the scholars differ, for example the one who forgot to pack water in his travel gear and made salah with tayammum. And there are other examples like this that are expounded upon in another place. As for the one who abandoned the salah out of ignorance of its wajib nature, for example someone who became Muslim in Dar ul-Harb[4] and didn’t know that the salah was wajib for him, then there are some three statements of the scholars of fiqh on the matter, two of which are from the madhhab of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal:

أحدها‏:‏ عليه الإعادة مطلقًا‏.‏ وهو قول الشافعي، وأحد الوجهين في مذهب أحمد‏.‏

Firstly, the one in this case would have to repeat the salah without any exception to the rule. And this is the statement of Imam Ash-Shafi`ii and one of the positions of the school of Imam Ahmad.

والثانى‏:‏ عليه الإعادة إذا تركها بدار الإسلام دون دار الحرب‏.‏ وهو مذهب أبى حنيفة؛ لأن دار الحرب دار جهل، يعذر فيه، بخلاف دار الإسلام‏.‏

Secondly, he must repeat the salah, if he abandoned it in Dar ul-Islam but not Dar ul-Harb and this is the madhhab of Imam Abu Hanifah. The reason for this is that Dar ul-Harb is a place of ignorance in which one is excused, that not being the case for Dar ul-Islam.

والثالث‏:‏ لا إعادة عليه مطلقًا‏.‏ وهو الوجه الثانى في مذهب أحمد، وغيره‏.‏ وأصل هذين الوجهين‏:‏ أن حكم الشارع،

Thirdly, there is no repeat of the salah required of him without any exception to the rule. This is the second position of the madhhab of Imam Ahmad and others. The foundation of these two positions is the judgement of the Lawgiver.

هل يثبت في حق المكلف قبل بلوغ الخطاب له، فيه ثلاثة أقوال في مذهب أحمد، وغيره‏:‏

Now then, is the same ruling held in the case of the adult before the information about the ruling has reached him? There are three statements on this matter in the madhhab of Imam Ahmad and those besides:

أحدها‏:‏ يثبت مطلقًا‏.‏

The first statement is that the matter is established without any exception to the rule.

والثانى‏:‏ لا يثبت مطلقًا‏.‏

The second statement is that the matter is not established without any exception to the rule.

والثالث‏:‏ يثبت حكم الخطاب المبتدأ دون الخطاب الناسخ، كقضية أهل قباء، وكالنزاع المعروف في الوكيل إذا عزل‏.‏ فهل يثبت حكم العزل في حقه قبل العلم‏.‏

The third statement is that it is established by the first ruling given and not a statement to come after, such as the ruling that came to the people of Quba’ for the change of the Qiblah or the well-known dispute regarding the matter of the trustee when he does `azl and whether or not the ruling of the `azl is binding before the knowledge has reached him.[5]

وعلى هذا، لو ترك الطهارة الواجبة لعدم بلوغ النص‏.‏ مثل أن يأكل لحم الإبل ولا يتوضأ، ثم يبلغه النص، ويتبين له وجوب الوضوء، أو يصلي في أعطان الإبل ثم يبلغه، ويتبين له النص، فهل عليه إعادة ما مضى‏؟‏ فيه قولان هما روايتان عن أحمد‏.‏

And upon this ruling is others that follow the same methodology. So if one abandoned the wajib taharah as no text had reached in on the topic – like in the matter of one eating camel meat without having made wudu,’ then the explicit text reached him and it became clear to him that the wudu’ is wajib at this point, or he made salah at the place where camels are corralled and then a text reached him on the topic and the explicit text became clear to him – is such a one required to repeat the taharah and/or salah that had passed? There are two statements narrated from Imam Ahmad on the topic. 

ونظيره أن يمس ذكره ويصلي، ثم يتبين له وجوب الوضوء من مس الذكر‏.‏ والصحيح في جميع هذه المسائل عدم وجوب الإعادة؛ لأن الله عفا عن الخطأ والنسيان، ولأنه قال‏:‏

And of a similar capacity is the one who touched his penis with skin-to-skin contact and made salah and then it became clear to him that it is wajib to make wudu’ from touching the penis with skin-to-skin contact. The authentic position in all of these matters is that one is not required to repeat any of the above mentioned as Allah has pardoned from the mistake and forgetfulness as He said,

‏{‏وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبْعَثَ رَسُولاً‏}‏ ‏[‏الإسراء‏:‏ 15‏]‏‏.‏

And We do not punish until a messenger is sent[6]

فمن لم يبلغه أمر الرسول في شيء معين، لم يثبت حكم وجوبه عليه؛ ولهذا لم يأمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عمر وعمارًا لما أجنبا فلم يصل عمر، وصلى عمار بالتمرغ أن يعيد واحد منهما،

So whoever did not have reach him the command of the messenger in the specific thing, the ruling of it being wajib upon him is not established. And it is due to this that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did not command `Umar and `Ammar to repeat one of the salah times one of them was unsure of so `Umar did not pray it while `Ammar prayed with the understanding that he would repeat one of them.

وكذلك لم يأمر أبا ذر بالإعادة لما كان يجنب ويمكث أياما لا يصلي، وكذلك لم يأمر من أكل من الصحابة حتى يتبين له الحبل الأبيض من الحبل الأسود بالقضاء، كما لم يأمر من صلى إلى بيت المقدس قبل بلوغ النسخ لهم بالقضاء‏.‏

And furthermore he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did not order Abu Dhar Al-Ghifari to repeat the salah when he was junub and remained for some days without having made salah. And furthermore, the Companions that continued on eating until the eastern light could be discerned were not commanded to make qada’ of the fast.[7] And also he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did not command the one who had made salah facing Jerusalem before the revelation reached him to make qada’ of that worship.[8] 

ومن هذا الباب‏:‏ ‏[‏المستحاضة‏]‏ إذا مكثت مدة لا تصلى لاعتقادها عدم وجوب الصلاة عليها، ففى وجوب القضاء عليها قولان‏:‏

And part of the same subject is the woman who has post cycle bleeding when she remained and did not pray for a period of time as she thought that the salah was not wajib for her. In the case of a woman in this circumstance, there are two statements on the topic:

أحدهما‏:‏ لا إعادة عليها‏.‏ كما نقل عن مالك وغيره؛ لأن المستحاضة التي قالت للنبى صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ إنى حضت حيضة شديدة كبيرة منكرة منعتنى الصلاة والصيام، أمرها بما يجب في المستقبل، ولم يأمرها بقضاء صلاة الماضى ‏.‏

One ruling is that there is no repeat of the salah due for her as has been narrated from Imams Malik and others besides. This is because there was someone with post cycle bleeding who said to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Indeed I have a very heavy cycle and painful cycle that prevents me from salah and siyam”. So he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ordered her what to do from that point in the future and he did not command her to make qada’ of the previous salah.[9]

وقد ثبت عندى بالنقل المتواتر أن في النساء والرجال بالبوادى وغير البوادى من يبلغ ولا يعلم أن الصلاة عليه واجبة، بل إذا قيل للمرأة‏:‏ صلى، تقول‏:‏ حتى أكبر وأصير عجوزة، ظانة أنه لا يخاطب بالصلاة إلا المرأة الكبيرة، كالعجوز ونحوها‏.‏ وفى أتباع الشيوخ طوائف كثيرون لا يعلمون أن الصلاة واجبة عليهم،

So it is established to me[10] according to mass transmitted affairs regarding the men and women – in the Bedouin encampments and other remote areas – that did not have reach them the knowledge that the salah was wajib upon them, or even if it was said to the woman to make salah and she said, “I won’t until I get older and I reach senior age,” thinking that the command to make salah was only given to the adult woman that is elderly and the like and there are people who follow shaikhs in large number that don’t know the salah is wajib upon them.

فهؤلاء لا يجب عليهم في الصحيح قضاء الصلوات، سواء قيل‏:‏ كانوا كفارًا، أو كانوا معذورين بالجهل‏.‏ وكذلك من كان منافقًا زنديقًا يظهر الإسلام ويبطن خلافه، وهو لا يصلي، أو يصلي أحيانًا بلا وضوء، أو لا يعتقد وجوب الصلاة، فإنه إذا تاب من نفاقه وصلى، فإنه لا قضاء عليه عند جمهور العلماء‏.‏

The authentic position for these people is that there is no qada’ of salah due for them – whether it is held that they were kuffar[11] or excused by gross ignorance – and likewise is the case of the one who was a munafiq apostate[12] who manifested Islam but internally was opposite to that. He would not make salah or make salah sometimes without even wudu’ or maybe he did not have firm conviction of the wajib nature of salah. So when he repented from his nifaq and made salah, there is no qada’ upon him based upon the vast majority of the scholars.[13]

والمرتد الذي كان يعتقد وجوب الصلاة، ثم ارتد عن الإسلام، ثم عاد، لا يجب عليه قضاء ما تركه حال الردة عند جمهور العلماء كمالك وأبي حنيفة وأحمد في ظاهر مذهبه

In the case of the murtad who had firm conviction of the wajib nature of the salah, then apostate from Islam, then returned, there is no qada’ upon him from what he left at the time of his riddah according to the vast majority of scholars, like Imams Malik ibn Anas, Abu Hanifah and Ahmad in the dominant statement of his school.

فإن المرتدين الذين ارتدوا على عهد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كعبد الله بن سعد بن أبى سرح، وغيره مكثوا على الكفر مدة ثم أسلموا، ولم يأمر أحدًا منهم بقضاء ما تركوه‏.‏ وكذلك المرتدون على عهد أبى بكر لم يؤمروا بقضاء صلاة، ولا غيرها‏.‏

This is the case as indeed the apostates who left the Religion in the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, like `Abdullah ibn Sa`d ibn Abi Sarh and others and were upon kufr for some time and then came into Islam again, these are not commanded to make qada’ according to what they left. And likewise the apostates in the time of Abu Bakr were not commanded to make qada’ of any salah nor other things besides.


وأما من كان عَالِمًا بوجوبها وتركها بلا تأويل حتى خرج وقتها الموقت، فهذا يجب عليه القضاء عند الأئمة الأربعة، وذهب طائفة منهم ابن حزم وغيره إلى أن فعلها بعد الوقت لا يصح من هؤلاء، وكذلك قالوا فيمن ترك الصوم متعمدًا‏.‏ والله سبحانه وتعالى أعلم‏.‏

In the case of the one who knew of its wajib nature and abandoned it without any interpretation until the stipulated time ran out, this one is required to make qada’ of that salah as per the statement of the Four Imams. One group – among them Ibn Hazm and other than him – held the position that to do the salah after its time has elapsed is not valid from there people. And they said the same thing about the one who left the sawm intentionally. And Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, knows best.

وسئل رحمه الله عن رجل عليه صلوات كثيرة فاتته، هل يصليها بسننها‏؟‏ أم الفريضة وحدها‏؟‏ وهل تقضى في سائر الأوقات من ليل أو نهار‏؟‏

And he (Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah), may Allah have mercy upon him, was asked about a man who had missed many salah and whether or not he should pray them with their optional prayers as well? Or should he pray the compulsory salah alone? Shall he make them at the times in the night or the daytime?

فأجاب‏:‏ المسارعة إلى قضاء الفوائت الكثيرة أولى من الاشتغال عنها بالنوافل، وأما مع قلة الفوائت فقضاء السنن معها حسن

He (Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah), answered in the following way: He should quickly go to make qada’ of missed salah that are in a large number and this takes precedence over busying oneself with the optional prayers associated with them. In the case of the one who only has a small number of compulsory salah to make up, then he should make up the compulsory salah and their associated sunan as well and this is good.

فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما نام هو وأصحابه عن الصلاة صلاة الفجر عام حنين، قضوا السنة والفريضة‏.‏ ولما فاتته الصلاة يوم الخندق قضى الفرائض بلا سنن‏.‏ والفوائت المفروضة تقضى في جميع الأوقات؛ فإن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال‏:‏ ‏”‏من أدرك ركعة من الفجر قبل أن تطلع الشمس فليصل إليها أخرى‏”‏‏.‏ والله‏‏ أعلم‏.‏

 Indeed the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and his Companions slept through the salah of Salat ul-Fajr in the year of Hunain. They made qada’ of the optional and compulsory salah. And in the Battle of the Trench, when they missed the `Asr, they made the qada’ of the compulsory salah and not the optional. Making up the compulsory salah can be done at any time as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever is able to catch one rak`ah of the Fajr salah before the sun rises, then let him pray it and whatever else”.[14] And Allah knows best.

وسئل‏:‏أيما أفضل صلاة النافلة‏؟‏ أم القضاء‏؟‏

He (Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah) was asked about what is better to do, the optional salah or salah that are to be made up?

فأجاب‏:‏ إذا كان عليه قضاء واجب، فالاشتغال به أولى من الاشتغال بالنوافل التي تشغل عنه‏.‏

He (Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah) answered: when someone has a wajib salah to make qada’ of, then to busy oneself with doing that takes precedence over doing the optional prayers.[15]


[1] This ruling is rare and divergent and not to be acted upon and classed among the rare rulings as mentioned by Imam Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali in which he classified this ruling, among others, as rare, divergent and strange. Please see Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp.332-334. The strange thing about this is that fake students of knowledge and scholars will site the final portion of the ruling and not the underlying reasons.

[2] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, Section 3: Al-`Ibadat, vol.1, pp.488-491

[3] This occurred after the Battle of Hunain. Please see Imam `Abdul Malik ibn Hisham’s As-Sirat un-Nabawiyyah, vol.4, pp.60-89

[4] The Imam’s usuli principle for this is the fact that Dar ul-Harb has no laws, as it is a place in which the Muslims and kuffar are battling in which the laws dominant over it in the end will change it to Dar ul-Islam or Dar ul-Kufr respectively.

[5] This is before revelation was given regarding this matter. The Imam, in making ijtihad on this part, is using this understanding as a proof of when there is lack of revelation – either through presence or knowledge – that one is not responsible. And this is a rare and divergent ruling to hold in all cases.  

[6] Surat ul-Isra’ (17), ayah 15

[7] This was before the revelation of the ayah in which distinguishing these affairs was commanded.

[8] This was before the revelation of the ayah commanding the change of the Qiblah.

[9] This was before the revelation on the topic and also due to the fact of the distinguishing characteristics between the monthly cycle and post cycle bleeding.

[10] Notice that he has built the ruling and his ijtihad upon his unique understanding of the texts before, thus what comes after is couched in this understanding.

[11] Notice the statement here in which he referred to those in question as apostates for not discharging it. The people that want to take hold of this ruling need to understand that when you try to implement this ruling, you are not only trying to “find ease” but you are also putting yourself under the ruling of riddah, which affects the laws of inheritance, whether the marriage is valid, children are born in wedlock, one’s property stays in possession and much, much more. Rather than looking to “find ease” in these “bewildering times” perhaps those in question should try to digest the fatwa before jumping to wild conclusions that have real consequences.  

[12] Ar. murtadd. The act of someone becoming an apostate is called riddah (Ar. apostasy). These matters have been defined for us and made clear, so the Ummah has not been left stranded with regard to fundamentals of saving faith and what destroys. Let us examine some of the words of our teachers through the ages.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 (AD 855), may Allah be pleased with him, remarked, “So the apostate is asked to repent for three days. If he repents, the matter is resolved, but if not he is to be killed, based upon the Hadith mentioned from `Umar ibn Al-Khattab in this regard. It was narrated to us that Muhammad narrated from his father that a man disbelieved after his Islam, and he was killed. News of this reached `Umar, who remarked, ‘Why did they not jail him for three days and go to meet him with flat bread so that he might repent? The matter would then be returned to that of Allah, Mighty and Majestic’.” `Abdullah asked his father about a man who said, “Son of so and so, away with you and who created you!” Imam Ahmad remarked, “This is an apostate from Islam.” `Abdullah asked if he should be executed, to which Imam Ahmad replied in the affirmative. When asked about the ruling on someone who cursed or insulted the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, Imam Ahmad said that the person should be executed as an apostate. Taken from Masa’il ul-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp. 430-432. When asked about the limits of the judicial rulings being carried out, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said the following, “Three things are necessary for the judicial rulings to be carried out on someone, namely that he: 1) has had his first wet dream, 2) has grown the rough hairs on the underarms and pubic region and 3) the one who has reached 15 years of age. These are all the boundaries. This was narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, so whoever has come to this point may have judicial rulings carried out on him if he should steal, commit fornication and so forth.” Please see Masa’il ul-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp. 431-432.

Imam Abul Qasim al-Khiraqi (d. 334 (AD 946), may Allah be pleased with him, says of apostasy, “Whoever apostated from Islam – man or woman – who is sane and has reached 15 years of age, is called back to faith for three days and is reminded of the time with constraints put on him regarding the matter. If he should repent, then the matter is resolved, but if he does not he is to be killed. His wealth is treated as wealth taken in war once any outstanding debts are paid from it. The same holds true for the one who left the prayer and was called to it for three days. If he should repent the matter is resolved, but if he does not, he is to be killed whether he denied it being compulsory or not. The meat sacrificed by the apostate is impermissible for consumption, even if he apostated to Judaism or Christianity.” Mukhtasar ul-Khiraqi, pp. 189-190

Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la al-Baghdadi the Elder (d. 458 (AD 1066), may Allah be pleased with him, stated the apostate as, “Allah the Exalted has said, Whoever disbelieves in the faith has nullified his deeds. Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 5. The apostate is to be asked to repent and given a period of three days. If he repents, the matter is resolved, but if not, he is killed. The apostate who is female is killed after seeking her repentance for three days, the same as the man. The repentance of the unrepentant apostate is not accepted; this apostate is defined as the one who conceals kufr, but manifests Islam. There is another narration that states his repentance is accepted.” Al-Jami` us-Saghir fil Fiqh, pp. 304-305

Imam Mahfuz al-Kalwadhani (d. 510 (AD 1116), may Allah be pleased with him, mentioned the apostate as one who, “Does not have firm conviction of the compulsory nature of the five prayers, the impermissiblity of intoxicants, fornication or adultery, homosexuality, usury and whatever is like that, which is agreed upon as being compulsory; one in that situation is an unbeliever. Whoever abandoned the act of prayer while believing that it is compulsory without an excuse has become an unbeliever according to one ruling, and the same is the case for Zakah, Hajj and other obligations. Whoever curses Allah, His Messenger, it is necessary that he be killed and his repentance is not accepted according to one ruling, although in another ruling it is accepted.” Al-Hidayah, vol.1, pp. 150-151. Further to this, he mentions, “It is compulsory that the apostate is asked to repent and after the statement he is given a reprieve for three days according to one narration, but in another narration it is not necessary to give three days, although it is praiseworthy.” Al-Hidayah, vol.1, pp. 150-151

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620 (AD 1223), may Allah be pleased with him, ruled, “Whoever commits apostasy from Islam – male or female – it is compulsory that they be killed, based upon the words of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Whoever changed his faith, then kill him’. He is not killed until he is asked to repent for three days. If he should repent, the matter is resolved. If not, then he is killed with the sword. Whoever denied Allah, made a partner, consort, son for Him or denied Allah the Exalted, cursed Him, or denied His Messenger, the Book of Allah or something from it, one of the pillars of Islam has also committed apostasy. The same holds true for someone who made the impermissible to be permissible, although the Consensus on it is clear, this one is also guilty of apostasy. The exception would be if this knowledge of what is compulsory or impermissible was not known to him. It that case, he would be told and made to know it. If after that, he did not accept the principle, then he has commited kufr and disbelieved.” Al-`Umdah fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp. 108-109. The Imam stated on another occasion, “The apostate is the one who rejected faith after his Islam. Whoever should commit idolatry with Allah, deny his Lordship or Uniqueness and Oneness or one of His Attributes, or declares that Allah has taken a consort of son, has apostated. The same holds for the one who denied a prophet, one of the Books of Allah the Exalted or anything from it, or cursed Allah or His Messenger, all these have commited kufr. Whoever denies the compulsory nature of the five prayers or something from them or declares fornication or adultery, intoxicants or something clearly agreed upon as such is an unbeliever, unless they are ignorant of it, but they are made to know this matter, but if the person is not ignorant of the matter, that is kufr. The one who abandons some of the five prayers due to laziness is not called an unbeliever, but in one instance narrated by Imam Ahmad he is called an unbeliever. It is only Hajj that if one delays they are not an unbeliever in this regard. Whoever should apostate from Islam – man or woman – while he is sane and has reached 15 years of age, is called to the faith for three days with constraints put upon him and reminded of the time. If the person does not repent, he is killed. Imam Ahmad mentioned that sometimes it is not compulsory to ask the person to repent, but it is praiseworthy to do so. It is perfectly permissible to kill the apostate without asking for the repentance. He is killed with the sword by no one except the Imam or his representative.” Al-Muqni` fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 447-448. He further said, “Apostasy results by either denying the two testimonies of faith or just one of them, cursing Allah the Exalted or His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, slandering the mother of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, or denying the Book of Allah, Exalted be He, or something from it, one of His Prophets or one of His Books, or some compulsory thing that is clearly agreed upon, like the five prayers. One also apostates if they do that which is impermissible and agrees that it is permissible, like intoxicants, pork, meat found dead, blood, fornication or adultery, and such things as that. If the person is ignorant of that or is new to Islam, or has just recovered from an episode of insanity, they do not disbelieve. They are made to know the ruling and the evidence, and then if they remain in denial they have become an unbeliever. The reason for him becoming an unbeliever is that the evidences are for such clear matters that are openly details in the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger, so there is no one who would deny them except that they are denying the Book fo Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.” Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.4, pp. 73-74

Imam Baha’ ud-Din al-Maqdisi (d. 624 (AD 1227), may Allah be pleased with him, made a clear statement, “Whoever apostated from Islam, male or female, it is compulsory that they are killed, based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Whoever changed his faith, then kill him’. This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim. The People of Knowledge have made Consensus that it is compulsory to kill the apostates as was related by Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Mu`adh, Abu Musa al-Ash`ari, Ibn `Abbas, Khalid ibn Al-Walid, may Allah be pleased with all of them, and as no one denied it, this is Consensus.” The Imam stated at another point, “Whoever denied Allah, Glorified be He, after affirming Him, and then apostated as he does not worship a god, or whoever made a partner for Him then he is an idol worshipper and not one who believes in the Oneness and Uniqueness of Allah. The same ruling applies to the one who made a rival for Him or declared for Allah a son, he has lied on Allah the Exalted as well. The one who cursed Him or denied His Messenger or cursed him, this one has denied Allah the Exalted and does not consider obedience to Him compulsory. Whoever denied a prophet then he has disbelieved, based upon the words of the Glorified One, Those who disbelieve in Allah, His Messengers and intend by that they divide between Allah and His Messengers by saying, ‘We believe in a part and disbelieve in a part’, and desire to take a way between that, these are the true unbelievers.” Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 150. Likewise, the one who denies the Book of Allah or something from it has become an unbeliever as he is denying Allah the Exalted and renouncing Him. Allah the Exalted has said, The Messenger has believed in what was sent down to him from his Lord, and the believers do as well. Each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books and His Messengers. Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 285. Whoever denies one of the pillars of Islam, or makes permissible something that by Consensus is known to be impermissible, he has denied Allah and His Messenger, as the evidence of that is already clearly explained in the Book and the Sunnah, so they would not be concealed from the Muslims and no one would deny these except someone who denied Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The exception would be where one did not have this knowledge of the compsulsory and impermissible things. Such a person should be made aware of these things and if he does not accept it, he has become an unbeliever. A person who has such knowledge concealed from him may be a new Muslim or he was raised in a land far away from the Muslims, so he would be taught and made to know these things. If he should accept after that, then the matter is resolved, but if not, then he is killed as an apostate. As for the one who is living among the Muslims like this, in such a situation he would be an unbeliever and asked to repent. If he repented, the matter would be resolved, but if he did not he would be killed. The reason is that affirmation of all these matters is clear in the Book and the Sunnah, so to reject it or be grossly unaware would be to deny Allah and His Messenger. The person in that case would disbelieve, just as we said of one denying one of the pillars of Islam.” Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp.644-645

Imam Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 653 (AD 1255), may Allah be pleased with him, defined apostasy and the ruling on it as, “The one who became an unbeliever after his Islam. Whoever ascribes a partner to Allah, denies His Lordship, one of His Attributes, one of His Books, Messengers, curses Allah or His Messenger, then he is an unbeliever. Whoever due to ignorance denies the compulsory nature of the five prayers, or the impermissibility of fornication or adultery, intoxicants, or denies the permissibility of meat, bread and other things that are are clearly agreed upon rulings, he is made to know and accept them. As for the one who is not ignorant, then he disbelieves due to the rejection. Whoever abandoned the compulsory prayer, zakah, fasting or Hajj out of laziness, with the firm determination that he will never do it or he delays it for a year, as in the case of Hajj when he had the ability to do so, this one is asked to repent as an apostate would as well. If he insists on that then he is killed as a judicial punishment and warning to others, while there is another position that he is killed as an unbeliever. This ruling has been narrated by Abu Bakr `Abdul `Aziz and is his clear choice in ruling. There is one position from Imam Ahmad that he disbelieves in the abandoned prayer, along with another ruling that this includes zakah, when the Imam fights him to pay it. Imam Ahmad stated on another occasion that there is a time when he does not become an unbeliever or commit kufr due to this, just as he is not fought due to fasting or Hajj. The sane person who has reached 15 years of age and has apostated is ordered to repent for three days with constraints put upon him and reminded of the time. If he does not become a Muslim, he is killed with the sword; as for whether asking him to repent for three days is compulsory or merely praiseworthy, then there are two rulings in this regard.” Al-Muharrar fil-Fiqh `ala Madhhab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.2, pp. 166-167

Imam Shams ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 682 (AD 1283), may Allah be pleased with him, one of the depended upon commentators on the text, Al-Muqni`, narrates the exact same ruling as his uncle, Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah. Ash-Sharh ul-Kabir, vol.1, pp. 783-784

Imam Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Muflih (d. 763 (AD 1362), one of the commentators on Al-Muqni`, stated, “Whoever disbelieved after his Islam, willingly or jokingly, some say willingly while some say even if it is by force, the truth is the first. The apostate is so as he has associated partners with Allah the Exalted, or denied an attribute. It was mentioned in Al-Fusul that it is agreed that someone apostates by denying something clearly affirmed or one of His Books, Messengers or cursing Him. Apostasy also results if he claims prophethood. Our shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah said, ‘Someone also apostates if he shows hatred for His Messenger or any of what he came with of revelation that is agreed upon. Apostasy would also occur by his refusing to hate evil in his heart, denying a clear ruling that is agreed upon, such as one of the five daily prayers or the impermissibility of intoxicants and such things. Someone who is not ignorant of these matters would commit apostasy if he had such beliefs’. Our shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, also said, ‘Based upon this understanding, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did not regard as an unbeliever the man who doubted the Power of Allah and His Ability to resurrect him, as this was before the message had reached him’. There is also the statement of `A’ishah in which she said, Messenger of Allah, whatever the people conceal, Allah surely knows it. He responded in the affirmative. This is collected by Imam Muslim in his Jami` us-Sahih under the Book of Funerals. Imam Muslim in that narration did not have the words, he said, and Imam Yahya an-Nawawi, in his commentary on the collection mentioned that it is as if `A’ishah had said these words to confirm herself and she had replied in the affirmative’.” Kitab ul-Furu`, vol.6, pp. 156-157

Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdullah az-Zarkashi al-Masri (d. 774 (AD 1372), may Allah be pleased with him, one of the depended upon commentators, ‘the great 400’, who explained the Mukhtasir of Imam Al-Khiraqi, mentioned that the apostate in the Revealed Law refers to, “The one who leaves from the religion of Islam to the religion of kufr. The principle that underlines this is where the Glorifed One said, Whoever among you apostates from his faith, dies while he is an unbeliever, Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 217. There is also the authentic Hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, where he said, ‘Whoever changes his religion, then kill him.’ Allah knows best. Whoever apostates from his faith – male or female – while being at the age of 15 years and doing so willingly, is called back to Islam for three days. Constraints are put on him and he is reminded of the time. If he should return to the faith, the matter is resolved, but if he does not return to the faith, he is killed.” Sharh uz-Zarkashi `ala Mukhtasar il-Khiraqi, vol.6, pp. 232-233

Imam Burhan ud-Din Ibn Muflih (d. 884 (AD 1479), may Allah be pleased with him, explained the apostate as being one who, “rejected faith after his Islam. Whoever should commit idolatry with Allah, deny his Lordship or Uniqueness and Oneness or one of His Attributes, or declare that Allah has taken a consort of son, has apostated. The same holds for the one who denied a prophet, one of the Books of Allah the Exalted or anything from it, or cursed Allah or His Messenger, all these have commited kufr. Whoever denies the compulsory nature of the five prayers or something from them, or declares fornication or adultery, intoxicants or something clearly agreed upon as such is an unbeliever unless they are ignorant of it, but they are made to know this matter, but if the person is not ignorant of the matter, that is kufr. The one who abandons something of the five prayers due to laziness is not called an unbeliever, but in one instance narrated by Imam Ahmad he is called an unbeliever. It is only Hajj if one delays, they are not an unbeliever in this regard. Whoever should apostate from Islam – man or woman – while he is sane and has reached 15 years of age, is called to the faith for three days with constraints put upon him and reminded of the time. If the person does not repent, he is killed.” Al-Mubdi` Sharh il-Muqni`, vol.8, pp. 478-480

Imam `Ala’ ud-Din `Ali ibn Sulaiman al-Mardawi (d. 885 (AD 1480), one of the depended upon commentators on the text Al-Muqni`, leaves no doubt regarding the topic of apostasy. “Whoever should commit idolatry with Allah, deny his Lordship or Uniqueness and Oneness, or one of His Attributes or declares that Allah has taken a consort of son has apostated. The same holds for the one who denied a prophet, one of the Books of Allah the Exalted or anything from it, or cursed Allah or His Messenger, all these have commited kufr and there is no dispute in the sentence given at all. The intent expressed is that when someone does any of these things willingly or jokingly, apostasy results. This is after he has become a Muslim willingly while someone said it can be held that this is the case even for someone who became a Muslim under duress.” Al-Insaf Fi Ma`rifat ul-Khilaf `ala Madhhab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.10, pp. 236-237

Imam Musa ibn Ahmad al-Hajjawi (d. 968 (AD 1561), may Allah be pleased with him, proclaimed the apostate as, “The one who disbelieved after his Islam. Whoever associated partners with Allah, denied His Lordship or His Uniqueness and Oneness, or cursed Allah or cursed His Messenger, has disbelieved. Whoever denied the impermissiblity of intoxicants or something that is clearly agreed upon as impermissible and is not ignorant, he is an unbeliever, but the one who is ignorant is made to know about these things so he can accept them. Anyone who has reached the age of 15 years and willingly apostates from Islam – male or female – is called to Islam for three days and is reminded of the time, with constraints being put on him regarding the matter. If he did not become a Muslim after that time, he is killed with the sword. Whoever cursed Allah and His Messenger, his repentance is not accepted, the same being the case for the one who repeatedly apostated. Such a one in that situation is killed under any circumstance. The repentance of every apostate or unbeliever to enter the faith is by testifying that there is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. As for the one who disbelieved by denying some compulsory matter, his return to Islam is with the two testimonies of faith and affirming that which had been denied, or he would have to say words like, ‘I declare myself innocent and free from any religion that contradicts Islam’.” Zad ul-Mustaqni` fi Ikhtisar il-Muqni`, pp. 142-143

Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi (d. 1033 (AD 1624) and the commentator on his text, Imam `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi (d. 1133 (AD 1721), may Allah be pleased with both of them, state with authority on the topic of apostasy, “The apostate in the Revealed Law refers to the one who disbelieved after his Islam, which also applies to the one who has reached seven yars of age and does so by speech, belief, suspicion or action, whether by an act of obedience or jokingly. There are three types of this unbelief: 1) Cursing Allah, Blessed and Exalted, or cursing His Messenger or any other messenger, the angels, which is kufr, for if he has cursed one of them it means he has rejected or denied that one, or rejected the Lordship of Allah the Exalted or His Oneness and Uniqueness, or one of His Books or one of His Attributes that is necessarily known for Him, like life or knowledge, or he denies one of His Messengers or the angels who are affirmed and established as being His Messengers and Angels. The one who does any of this has commited kufr as mentioned in the Qur’an, and denial of any of that is just like denial of all of it, as one is the same as denying all in principle in the sight of Allah the Exalted, or if he should deny the necessity of one of the five prayers and purification, or if he claims prophethood or believes the claim of someone else proclaiming prophethood, then all that is kufr, as he is denying Allah, Glorified and Exalted, by His Words, But he is the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets. Surat ul-Ahzab (33), ayah 40. There is also the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘The Hour will not come until there shall appear 30 liars, every one of them claiming that he is a messenger of Allah’. It is also apostasy if he should claim that there is a partner or consort for Him, Glorified and Exalted be He. 2) If someone commits an act that indicates apostasy like prostrating to an idol, the sun, moon or such things, as this is idolatry and Allah the Exalted has already mentioned this: Allah does not forgive partners being associated with Him, but He forgives whatever is besides that to whomever He wills. Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 48 3). Having the creed or belief in which there is a partner for Him, Glorified and Exalted be He, or believing that fornication or adultery, intoxicants are permissible, this is kufr, and so is the belief that things like bread, meat or water are impermissible or anything that has been agreed upon by clear Consensus its being permissible or impermissible. 3) Doubting or having suspicion in anything of the matters of faith. In the case where someone does this and he is not like a forgetful person living in the villages of Islam, then it is kufr, as it is denying Him, Glorified and Exalted be He, and His Messenger and the rest of the Ummah. The one who apostates – male or female – at the age of 15 and with full sanity is called back to Islam and told to repent for three days, as this is compulsory. The three days of commanding repentance is because it is possible he could rectify himself in that time and he cannot be judged before trying to do so. The three days are only given because apostasy happens due to some doubt raised, and it is not always clear at the time, thus it is compulsory that he look at the situation for a period of time and reflect on it, and this is certainly more so in the case of apostasy and being given three days and time constraints. The apostate should be reminded of the time and his constraints, and if he repents in the time in which he was asked and returns to his Islam, there is neither penalty on him by way of killing or legal deterrent nor are the deeds that he did in the state of apostasy beforehand, like prayer, Hajj and other things nullified. If the person should remain upon his apostasy, then he is killed with the sword, which is the instrument of execution, and the aspostate is not burned with the Fire and it is only the Imam or his appointed representative who kill him, whether the apostate is free or a slave. The reason for this is that execution is a right of Allah the Exalted and is done by the Imam, just like stoning the adulterer or executing judicial punishments on the criminal.” Nail al-Ma’arib bi-Sharh id-Dalil it-Talib li-Nail il-Mutalib, pp. 406-407

[13] Again, look at the baseline that the Imam is using for the people in question.

[14] Ash-Shami, Jami` ul-Usul it-Tas`a: Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ad-Darimi, Ibn Majah, An-Nasa’ii and At-Tabarani Section 3: Al-`Ibadat, Book of Al-Adhan, vol.3, pp.370-372

[15] Majmu` Fatawa Shaikh il-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, vol.22, pp.98-104, King Fahd Printing Complex, Riyad 1416 (AD1995), 2nd ed. Ibn Qasim preparation

15th Night of Sha`ban (revisited)

[ ما بلغ سلفنا الصالح عن ليلة النصف من شعبان]

What came from our pious First Three Generations about the 15th Night of Sha`ban

قال الربيع : ( قال الشافعي رحمه الله  ) : وبلغنا أنه كان يقال : إن الدعاء يستجاب في خمس ليال في ليلة الجمعة ، وليلة الأضحى ، وليلة الفطر ، وأول ليلة من رجب ، وليلة النصف من شعبان ثم سرد سنده رحمه الله ..إلى أن قال : ” ( قال الشافعي ) : وأنا أستحب كل ما حكيت في هذه الليالي من غير أن يكون فرضا ”  كتاب الأم ( 1 / 264 ).

Imam Ar-Rabi` said that Imam Ash-Shafi`ii, may Allah have mercy upon him, stated, “It reached us that it used to be said, ‘Du`a is sure to be answered on five nights: (1) the night of Jumu`ah, (2) the night of `Eid ul-Adha, (3) the night of `Eid ul-Fitr, (4) the first night of the month of Rajab and (5) the 15th night of Sha`ban’.” Then the lone transmission was connected to the Imam, may Allah have mercy upon, to the statement that Imam Ash-Shaf`ii also also, ‘I consider it praiseworthy to make du`a on these nights based upon what was narrated regarding them although it is not compulsory’. Kitab ul-Umm, vol.1, p.264

قلت : ومعنى قوله ( بلغنا ) أي ما تلقاه من شيوخه من تابع التابعين والتابعين عن شيوخهم من الصحابة رضوان الله عن الجميع .

I would like to mention that the meaning of the expression, ‘it reached us’, references his shaikhs from the Followers of the Followers and the Followers from their shaikhs from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

 وهو معتمد مذهب الحنابلة كما قرره فقهاء المذهب

In terms of the du`a being praiseworthy on this night, this is the depended upon ruling of the Hanbali madhhab as has been confirmed by the fiqh scholars of the madhhab.

قال تقي الدين ابن تيمية -رحمه اللَّه-: وأما ليلة النصف من شعبان ففيها فضل، وكان في السلف من يصلي فيها، لكن الاجتماع فيها لإحيائها في المساجد بدعة. اهـ من “الاختيارات” (ص 121).

Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “As for as the night of the 15th of Sha`ban, there is favour and virtue in it. There were among those of the First Three Generations who prayed on its night; but gathering together in it in order to stay up all night in the masjids is indeed an innovation (Ar. bid`ah)”. Al-Ikhtiyarat, p.121

وكتب

فارس الخزرجي

As written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

11 Sha`ban 1442

MAKING UP SALAH AND THE HOLINESS OF OUR LORD

The Taqaddus of Allah and the Pillar of Salah

All of my life, one of the most striking things that has always been emphasised to me has been the Taqaddus of Allah. All of my family stressed this point to me, all of my teachers stressed this to me and every one of the elders of the past from the First to the Third Generation in the penultimate of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has reminded me of that.

In fact, the singlehanded defense of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in the presence of the government of the time and while the Mu`tazilah and representatives of the rest of the 72 sects were looking on, of the Orthodox creed was referencing the taqaddus of Allah.

It is when I was on Hajj in Makkah that I witnessed first-hand the Taqaddus of Allah. This is the place of the first qiblah but also the place where the Noble Ka`bah is housed. The Adhan, the curtains of the Ka`bah, the way the salah is upheld and all other affairs were loud and clear examples of this taqaddus.

Then you have the same thing seen in the era of Imam Ibn Rajab (d.795) when the Tatar had attempted to water down the theology and take away the creed, thus watering down the taqaddus.

This taqaddus, which I have been able to find the closest example in English being “holiness”, is throughout our Religion and what I have taught vigorously. This is all I have known from the Righteous, Holy, Mighty Lord that I have served. This is what we take from the ayah in which Allah said,

 هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِي لاَ إِلَـٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ ٱلْمَلِكُ ٱلْقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلاَمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُ ٱلْمُهَيْمِنُ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْجَبَّارُ ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرُ سُبْحَانَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ 

He is Allah! The One whom there is no god but Him! He is the Monarch, the Holy, the Source of Salvation, the Guardian of Iman, the Protector, the Almighty, the Compeller, the Proud! Glorified is Allah from that which they associate with Him![1]

Then we have the statement of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who declared,

«رَبُّنَا الله الّذِي في السّماءِ تَقَدّسَ اسْمُكَ»

“Our Lord, Allah! The One who is above the sky! Holy is Your Name!” [2]

So Holy is His Name! This has been what our elders fought for, what we sent out preachers for and everything else. It has been about this underlying principle that is couched in the testimony of: There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

Every single hadith about the Foundations of the Religion mentions the very first thing as the Testimony of Faith. Let’s look at this example:

ثُمَّ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرُ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ قال:  بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ، إِذْ طَلَعَ عَلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ شَدِيدُ بَيَاضِ

الثِّيَابِ، شَدِيدُ سَوَادِ الشَّعَرِ،

“Ibn `Umar then said: It was narrated to me by my father `Umar ibn Al-Khattab who narrated: One day we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, when a man came. He had exceedingly black hair and exceedingly white clothes.

لَا يُرَى عَلَيْهِ أَثَرُ السَّفَرِ، وَلَا يَعْرِفُهُ مِنَّا أَحَدٌ، حَتَّى جَلَسَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَأَسْنَدَ رُكْبَتَيْهِ إِلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ، وَوَضَعَ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَى فَخِذَيْهِ، وَقَالَ:

 «يَا مُحَمَّدُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِسْلَامِ»،

“None of us knew him and he had no signs of travel upon him. He then sat down facing the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, his knees touching his, and the man placed has hands on his own thighs. He said, ‘Muhammad, tell me about Islam’.

فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «الإِسْلَامُ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلَاةَ، وَتُؤْتِيَ

الزَّكَاةَ، وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ، وَتَحُجَّ الْبَيْتَ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا»،

“The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, replied, ‘Islam is that you bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, you establish the Salah, you discharge the Zakah, make the Sawm of Ramadan and make the Hajj if you are able’.

قَالَ: «صَدَقْتَ»، قَالَ: فَعَجِبْنَا لَهُ يَسْأَلُهُ وَيُصَدِّقُهُ، قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِيمَانِ»، قَالَ: «أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ بِاللهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ، وَتُؤْمِنَ بِالْقَدَرِ خَيْرِهِ وَشَرِّهِ«

“The man said, ‘You have spoken the truth’. We found that strange, that he was asking questions when he knew the answer. The man then said, ‘So, tell me about Iman’. The reply was, ‘Iman is that you truthfully affirm Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and what He has ordained, the good and the bad’.

قَالَ: «صَدَقْتَ»، قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِحْسَانِ»، قَالَ: «أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ»،

“The man said, ‘You have spoken rightly’. He then asked, ‘Tell me about Ihsan’. The answer was, ‘That you worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you do not, indeed, He sees you’.

قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ السَّاعَةِ»، قَالَ: «مَا الْمَسْئُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِلِ»،

“The man then enquired, ‘Tell me about the Hour’. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, said, ‘The one asked has as much knowledge as the one asking’.

قَالَ: «فَأَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ أَمَارَتِهَا»، قَالَ: «أَنْ تَلِدَ الأَمَةُ رَبَّتَهَا، وَأَنْ تَرَى الْحُفَاةَ الْعُرَاةَ الْعَالَةَ رِعَاءَ الشَّاءِ يَتَطَاوَلُونَ فِي الْبُنْيَانِ»،

“The man said, ‘So tell me about its portents’. The reply was, ‘When you see a female slave give birth to her master, then you see the barefoot, naked shepherds become leaders, competing with one another in building lofty buildings’.

قَالَ: ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ فَلَبِثْتُ مَلِيًّا، ثُمَّ قَالَ لِي: «يَا عُمَرُ أَتَدْرِي مَنِ السَّائِلُ؟» قُلْتُ: «اللهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ»، قَالَ: «فَإِنَّهُ جِبْرِيلُ أَتَاكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِينَكُمْ»)

“The man then left. I waited for a little while and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, asked, ‘`Umar, do you know who that was?’ I responded, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best’. He said, ‘That was Jibril, he came to teach you your Religion’.” And this is collected by Imam Muslim.

There is also another hadith that mentions the Testimony of Faith as the very FIRST over of all the pillars.

(بُنِيَ الإِسْلَامُ عَلَى خَمْسٍ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ وِإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وِإِيْتَاءَ الزَّكَاةَ وَصَوْمَ رَمَضَانَ وَحَجَّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ

 إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا)

Islam is built on five: (1) the Testimony of Faith that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, (2) establishment of the Salah, (3) discharging Zakah, (4) Sawm in Ramadan and (5) making Hajj to the House for whoever finds a way”.

Notice that the Testimony is always the first of affairs. There is also something else that stands out in all of these instances. The salah is always the second all of these ahadith. It is the first thing that comes after the Testimony. There are some ahadith in which sawm and hajj are fourth and fifth, respectively in terms of their order of the Five Pillars. Sometimes they are in the opposite order.

But there is no time that the Salah is referred to in all of those texts in which it has its importance fall below the second.

The great Imam and Renewer of Islam in his time, `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d.1331), had this to say about the topic of Salah:

وفي الآداب: العلم أفضل الأعمال وأقرب العلماء إلى الله عز وجل وأولاهم به: أكثرهم له خشية.

“It is mentioned in Al-Adab, ‘Knowledge is the best of all deeds and the nearest of scholars to Allah, Majestic and Mighty, and the uppermost is the one with the most fear of Allah’.

ثم الصلاة لما روى سالم بن أبي الجعد عن ثوب رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليهوسلم قال:

“Then after this comes the prayer according to what is narrated by Salim ibn Abil Ja`d from Thawban, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

(اسْتَقِيمُوا وَلَنْ تَحْصُوا وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ خَيْرَ أَعْمَالِكُمُ الصَّلَاةُ). رواه ابن ماجه في سننه.

‘Be upright and don’t reckon that all deeds are accepted. So know that the best of all your deeds is the Salah’. This is collected by Ibn Majah in his Sunan.

ولأن فرضها آكد أركان الدين بعد الشهادتين فتطوعا آكد التطوعات.

“The compulsory nature of the Salah is such that it is also one of the pillars of the Religion after the two Shahadahs. The optional prayers are among the most emphasised.

ولأنها تجمع أنواعًا من العبادة: الإخلاص والقراءة والركوع والسجود ومناجاة الرب والتوجه إلى القبلة والتسبيح والتكبير والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.

“This is because the Salah joins between many different branches of worship: sincerity of intention, recitation, bowing, prostrating, intimate conversation with the Lord, facing the Qiblah, glorification, takbir, prayers upon the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and so forth.

فلهذا كانت آكد أركان الدين بعد الإيمان كما يشير إليه قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحديث الصحيح:

“So this is the most emphasised thing after Iman just as is indicated in the authentic hadith”.[3]

Imam Al-Qaddumi goes on to discuss the grave matter of the Salah and preserving it in the life of a believer:

وشرعاً: أقوال وأفعال مفتتحة بالتكبير مختتمة بالتسليم.

“In the Revealed Law, this word signifies words and deeds that open with takbir and end with taslim.

فرضت ليلة الإسراء خمسين صلاة في اليوم والليلة فراجع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ربه حتى صارت الخمسون خمساً كما قال عز وجل:

“It was during the Night Journey that fifty prayers were declared compulsory in the night and day. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, kept going back to His Lord for a reduction so that the fifty became five. So the Mighty and Majestic One said,

هي خمس أي: بحسب الفعل. وهي خمسون أي: بحسب الثواب ما يبدل القول لدي.

‘It is five according to the action but it is fifty according to reward’. This shows that His Decree does not change.

واستدل العلماء به على عدم فرضية شيء زائد على الخمس كالوتر وقيام الليل

“The scholars have brought this out as proof that nothing has been mandated over the five prayers, such as in the case of witr or qiyam ul-lail.

وعلى جواز النسخ قبل الفعل لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كلف بالخمسين ثم انتهى الأمر إلى خمس والله أعلم.

“It is also possible that the abrogation can come before the action as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was mandated with fifty prayers then the matter was allotted to five. And Allah knows best. 

وروى البخاري في صحيحه عن أنس – رضي الله عنه – أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: (أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَن لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ

“Imam Al-Bukhari collected in his Sahih from Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘I have been commanded to fight the people until they bear witness that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

فَإِذَا قَالُوهَا وَصَلُّوهَا صَلَتَنَا وَاسْتَقْبَلُوا قِبْلَتَنَا وَذَبَحُوا ذَبِيحَتَنَا فَقَدْ حَرُمَتْ عَلَيْنَا دِمَاؤُهُمْ وَأَمْوَالُهُمْ إِلَّا بِحَقِّهَا وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ).

‘When they say that and make our salah, face our Qiblah, slaughter as we do, then it is forbidden for us to shed their blood or take their property except  with the Right of Allah. And their reckoning rests with Allah’.

وصح أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال:

It is authentically narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

(خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ كَتَبَهُنَّ اللهُ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ فَمَنْ جَاءَ بِهِنَّ لَمْ يُضَيِّعْ مِنْهُنَّ شَيْئاً اسْتِخْفَافاً بِحَقِّهِنَّ كَانَ لَهُ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَهْدٌ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ.

There are five salawat that Allah has written for the slaves. Whoever comes with them and does not abandon anything of them out of taking them for light and establishes their right, he shall have a covenant in the Sight of Allah and He will enter him into the Paradise’.

وَمنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ بِهِنَّ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَهْدٌ إِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ وَ إِنْ شَاءَ أَدْخَلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ).

And whoever did not come with them then he has no covenant in the Sight of Allah. If He wills, He punishes him and if He wills, He will enter him into the Paradise’.

رواه الإمام أحمد وأبو داود بإسناد صحيح.

“This is collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Abu Dawud with an authentic chain.

وروى أبو داود عن عبادة بن الصامت – رضي الله عنه – أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال:

“Imam Abu Dawud collected in his Sunan as narrated from `Ubadah ibn As-Samit, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

(خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ افْتَرَضَهُنَّ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَنْ أَحْسَنَ وُضُوءَهُنَّ وَصَلَّاهُنَّ لِوَقْتِهِنَّ وَأَتَمَّ رُكُوعَهُنَّ وَسُجُودَهُنَّ وَخُشُوعَهُنَّ كَانَ لَهُ عَلَى اللهِ عَهْدٌ

Five salawat have been made compulsory by Allah, Might and Majestic. Whoever perfected his wudu’, made the salah in their times, completed the bowing, prostrating, having fear of Allah while in them shall have a covenant in the Sight of Allah.

أَنْ يَغْفِرَ لَهُ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عَلَى اللهِ عَهْدٌ إِنْ شَاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُ وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَهُ).

‘Whoever did this shall be forgiven and whoever did not do that then he has no covenant in the Sight of Allah. If He wills, He will forgive Him and if He wills, He will punish him’.

وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (خَمْسُ صَلَوَاتٍ مَنْ حَافَظَ عَلَيْهِنَّ كَانَتْ لَهُ نُوراً وَبُرْهَاناً وَنَجَاةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

“The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Five salawat have been declared and mandated. Whoever preserved them shall have a light, proof and salvation on the Day of Resurrection’.

وَمَنْ لَمْ يُحَافِظْ عَلَيْهِنَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ نُورٌ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا بُرْهَاناً وَلَا نَجَاةً وَكَانَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مَعَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَقَارُونَ وَهَامَانَ وَأُبَيِّ بْنِ خَلَفٍ).

‘Whoever did not preserve them shall have no light, proof or salvation on the Day of Resurrection. On the Day of Resurrection, this one will be with the Pharaoh, Qarun, Haman and Ubayy ibn Khalaf’.”

رواه ابن نصر في كتاب الصلاة عن أبي عمرو – رضي الله عنهما -.

“This was collected by Ibn Nasr in the Book of Salah from Abu `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him.

وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: (إِذَا صَلَّتِ الْمَرْأَةُ خَمْسَهَا وَصَامَتْ شَهْرَهَا وَحَفِظَتْ فَرْجَهَا وَأَطَاعَتْ زَوْجَهَا دَخَلَتِ الْجَنَّةَ) رواه الْإمَام أحمد والطبراني الله أعلم.

“The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘When the woman has prayed her five salah, carried out her sawm in her month, preserved her chastity and obeyed her husband, she will enter the Paradise’. This is collected by Imams Ahmad and At-Tabarani. And Allah knows best.[4]

When we understand this, we understand the severity of the matter of the Salah. Even more sever is abandoning it.

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, stated the following,

Between a man and shirk and kufr is abandoning the salah.[5]

He, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also proclaimed,

There is nothing between the slave and shirk except abandoning the salah. And when he abandons it, he has done shirk.[6]

When discussing who is the Muslim and who is not, the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, revealed,

Whoever makes our salah, faces our Qiblah and eats the meat that we have slaughtered, then that is a Muslim who has the covenant and protection of Allah and His Messenger.[7]

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, told us about prayer when he said,

Between kufr and iman is abandoning the salah.[8]

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also warned us,

Between a slave and kufr is abandoning salah. So whoever abandons the salah, then he has disbelieved.[9]

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, has said the following,

Whoever preserves it (the salah) will have a nur (light) a burhan (manifest proof) and najah (salvation) on the Day of Resurrection. And whoever does not preserve it will not have light, manifest proof or salvation.[10]

This means that those have abandoned the prayer have no salvation. If they have no salvation, they are lost for all eternity.

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, has also said,

I have been forbidden from fighting/killing the people who make salah.[11]

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, said the following,

Whoever preserves it (the salah) will have a nur (light) a burhan (manifest proof) and najah (salvation) on the Day of Resurrection. And whoever does not preserve it will not have light, manifest proof or salvation on the Day of Resurrection. And he will come with Qarun, Pharaoh, Haman and Ubayy ibn Khalaf.[12]

It should be mentioned that all of the people in the hadith are kuffar and rejecters of faith when they knew the truth, especially the Pharaoh. If someone abandons the salah will be resurrected with them, what does this mean about the person?

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, stated,

The first of what will be lost of your faith will be the trust (Amanah) and the last of it will be the Salah.[13]

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal had the following said of him:

The Imam did not consider anyone from the common Muslims for any sin committed, large or small, to be an unbeliever except in the case of someone who abandoned the Salah. So whoever abandoned the Salah, then he has become an unbeliever and it is permitted for such a one to be executed. And this is the ruling of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.[14]

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (d. 620) pronounced the following ruling:

Whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the salah due to ignorance, then he is taught so that he is made aware of the matter. If he should deny the compulsory nature of the salah after that out of stubbornness, then he has become an unbeliever.

It is not permissible to delay the salah from the time that it is compulsory except in the case of a reasonable excuse that would allow two salah to be combined or a matter where it would be valid to delay it according to its conditions. If someone left the salah out of laziness or considering it light, then he is called to repent for three days. If he repents, the matter is resolved; but if he does not, then he is killed as an apostate.[15]

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi (d. 624), said the following:

So whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the Salah due to ignorance is taught to know that it is compulsory. If he should then deny it out of stubbornness, then he has become an unbeliever. It is not permitted to delay the salah from its compulsory time except in the case where one may combine then or some reasonable excuse with conditions that has led to the delay. If he should leave the salah out of laziness, then he is told to repent for three days. If he repents then the matter is resolved; but if he does not, then he is killed with the sword as an apostate.

There is a difference of opinion regarding the one who must be killed in this circumstance. Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la has said, “There are two narrations regarding this matter. The first narration is that he is killed when he has left one salah and the time has come close for the next salah begin as when he abandoned the first salah one would have to wait for the second one to come to know that he had abandoned it for sure. So once the time for the first salah has left, we know that he has abandoned the first salah.

It is however not compulsory to kill him while the time has freshly left but rather he should wait until the time for the second salah is running out. In the second narration, it is not necessary to kill him until he has left three salahs and the time becomes late for the fourth prayer so that he has already left one salah for sure and two based on some doubt. When we have seen this and he has left four salahs, then we know that he has definitely left it. It is necessary to kill him due to the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Whoever left the salah with purposeful intent, then he has no covenant for him.’ This is the proof that it is permissible to kill such a person. He has also said, ‘I have been forbidden from killing the people who make salah.’ The understanding here is therefore that the one that does not make salah can be killed. He also said, ‘Between the slave and kufr is leaving the salah.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim.

So the kufr makes it permissible to kill that individual along with the further text, ‘It is not permissible to spill the blood of a Muslim except in one of three cases: 1) kufr after faith, 2) adultery in marriage and 3) killing a soul without a right attached to it.’ This is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim in their collections according to their understanding.” [16]

Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi (d. 968), may Allah have mercy upon him, made the following remarks about the prayer and leaving it:

Whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the prayer has become an unbeliever and the same holds true for the one who has abandoned it out of laziness. The Grand Imam or his representative calls him to the salah and insists on the matter and when the time for the second salah becomes close and the time is tightened he is warned of impending judgement of death.

He is not killed until he has been asked to repent for three days and if he has not repented by the time that has elapsed, he is killed.[17]

Imam Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti (d. 1051), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave his ruling:

Whoever should deny the compulsory nature of the salah has become an unbeliever when he is not ignorant of it being compulsory if he did deny it, he is denying Allah, His Messenger and the Consensus of the Ummah. If he should claim ignorance due to being new to Islam, he is taught that it is compulsory and made to be acquainted with this knowledge and is not judged to have disbelieved as he was excused.

If he insisted on denying the salah after being taught he has indeed rejected faith. Likewise, whoever left the salah out of consideration that it was a light matter or due to laziness and not denying it being compulsory, then he is called to the salah and the one in charge of this act is the Grand Imam or his representative. He is called to perform the salah and he waits for the second time to come due to the hadith, “The first thing to be abandoned and lost of your Religion is the Amanah (Trust) and the last thing will be the Salah.”

Imam Ahmad said, “Anything that diminishes until its last has gone has nothing to remain of it so this is the case of the one who left the Salah”. So if he was not called to perform it, then he is not judged to have disbelieved due to the fact that the leaving of the salah was excused due to ignorance like in the case of the one who thought that it had been lifted from him due to some issue.

He is not killed until he is asked to repent for three days. Thus in the case of the one who denied it being compulsory or when he left it out of laziness, if they repent the matter is resolved. If not, then they are to be killed with the sword. Friday salah is like other salahs. The same holds true for someone leaving a pillar or condition of the salah. It is necessary that he be warned regarding leaving the salah so that he might take heed and then make salah. It is not necessary to give salam to the one that has left the salah or answer any invitation or good will gesture. This was mentioned by Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah as well. He becomes Muslim again by making a salah and he becomes a disbeliever by leaving the Salah and this is not the case for things like Zakah, Sawm and Hajj if he should abandon doing them out of laziness or stinginess.[18]

Imam `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi (d. 1133), may Allah have mercy upon him, when giving his ruling, made the following point:

Whoever abandoned the Salah out of denial of it, then he has apostated and is treated as such according to all the laws that govern it. This is as long as he belongs to the category of people who are not ignorant about the Salah, for example the one who is raised in Dar ul-Islam.[19]

Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti (d.1275), may Allah have mercy upon him, indeed concurred with these rulings.[20]

Imam `Abdul Ghani Al-Lubadi (d. 1319), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated for the record:

So whoever abandoned the Salah out of denial of it, then he has apostated. This means that if he left the salah out of laziness, then the Imam or his representative calls him to make the salah. If he did not make the Salah and the time passed and the second prayer came, then he has disbelieved. The laws of the apostates are then held over him and this means that he is also asked to repent for three days and he repents the matter is resolved; but if he does not repent, he is killed just as we will mention later.

Whoever apostated and then returned to Islam, then he must make qada’ of what he left in the time of his apostasy. This ruling holds for the Salah and Sawm and this is in agreement to a ruling from Imam Ash-Shafi`ii. There is another ruling where qada’ is not necessary and this is in agreement to the ruling of Imam Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas but there has also been narrated Consensus on this matter.[21]

This should be something clear in our minds when we think about this second pillar of Islam and the fact that this is the first thing mentioned after the Testimony of Faith. Our Holy, Righteous, Mighty Lord has told us we must carry out these obligations.

Throughout history, our Lord has laid down laws and things for us to make use of and make judgement to among men that He sees fit. When there are errors in the actions that we carry out, those actions are nullified as they do not meet with His Pleasure or will.

There are occasions where an action might be nullified in most instances but through the inclusion of another act or matter that acts as an apology or act of contrition, He then accepts that deed, compensates us and declares it fitting and righteous in His Sight.

Consider the case of the Sawm that we are obligated to carry out every Ramadan.

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ٱلَّذِيۤ أُنْزِلَ فِيهِ ٱلْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَٱلْفُرْقَانِ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ ٱلشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُمُ ٱلْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ ٱلْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ ٱلْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ 

The month of Ramadan is the time in which the Qur’an was sent down – a guidance to mankind and clear evidences of the Guidance and the Criterion – so whoever should witness this month, then let him fast it. And whoever is ill or on a distant journey, then let him make up the number of days at another time. Allah desires for you ease and does not desire for you hardship and He desires that you complete the number, magnify Allah according to how He guided you so that you might be grateful.[22]

So Holy is Our Lord, that if someone were to breach this time and knowingly eat in the time of day that one is to be fasting or commit any acts He has stipulated impermissible, a penalty has to be given to resolve it.

Reflect on this statement from Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi in order to appreciate the affair:

“The evidence for all of this is what has been narrated by Az-Zuhri from Humaid ibn `Abdur-Rahman from Abu Hurairah, who said, ‘We were sitting one day in the presence of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when a man came and said: I have been destroyed. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, answered: What did you do? The man said: I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was making sawm in Ramadan. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said: Are you able to find one slave that you can free? The man remarked: No.

He was then asked: Are you able to fast two months consecutively to expiate this matter? He said: No. He was then asked: Are you able to feed sixty poor and needy people? He said: No. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, waited with us at the place for a long time and sat quietly. Then someone came with a basket of dates. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then said: Where is the man that came questioning just a moment ago? The man said: I am here. The man was told: Take this bundle of dates and give this in charity. The man said: There is no one poorer than me that deserves charity. By Allah, there is no family poorer than mine, Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, smiled until his canine teeth could be seen. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then said: Take this and feed your family. This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them to be authentic.”[23]

Just reflect on this point. This month is so ennobled in the Sight of our Lord that to knowingly break fast through sexual intercourse would require something known as a kaffarah, which is laid out in the above statement.

Even if one has a valid excuse for not making sawm, such as old age or death, our Holy God has still set down rules that He has declared must be implemented to satisfy His Holiness. Consider this point mentioned.

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, declared,

“Thus the one in this situation has to have the sawm compensated, as is related by Ibn Majah from a chain with Ibn `Umar who mentioned that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘Whoever died while there was a sawm due to him from the month of Ramadan, then the one left behind needs to feed a poor man in place of every day that he missed.’ This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi who said, ‘This hadith is authentic but documented and not rigorous.’ It was also narrated from `A’ishah, that she said, ‘So every day would be made up by feeding a poor man for every day the deceased missed and there would be no sawm done for him.’ This is narrated by Al-Baihaqi.

There is also the statement of Ibn `Abbas that he was asked regarding the man who died and had an oath to make sawm that he had made as well as days from Ramadan. The reply from Ibn `Abbas was, ‘As for Ramadan, let him feed one regarding every day missed. As for the oath that he made, then let someone make sawm in that regard.’ This was collected by Imam Abu Bakr Al-Athram in As-Sunan. And if he left making up the sawm until he died for some valid excuse, then there is no sin upon him. The reason for this is that the Right of Allah, the Exalted is necessary by the Revealed Law. Then the one who died before he could carry out the command is excused, and the matter falls to those who survive him just like in the case for Hajj.”[24]

So this is known as the fidyah and has to be paid for even the one that had died. The same ruling also holds for the one who is too ill, infirm or too old to fast. By carrying out this principle, this satisfies the holiness and sanctity of our Lord and He deems it acceptable.

So weighty is this, that even women on their monthly cycle make up fasts missed.

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, remarked on the following,

“Both the woman that begins menstruating and the woman with post-natal bleeding nullify their sawm when this condition begins. This ruling is Consensus. If a woman with either one of these conditions does make sawm in the month of Ramadan, it will not be valid and this ruling is also Consensus. This was established in the hadith of `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, ‘We were commanded to make up the sawm that we missed and not make up the salahs missed.’ This is collected by Imam Al-Bukhari. The making up in the hadith was due to the monthly cycle and the post-natal bleeding is like it in ruling.”[25]

This matter is so important that this is why the emphasis was put upon it for a kaffarah, fidyah or qada’ to compensate and meet the requirements of our Holy Lord.

The senior teacher, Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, gave the ruling,

“Breaking fast for the ill man or the traveller is more virtuous and both of them have to make up the fasts that they broke. This is due to what Allah, Glorified be He, said,

If you are ill or on a journey. [Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 43.]

There is also the statement of the Exalted One,

So whoever among you is ill or on a journey, then he will make up the fasts on other days. [Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 182.]

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also said, ‘It is not righteousness to fast for the one that is travelling.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, came out on the day of the Conquest of Makkah which was in the month of Ramadan. He found that there were some people who were fasting and he said, ‘These are the disobedient ones.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim. If the ill or traveller does fast, it will be valid.”[26]

Now let’s look at the case of the Zakat ul-Fitr. This is to act as a purification of our wealth and fasting and our Lord sees this as pleasing to Him when it is carried out.

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following,

“This is compulsory on every Muslim who finds what is in excess of his nourishment and that of his family and dependants on the day of `Eid which begins at sunset in the night-time. He subtracts one sa` from this wealth for distribution and this is based upon what was narrated by Ibn `Umar, who said, ‘The Prophet declared as compulsory Zakat ul-Fitr from the month of Ramadan on the male, female, the free and slave from the Muslims in the form of one sa` of dates, barley for the people and half a sa` of wheat to be given for every young child and old man or woman. He commanded that this amount should be given before the people set out for the `Eid prayer.’ This is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim. The amount of Zakat ul-Fitr is one sa` of wheat, barley – whether it be the grains or oatmeal derived from them – as well as dates, raisins, as this was narrated by Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, who stated, ‘We used to give out zakah in the time of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in the form of one sa` of food, which would be a sa` of dates, wheat, barley, cottage cheese or yoghurt or raisins. Then when Mu`awiyah came and the others came he said: Indeed one double handful of these things equals two double handfuls.’

“Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri further said, ‘The form of Zakah given out was always the same just as in the times that we had given it beforehand.’  This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them as authentic.

If the individual did not find the items listed to give as Zakat ul-Fitr, then he takes out of this wealth anything that he can get as a sa`. This is whether or not it is seeds, the meat of fish or cattle. This particular statement is that of Imam Ibn Hamid as this is built upon approximations of what people use as nourishment. Abu Bakr `Abdul `Aziz mentions that the individual should set aside as Zakat ul-Fitr any nourishing grains and the like that would stand in place of foods mentioned in the aforementioned explicit texts.

“So one would give things such as seeds or fruits with things like corn, millet, rice and things such as this as these items are fitting substitutes for those explicitly mentioned matters. The one required to give Zakat ul-Fitr sets aside what is necessary not only for himself but any who are dependants under him asnd this is done on the night of `Eid when he possesses and takes hold of what is to be discharged as Zakat ul-Fitr. This is due to the fact that the Fitr follows on from the maintenance and this is the extra left over of his maintenance and the maintenance of his dependants on the day of `Eid and its’ night. He therefore takes out the zakah for himself and his dependents. This is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Discharge the Zakah for those under your care.’ This is collected by Imam Ad-Daraqutni. He gives the distribution of the zakah precedence over the maintenance as it is specifically stated by the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Take out the amount for the Zakah, starting with yourself.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim. There is another narration in which he also said, ‘Begin with those who are under your care.’ This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi.

“A condition for Zakat ul-Fitr becoming compulsory is the time entering in for that compulsory act. The compulsory time is sunset on the night of `Eid ul-Fitr. This is based upon the statement of Ibn `Umar, ‘The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, declared Zakat ul-Fitr compulsory from the end of the month of Ramadan.’ This is coming after the sunset. Whoever became Muslim, or got married or had a child born to him or owned a servant or slave or war captive after the sunset or they died before the sunset, then there is no Zakat ul-Fitr due. If the sun set and they were with him for the duration of time, then they died, then he must give the Zakat ul-Fitr for them as the necessary time and matter was met and these things are not nullified by death just like the expiation for disavowing one’s wife.”[27]

We also have the case of the Hajj and the `Umrah. This is to be carried out once in the lifetime of a Muslim according to what Allah has revealed.

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, remarked that the evidence for this point is coming from,

“The statement of the Glorified and Exalted One, Allah has required upon the people the Hajj to the House according to the one who is able to find the way. Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 97. Therefore ability has been required in order for something compulsory to come into effect. This is evidence that whoever does not have the ability has the compulsory nature of something lifted from him.”[28]

If there are certain affairs that are missed, they likewise have to be resolved through fidyah or kaffarah or the action will not be accepted by our Lord.

Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following about fidyah,

“So in discussing the fidyah, it is according to what is necessary and deserves to be taken and one chooses the fidyah for something such as shaving or removing more than two hairs, cutting or trimming more than two nails, the man covering his head, wearing sewn clothes. When one commits a violation such as this, one must choose between either fasting three days, feeding six poor people – and for every poor person is one double handful of wheat or a half of a sa` of dates or barley – or slaughtering one sheep. All this is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when he said to Ka`b ibn `Ajarah, ‘Do you have a scalp ailment?’ He said, ‘Yes, Messenger of Allah.’ He said to him, ‘Shave your head and then fast either three days, or feed six poor people or sacrifice one sheep.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them as authentic.”[29]

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, explicitly stated,

“Contracting and consecrating a marriage is impermissible due to the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘The one in ihram is not to contract or consecrate a marriage, nor should he be married and nor should he be engaged.’ This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon as authentic from the narration from `Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him. This is a clear prohibition and the word of prohibition used in this ayah refers to impermissibility. If someone in a state of ihram should marry someone or be married, then there as no fidyah upon him as it is a covenant that has been nullified due to his ihram. So based upon this principle, the fidyah is not compulsory for him, just like in the case of someone purchasing wild game for killing and eating.”[30]

Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following,

“So having direct sexual intercourse is forbidden. If the individual in ihram had sexual intercourse before the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, which is the time of slaughter, then his Hajj is nullified and he must do a make up the following year. As for the spoiling of his Hajj due to sexual intercourse, there is no difference of opinion about this matter at all.

Ibn Al-Mundhir said, ‘The People of Knowledge have made Consensus on that the Hajj is not nullified or spoiled by doing anything in the state of ihram except sexual intercourse.’ The foundational principle in that is according to what has been narrated from Ibn `Umar that a man asked him, saying, ‘I came to my wife while we were both in a state of ihram. What should we do?’ He said, ‘You have nullified your Hajj. You and your wife should go with the people and complete what they complete, finish and take off the ihram when they do so. When the next year comes, you need to go, you and your wife and make hajj again and give a gift. If the two of you do not find a gift, then you both need to fast for three days on the Hajj and seven when you have returned to your homeland.’

This is also what has been mentioned by Ibn `Abbas and `Abdullah ibn `Amr and we know of no different of opinion in their time. The hadith of these Companions has been narrated by Abu Bakr Al-Athram in his Sunan and something additional was mentioned in the hadith of Ibn `Abbas, ‘They should part ways from where they made ihram from and not come together until they repeat their Hajj so as not to fall into that again.’ Ibn Al-Mundhir mentioned, ‘The statements of Ibn `Abbas is the highest thing in authenticity that has been narrated on the topic of sexual intercourse on the Hajj.’ There is also another narration about this from `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him.”[31]

Then we have this time now in which some people neglect – with purposeful intent – the five-time salah that are to be prayed every day by every adult Muslim under the ruling. Then upon this realisation, some have turned back to repent and then realised that they had a vast number of salah to make up.

They have said, “This is such a big number. Isn’t there some easier way to resolve this matter?”

This question seems easy enough, but it is sometimes used in the sense of dereliction of duty. In most instances previously, they were rightly told that they must make up these missed salawat and not cut corners.

But as of recent, there have been a spate of well-wishers telling Muslims not to make them up, that they can’t and that instead they should “just give sadaqah instead” or “give a good word” and move forward.

Strangely enough, these people are not pulling from some Consensus or laid down principles that have been established from time immemorial. They are pulling from a rare ruling from none other than Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (661-728).

This is very strange as in this current age, the takfir bop-gun is being released against him and his entire name is being serenaded with sobriquets such as mujassim, mushabbih, murtad, zindiq and so forth. Yet, this same Imam’s rare opinion, universally condemned in its time, is being used as an escape clause for low IQ figures to tell common Slaves of Allah to ignore what a Holy Lord has declared.

The point of the long introduction above was to establish that we serve a Holy and Righteous God and that only the things that He has stipulated and found pleasing to Him may be presented to Him as worship.

When Sawm, Hajj, `Umrah, Zakah or other affairs are breached, the only way to keep this act from being nullified in the Sight of a Holy and Righteous God is that a kaffarah, fidyah or some other compensatory affair is brought forth.

Yet those who are using a five-page fatwa from the aforesaid Imam (and we know they took it from him as a simple perusal through history will establish that none previous to 728 had this kind of ruling attached) do so in order to somehow “make things easy” on the Ummah (meaning Muslims in Dar ul-Kufr. Why is this “making it easy” always referenced to the whole Ummah but only parenthetically referring to one portion (?!) or “keep in mind the current milieu” and other sycophantic things designed to lower the status and rank of the Salah.

Understand this very well. When a salah is missed, it has to be made up.

من نام عن صلاة أو نسيها، فليصلها إذا ذكرها‏.‏ لا كفارة لها إلا ذلك‏”

“Whoever slept through a salah or forgot it, then let him pray it when he remembered it. There is no expiation due to him for it except that”.[32]

Subhanallah! Look at this affair. There is no expiation (Ar. kaffarah) or the like to compensate this. The matter is so severe, only the make-up (qada’) of the salah will satisfy the Holiness of our Lord. And there is nothing else.

One cannot give Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, an expiation or something that He has not called for or declared that He would accept when He either declared Himself or told His Prophet or Consensus has been established that this is not the case.

And yet there are those latching onto the fatwa of Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah as if it is a panacea for satisfying Allah’s Holy Command when it is no such thing. In fact, Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah’s ruling, although not abided by, goes one step further in affirming the Holiness of our Lord.

The reason why Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah declared that the salah does not have to be made up is not because it does not have to but because it can’t. Once the time to glorify Allah in the compulsory salah has passed, one cannot reclaim it in qada’ or make up. This the time has passed.

As for the reason why someone who prayed sometimes and not others or for a period of time is exempt from qada’ of those salawat is because the individual (a) missed the time and (b) the said individual is a kafir, specifically a murtad.

The revilers of the Revealed Law and secret stans of Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah didn’t include that part of his ruling. They merely ignored it and presented the first part of it and not the underlying principles from the Usul of the Imam in question on the matter.

It is therefore my thought that the best thing to do would be to publish the ENTIRE fatwa in the next few days to show in reality what is at stake, so people understand the ramifications of the ruling.

So you follow Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah in his ruling about the abandoned salah. Wonderful. You were an apostate (Ar. murtadd) which impacts on the validity of your marriage, children, inheritance and a host of other things. You thought you’d find a way out of honouring the Righteous Command of your God but instead ran into an even more severe ruling on the topic.

Have it your way. This ruling will be published with all of its sourcing and texts so that the people might see it and not any longer be lied to about the true nature of abandonment of the salah in the life of a believer.[33] 

So very well then. You super scholars and throne polishers don’t like Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah. But just remember this the next time you bend your back to kiss the gnarled hand of the fake preacher you are genuflecting to or collecting toe-nail shavings for barakah to rub on your face (or turning a blind eye to the opposite/same sex orgies that he is carrying out, sometimes in the class (!) and remember it well:

If it wasn’t for Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah’s rulings on sadaqah for the salah, three talaqs in one sitting equalling one and much more, most of you mouth breathers wouldn’t have a thing to talk about in your fake institutions.  

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali


[1] Surat ul-Hashr (59), ayah 23

[2] Collected by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, vol.6, pp. 20-21

[3] Hidayah, pp.207-209

[4] Hidayah, pp.179-181

[5] Collected by Imams Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and as-Suyuti, hadith #2848 and classed as sahih.

[6] Collected by Imams Ibn Majah, as-Suyuti, hadith #5388 and classified as sahih.

[7] Collected by Imams al-Bukhari, an-Nasa’ii, as-Suyuti, hadith #6350, an-Nabahani, hadith #2146 and classed as sahih.

[8] Collected by Imams at-Tirmidhi and as-Suyuti, hadith #2849 and classed by them as sahih.

[9] Collected by Abu `Awanah in his Musnad, vol. 1, pp. 19-20 and classed as sahih.

[10] Collected in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad, vol. 2, pp. 168-169 and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, hadith #1465

[11] Collected by Imams at-Tabarani and as-Suyuti, hadith #6785

[12] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, vol. 2, pp. 228-229 and Ibn Hibban, hadith #253 and classed by both of them as sahih.

[13] Collected by Imams at-Tabarani, al-Hakim, as-Suyuti, hadith #’s 2570 and 2575 and classed as hasan.

[14] Al-I`tiqad, pp.22-23

[15] Al-`Umdah fil-Fiqh, pp. 18-19

[16] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 70-71

[17] Zad ul-Mustaqni`  fikh-tishar il-Muqni`, pp. 37-38

[18] Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp. 60-61

[19] Nail ul-Maarib bi-Sharhi Dalil it-Talib Li-Nail il-Matalib, pp. 55-57

[20] Matalib Uwl in-Nuha fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol. 1, pp. 272-283

[21] Hashiyat ul-Lubadi `ala Nail il-Maarib, pp.56-57

[22] Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 185

[23] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 200-201.

[24] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 201-200.

[25] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 199-200.

[26] Please see Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 199-200

[27] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 184-186.

[28] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 216-217.

[29] Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp. 214-215

[30] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 235-236.

[31] Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 237-238.

[32] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, Section 3: Al-`Ibadat, vol.1, pp.488-491

[33] A truly curious thing is that none of the Muslims that I have dealt with in Dar ul-Islam or the entire family of the writer have ever abided by this understanding or called to it as they seem to have a better understanding of the Holiness of Allah than the “educated”, “civil”, “urbane” “wise” and “respectable” self-congratulators in Dar ul-Kufr who steadfastly speak with two tongues on Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah. Perhaps the reader can ask himself why this may be the case.  

RECITING YASIN AT THE ONE NEAR DEATH OR DECEASED

[ مسائل معتمدة في مَذْهَبُ الحَنَابِلَةِ اعتقد البَعضُ أنَّها مِنْ البِدَعِ أو محرمة ]

Depended upon things in the Madhhab that are thought by others to be innovations or impermissible

مُعْتَمَدُ مَذْهَبِ الحَنَابِلَةِ استحباب قراءة سورة ( يس ) عند المحتضر

The depended upon ruling in the madhhab of the Hanbalis is that it is praiseworthy to recite Surah Yasin in the presence of the one near death.

مما انتشر على أنه مذهب الإمام أحمد والحنابلة رضي الله عنهم ، القول ببدعية قراءة سورة ( يس )  .

It has come to be widely believed that the madhhab of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the Hanbalis, may Allah be pleased with all of them, is the statement that it is impermissible or an innovation to recite Yasin in the presence of the one near death or at the gravesite.

والمعتمد عن أحمد رضي الله عنه ، وعلماء المذهب الاستحباب .

The depended upon ruling from Imam Ahmad, may Allah be pleased with him, and the scholars of the madhhab is that it is praiseworthy.

وسنقدم قول الإمام قبل أقوال العلماء تفنيدًا لشبهة من قال بأن المتأخرين يخالفون الإمام أحمد رحم الله الجميع .

So we will put forward the statement of the Imam before the statements of scholars in in to lift the doubt from the statement that the latter day scholars opposed and contradicted the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

قول إمام المذهب :

The statement of the Imam of the Madhhab is next.

قال الموفق  رحمه الله في المغني ( 2 / 161 ) كتاب الجنائز :

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620), may Allah have mercy upon him, in Al-Mughni, vol.2, p.161 in the Book of Al-Jana’iz stated:

قال أحمد : ويقرءون عند الميت إذا حضر ، ليخفف عنه بالقراءة ، يقرأ { يس } ، وأمر بقراءة فاتحة الكتاب . وروى سعيد ، حدثنا فرج بن فضالة ، عن أسد بن وداعة ، قال : لما حضر غضيف بن حارث الموت ، حضره إخوانه ، فقال : هل فيكم من يقرأ سورة ( يس ) ؟ قال رجل من القوم : نعم . قال : اقرأ ، ورتل ، وأنصتوا . فقرأ ، ورتل . وأسمع القوم ، فلما بلغ { : فسبحان الذي بيده ملكوت كل شيء وإليه ترجعون } . خرجت نفسه . قال أسد بن وداعة : فمن حضر منكم الميت ، فشدد عليه الموت ، فليقرأ عنده سورة ( يس ) ، فإنه يخفف عنه الموت .

“Imam Ahmad said, ‘They recite in the presence of the deceased when the body is present and it lightens difficulties from him by reciting Yasin’. And he would also command them to recite Surat ul-Fatihah. It is narrated by Sa`id: It was narrated to us by Faraj ibn Fudalah from Asad ibn Wada`ah who narrated: When the Ghudaif ibn Harith was near death, his brothers attended him and he said to them, ‘Is there someone among you who will recite Yasin?’ One of the people said, ‘Yes’. He said to them, ‘Then recite and do so correctly and remain silent’. So the man recited and did so correctly and slowly. And the people sat and listened. When he reached the portion: Glorified is the One who has in His Hand the dominion of everything and they shall all return to Him. [Surah Yasin (36), ayah 83] Then Ghudaif died. Asad ibn Wada`ah then said, ‘Whoever among you attends to the deceased and the death is hard upon him, let him recite Yasin as it will ease death for him’.  

واختار التقي بن تيمية رحمه الله الاستحباب :ففي  الاختيارات  (ص 91) : والقراءة على الميت بعد موته بدعة ، بخلاف القراءة على المحتضر ، فإنها تستحب بياسين “.

The chosen position of Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah be pleased with him, is that it is praiseworthy to recite Yasin as is discussed in Al-Ikhtiyarat, p.91: “So the qira’ah upon the deceased after death is innovation which is the opposite ruling of making qira’ah upon the one near death. Indeed the only thing praiseworthy is Yasin”.

قال المرداوي رحمه الله في الانصاف( 2 / 466):قوله ( ويقرأ عنده سورة يس ) ، قاله الأصحاب ، وكذا يقرأ عنده سورة الفاتحة ونص عليهما واقتصر الأكثر على ذلك ، وقيل : يقرأ أيضا سورة تبارك . وجزم به في المستوعب .

Imam `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d.885), may Allah have mercy upon him, states in Al-Insaf, vol.2, p.466: “So he recites Yasin in the presence of the one near death as was said by the companions of the School. And likewise he recites Al-Fatihah (1) in his presence. Both of these have been mentioned by the Imam and most of the companions of the School limit the matter to this. It has also been said that he recites Surat ul-Mulk (67) as well and this is specifically mentioned in Al-Mustaw`ib”.

قال دقائق أولي النهى لشرح المنتهى المعروف بشرح منتهى الإرادات ( 1 / 341) :يسن ( قراءة الفاتحة و ) قراءة ( يس عنده ) أي المحتضر لحديث ” { اقرءوا على موتاكم يس } ” رواه أبو داود وصححه ابن حبان ولأنه يسهل خروج الروح .

There is also the statement of Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d.1051) in Daqa’iq Uwl in-Nuha Li-Sharh il-Muntaha, also known as Sharh Muntaha Al-Iradat, vol.1, p.341: “It is the sunnah to recited Al-Fatihah (1) and Yasin (2) in the presence of the dying one based upon the hadith, ‘So recite Yasin to your deceased’ as collected by Imams Abu Dawud and declared sahih by Ibn Hibban. And this hadith is thought to refer to the one near death and beneficial as it eases the exit of the soul from the body”.

وكتب فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

١٩ ذو القعدة ١٤٣٨ هـ

And this was written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

19 Dhul Qa`dah 1438

RECITING QUR’AN AT THE GRAVE OF THE DECEASED

[مسائل معتمدة في مَذْهَبُ الحَنَابِلَةِ اعتقد البَعضُ أنَّها مِنْ البِدَعِ أو محرمة ] 

Depended upon things in the Madhhab that are thought by others to be innovations or impermissible

(مُعْتَمَدُ مَذْهَبِ الحَنَابِلَةِ في حكم قراءة القرآن على القبر )

The Depended upon Ruling in the Madhhab regarding recitation of Qur’an at the gravesite

مما انتشر على أنه مذهب الإمام أحمد والحنابلة رضي الله عنهم ، القول بتحريم قراءة القرآن وبدعيتها على القبر ، وهو غلط على المذهب .

والصحيح المعتمد هو :  هو استحباب قراءة القرآن على القبر ، واليك الأقوال.

It has come to be widely believed that the madhhab of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the Hanbalis, may Allah be pleased with all of them, is the statement that it is impermissible to recite the Qur’an at the gravesite and that it is impermissible and this is an error being attributed to the Madhhab. The authentic and depended upon position is that it is praiseworthy to recite the Qur’an at the gravesite and here are some statements on the matter.

قول الإمام أحمد رضي الله عنه :قال عبد اللَّه: سمعت أبي سُئِلَ عن رجل يقرأ عند القبر على الميت.قال: أرجو أن لا يكون به بأس.

“مسائل عبد اللَّه” (543).

We have the statement of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated from `Abdullah ibn Ahmad who said, “I heard once that my father was asked about a man who recited Qur’an at the gravesite upon the deceased and he responded, ‘I hope that there is no harm in that’.” Masa’il `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal, p.543

قال سلمة بن شبيب: أتيت أحمد بن حنبل فقلت له: إني رأيت عفان يقرأ عند قبر في المصحف فقال لي أحمد بن حنبل: ختم له بخير.

“القراءة عند القبور” للخلال ص 84 .

Salamah ibn Shabib remarked, “I came to Ahmad ibn Hanbal and said to him, ‘I saw `Affan reciting at the gravesite from the Mushaf’. Ahmad ibn Hanbal said to me, ‘Let a khatam for him be done in goodness’.” Taken from Qira`ah at the gravesites by Abu Bakr Al-Khallal, p.84

قال الحسن بن الهيثم البزاز: رأيت أحمد بن حنبل خلف رجل ضرير يقرأ على القبور.القراءة عند القبور” للخلال ص 84  .

Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haitham said, “I saw Ahmad ibn Hanbal behind a blind man reciting at the gravesite”. Taken from Qira’ah at the gravesites by Abu Bakr Al-Khallal, p.84

قال المرداوي رحمه الله : قوله (ولا تكره القراءة على القبر في أصح الروايتين) ، وهذا المذهب ” (2/ 557).

Imam `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d.885), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked, “It is not disliked to recite Qur’an at the gravesite according to the most authentic of the two narrations on the topic. And this is the madhhab”. Al-Insaf, vol.2, p.557

قال الحجاوي رحمه الله :ولا تكره القراءة على القبر وفي المقبرة بل يستحب وكل قربة فعلها المسلم وجعل ثوابها أو بعضها كالنصف ونحوه لمسلم حي أو ميت جاز ونفعه لحصول الثواب له ” ( 1 / 236).

Imam Musa ibn Ahmad Al-Hajjawi (d.968) said of the matter, “So it is not disliked to recite at the gravesite or in the graveyard. On the contrary, it is praiseworthy and any deed done by a Muslim to gain nearness to Allah and its reward – some of it, half or it or the like – is attributed to a living or deceased Muslim is permitted and the benefit and reward reaches that one”. Al-Iqna`, vol.1, p.236

هذا هو المذهب ، الذي رجع اليه الإمام واعتمده .

So this is the depended upon position of the Muslim in which the Imam returned to and depended upon.

قال شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية رحمه الله :

We then have the statement of Shaikh ul-Islam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him,

وقد تنازع الناس في القراءة على القبر، فكرهها أبو حنيفة ومالك، وأحمد في أكثر الروايات عنه، ورخص فيها في الرواية المتأخرة، لما بلغه أن عبد الله بن عمر أوصى أن يقرأ عند دفنه بفواتح البقرة، وخواتمها”الفتاوى الكبرى (3 / 34).

The people have disputed about the recitation upon the grave and this was disliked by Imam Abu Hanifah, Malik and Ahmad in most of the narrations given from him although he gave a dispensation for it in the latter narration as it reached him that `Abdullah ibn `Umar requested that someone recite at his grave the beginning and ending portions of Al-Baqarah. Taken from Al-Fatawa Al-Kubra, vol.3, p.34

والرواية الثانية : تكره وهي مرجوحة في المذهب وممن اختارها شيخ الإسلام رحمه الله .

The second narration in the School is that it is disliked and it was a preferred statement in the School and that which was chosen by Shaikh ul-Islam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him.

وكتب فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

26 / رجب / 1442

This was written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

26 Rajab 1442

FALSE NOTIONS HELD BY SOME MUSLIMS IN “THE WEST” WITH NO KNOWLEDGE

[مسائل معتمدة في مَذْهَبُ الحَنَابِلَةِ اعتقد البَعضُ أنَّها مِنْ البِدَعِ

Depended upon things in the Madhhab of the Hanbalis that are thought by others to be innovations

الجَّهرِ بالذِّكرِ بَعْدَ الصَّلاةِ عِندَ الحَنابِلةِ مستحب

Raising the voice in dhikr after the compulsory salah according to the Hanbalis is praiseworthy.

مما اشتهر أنه من مذهب الحنابلة الإسرار بالذكر بعد الصلاة وأن الجهر به بدعة .

It is popularly believed by some people that it is from the Hanbali Madhhab to keep the dhikr quiet after the compulsory salah and that doing so aloud is innovation.

بينما المعتمد في المذهب الجهر _ وهو المسنون _ بالذكر بعد الصلاة من للإمام والمأموم ، بحيث يسمع من في المسجد ومن هو خارج المسجد .

This is although the depended upon ruling in the madhhab is that raising the voice – which is masnun – in the dhikr after the compulsory salah is for both the imam and the follower to the degree that the one in the masjid and the one outside could hear it.

قال حنبل: سمعت أبا عبد اللَّه يقول: حدثنا علي بن ثابت: حدثنا واصل قال: رأيت علي بن عبد اللَّه بن عباس إذا صلى كبر ثلاث تكبيرات 

قلت لأحمد: بعد الصلاة؟ قال: هكذا.قلت له: حديث عمرو عن أبي معبد عن ابن عباس: كنا نعرف انقضاء صلاة رسول اللَّه -صلى اللَّه عليه وسلم- بالتكبير  ، هؤلاء أخذوه عن هذا؟ قال: نعم. “فتح الباري” لابن رجب 7/ 396

Hanbal ibn Ishaq said: “I heard Abu `Abdullah saying: It was narrated to us by `Ali ibn Thabit: It was narrated to us by Wasil who said: I saw `Ali ibn `Abdullah ibn `Abbas when he made salah and he would make takbirs. I said to Ahmad, ‘Was this after the salah?’ He said, ‘Yes, that is so’. So I cited to him the hadith of `Amr from Abu Ma`bad from Ibn `Abbas who said, ‘We would know that the salah of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, had ended by the takbir had ended’. I then said to the Imam, ‘Is this where they are taking the understanding from?’ Imam Ahmad remarked, ‘Yes, that’s where they took it from’. And this is cited from Imam Ibn Rajab in Al-Fath ul-Bari, vol.7, pp. 395-396

وقال القاضي أبو يعلى في (الجامع الكبير): ظاهر كلام أحمد: أنه يسن للإمام الجهر بالذكر والدعاء عقب الصلوات بحيث يسمع المأموم، ولا يزيد على ذلك.

Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la the Ender mention in Al-Jami` us-Sahih: “The dominant speech from Imam Ahmad is that it is the sunnah for the Imam to make the dhikr and du`aa aloud at the end of the compulsory salah whereas the follower might hear him but he should not increase and do more than that”.

وذكر عن أحمد نصوصاً تدل على أنه كان يجهر ببعض الذكر، ويسر الدعاء، وهذا هو الأظهر، وأنه لا يختص ذلك بالإمام. فإن حديث ابن عباس هذا ظاهره يدل على جهر المأمومين أيضًا.

It was also narrated from Imam Ahmad explicitly that he would make some of his dhikr aloud while concealing his du`a and this is the most dominant statement from him. And that is not restricted to just the Imam alone. Indeed the hadith of Ibn `Abbas indicates that the followers would make the dhikr aloud as well.

وذكر مثله الموفق في الكافي ( 1 / 260).

And this was also cited by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah in Al-Kafi, vol.1, p.260.

ونقل البهوتي في “كشاف القناع” (1/366) عن شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية استحباب الجهر : ”  قال الشيخ :أي ابن تيمية: ويستحب الجهر بالتسبيح والتحميد والتكبير عقب كل صلاة ” .

Imam Al-Buhuti narrated in Kash-shaf ul-Qina`, vol.1, p.366 from Shaikh ul-Islam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah that it is praiseworthy to make the dhikr aloud. He said, “The Shaikh – meaning Taqi ud-Din ibn Taymiyyah – said, ‘It is praiseworthy to make the dhikr aloud, including the statement of Glory be to Allah, Praise be to Allah and Allah is the Greatest at the end of every compulsory salah’.”

بهذا يتبين الفرق بين معتمد المذهب في هذه المسألة وأن ما اشتهر خلافه .

So this makes the clear difference between the depended upon ruling in the Madhhab in this issue and what is popularly thought which is in fact the opposite view.

وكتب

فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

This was written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

10 /رجب / 1442

10 Rajab 1442

THE CLEAR AND CONCISE WAY OF MUSLIM ORTHODOXY IN THEOLOGY


وقال الإمام شيخ الإسلام موفق الدين ابن قدامة في قاعدة التفويض:

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said just this on the topic:

والصحيح: أن المتشابه: ما ورد في صفات الله سبحانه مما يجب الإيمان به ويحرم التعرض لتأويله كقوله تعالى:

“The authentic position is that the allegorical ayat are what was narrated about the Attributes of Allah, Glorified be He, in what is compulsory to believe in and it is impermissible to seek its meaning. This includes examples where the Exalted One has said:

ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱسْتَوَىٰ)  (بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ( (لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلْعَالِينَ) (وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلْجَلاَلِ وَٱلإِكْرَامِ) (تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا) ونحوه.   

(The Most Merciful is above the Throne),[1] (But both of His Hands are outspread),[2] (to the one I created with My Two Hands),[3] (The Face of your Lord shall remain forevermore),[4] (They float under Our Gaze).[5]

فهذا اتفق السلف رحمهم الله على الإقرار به وإمراره على وجهه وترك تأويله.

“And this is what the First Three Generations – may Allah have mercy upon them – agreed in that they would affirm it, pass it by as it was and abandon seeking the meaning.

فإن الله سبحانه ذم المتبعين لتأويله وقرنهم في الذم بالذين يبتغون الفتنة وسماهم أهل زيغ.

“This was on account that Allah, Glorified be He, cast blame upon those who sought its meaning and joined between the blameworthiness of what they did with those who are seeking tribulation and he named them people of division and rancour.

وليس في طلب تأويل ما ذكروه من المجمل وغيره ما يذم به صاحبه بل يمدح عليه إذ هو طريق إلى معرفة الأحكام وتمييز الحلال من الحرام.

“And in seeking out the meaning of what they mentioned before of general ayat and others, there is no blame on someone doing that. In fact it is the opposite. When it comes to the decisive ayat, one is praised for seeking the meaning is this is a way to know the judgements set in the Revealed Law and distinguishing the permissible from the impermissible.

ولأن في الآية قرائن تدل على أن الله سبحانه منفرد بعلم تأويل المتشابه وأن الوقف الصحيح عند قوله تعالى:

“However in the allegorical, it is in this ayah indicators that establish that Allah only has knowledge of the meaning of the allegorical and that a complete stop should be exercised at the place where the Exalted One says:

(وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللهُ) لفظًا ومعنى.

And no one knows its meaning but Allah.[6] This means both the wording and the meaning.

أما اللفظ: فلأنه لو أراد عطف (وَالرَّاسِخُونَ) لقال: (وَيَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ) بالواو

“As for the wording, then if it was intended that those well grounded in knowledge [7]also knew the meaning, it would have mentioned and they say, ‘We believe in it’. [8]

وأما معنى: فلأنه ذم مبتغي التأويل ولو كان ذلك للراسخين معلومًا: لكان مبتغيه ممدوحًا لا مذمومًا.

“In terms of the meaning, this is on account of the fact that the one seeking the meaning is considered blameworthy. If the meaning of it had been known to those well grounded in knowledge, then seeking it would have been praiseworthy and not blameworthy.

ولأن قولهم: (آمَنَّا بِهِ) يدل على نوع تفويض وتسليم لشيء لم يقفوا على معناه.

“And also due to their statement (We have believed in it) proves this is a type of tafwid and submission to something that they did not know its meaning.

سيما إذا أتبعوا بقولهم (كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا) فذكرهم ربهم ههنا يعطي الثقة به، والتسليم لأمره وأنه صدره منه وجاء من عنده كما جاء من عنده المحكم.

“This is especially when the statement is followed up with their words (all of it is from our Lord). Thus their mentioning their Lord hear confirms trusting in Him, submission to him and that it came from Him, from His Presence just as the other decisive ayat had come.

ولأن لفظة (أَمَّا) لتفصيل الجمل فذكره لها في (الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ) مع وصفه إياهم بابتغاء المتشابه وابتغاء تأويله يدل على قسم آخر يخالفهم في هذه الصفة وهم (الراسخون) ولو كانوا يعلمون تأويله لم يخالفوا القسم الأول في ابتغاء التأويل.

“As for the statement (as far as) [9] this is to differentiate the sentences and He mentioned the matter regarding the others when he said (those who have a disease in their hearts) [10] with His Description of them in seeking the allegorical and seeking its meaning and that served as proof on another matter that He mentioned the well grounded in knowledge opposed those who had a sickness in their hearts. So if the well grounded in knowledge had known the meaning, they would not have been differentiated from the first group in their seeking the meaning.

وإذ قد ثبت أنه غير معلوم التأويل لأحد: فلا يجوز حمله على غير ما ذكرناه لأن ما ذكر من الوجوه لا يعلم تأويله كثير من الناس.

“Thus when it has been established that the meaning of it is not known to anyone, it is not permissible to bear the ayah on anything other than what we mentioned as it has not been mentioned that any narratives that many people do not know its meaning as has been said in some narratives.

فإن قيل: فكيف يخاطب الله الخلق بما لا يعقلونه أم كيف ينزل على رسوله ما لا يطّلع على تأويله؟

“If it should be said, “How could Allah speak to the creation in a way that they don’t understand? How could He send down on His Messenger something that one cannot ascertain the meaning?”

يجوز أن يكلفهم الإيمان بما لا يطّلعون على تأويله ليختبر طاعتهم كما قال تعالى: (وَلِنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ) (وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ) الآية، (وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِلنَّاسِ)

“It is possible that He would make them responsible for having iman in what they don’t know its meaning in order for them to be tested in their obedience. Like when he said, (So that He might test you as We know the mujahidin from those among you that are patient) [11] (We did not make the Qiblah which you were upon except so that We might know) [12] and also (We did not make the vision which We showed you except as a test to the people). [13]

وكما اختبرهم بالإيمان بالحروف المقطّعة مع أنه لا يعلم معناها والله أعلم.

“And just as He can test them in iman regarding the surahs that begin with the disconnected letters while the fact is that none knows their meaning. And Allah knows best”. [14]


[1] Surah TaHa (20), ayah 5

[2] Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 64

[3] Surah Sad (38), ayah 75

[4] Surat ur-Rahman (55), ayah 27

[5] Surat ul-Qamar (54), ayah 14

[6] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[7] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[8] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[9] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[10] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[11] Surah Muhammad (47), ayah 31

[12] Surah ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 143

[13] Surat ul-Isra’ (17), ayah 60

[14] Rawdat un-Nazir wa Junnat ul-Munazir, vol.1, pp. 213-217

SEEKING FORGIVENESS

سَيِّدُ الْإِسْتِغْفَارِ

عن شداد بن أوس عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سَيِّدُ الْإِسْتِغْفَارِ أَنْ تَقُولَ:

Shaddad ibn `Aws narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said, “The very best of istighfar is that you say:

اللّٰهُمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّي، لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ، خَلَقْتَنِيْ وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ، وَأَنَا عَلَى عَهْدِكَ وَوَعْدِكَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ، أَعُوْذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا صَنَعْتُ، 

Allah! You are my Lord! There is no god but You! You created me and I am Your Slave! I am upon Your Covenant, Your Promise as much as I can! I seek refuge in you from the evil of what I have perpetrated.

أَبُوءُ لَكَ بِنِعْمَتِكَ عَلَىَّ وَأَبُوءُ لَكَ بِذَنْبِيْ، فَاغْفِرْ لِيْ، فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوْبَ إِلَّاأَنْتَ

I admit Your Favour upon me and I admit to you the sin I have committed. Forgive me! Indeed there is none that can forgive sins but You!

قال: من قالها من النهار موقنًا بها فمات من يومه قبل أن يمسي فهو من أهل الجنة ومن قالها من الليل وهو موقن بها فمات قبل أن يصبح فهو من أهل الجنة

“Whoever said this in the day with certainty in it and then dies before evening shall be from the People of the Paradise. And whoever said it in the night with certainty in it and died before daybreak came shall be from the People of the Paradise”.[1]


[1] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari, vol.2, Section 3: Ibadat, pp. 504-505

HOW STUDENTS OF KNOWLEDGE AVOID TIME WASTERS

لقد دار بيني وبين بعض أدعياء السلفية منقطعي النسب، اتصال صوتي بعد أن رايتهم يتبجحون بطلب المناظرة مع بعض أصحابنا الحنابلة كالشيخ فارس الخزرجي وغيره حفظ الله الجميع

There has already been communication between myself and some of the claimants of “Salafiyyah” that ascribe themselves to this title after I saw that they were eagerly looking to debate with some of our colleagues from the Hanbalis – like Shaikh Faris Al-Khazraji and others, may Allah preserve them all.

وقد أحسن الشيخ فارس بعدم مناظرتهم، لأن هذا هو مذهب السلف -رضوان الله عليهم. وقد امتنعت من مناظرتهم موافقة للسلف في منعهم المناظرة والجدل وقد تواتر ذلك عن السلف باسانيد صحيحة، وقد نقل الاجماع على ذلك غير عالم من علماء المسلمين

It is just as well that Shaikh Faris did not respond to them as this is the way of the First Three Generations – may Allah be pleased with them, in which they were forbidden from debating with these people and this is in agreement with the First Three Generations, namely that they do not debate or dispute and this is popularly known from the First Three Generations with sound transmission. Consensus has been narrated on this topic by more than one of the scholars of the Muslims.

وقد تبينت عدة نقاط:أنهم عوام ليسوا طلاب علم، بل دجالون يحترفون القفز واللعب والضحك على الذقون.أنهم يكذبون صراحة وينقلون عن المخالف كلامًا لم يقله، إذا عجزوا عن إسقاطه أو تسجيل مخالفة للسلف عليه.

The following things are clear from this situation: (1) those seeking these debates are not students of any knowledge but in fact are dajjals, loving to jump around, play and laugh on the slightest thing that touches their tongue, (2) they explicitly lie and narrate things from the shaikhs that they did not say when they are unable to clearly bring a reply or record any of the shaikhs that are contradicting the First Three Generations,

أنهم يخالفون السلف في بعض المسائل كالجدل والمناظرة والسكوت عما سكت عنه السلف ونحو ذلك، مما سجلته عليهم بالصوت والنص.

أنهم يحرفون كلام السلف تحريفًا خطيرًا لا يقل عن تحريف أهل البدع والضلال.

(3) they oppose the First Three Generations in some areas – like disputation and debate and being silent about things the First Three Generations and so forth – which has been recorded from them and is also written explicitly by themselves.

عندما يعجزون عن نقل قولٍ عن السلف، يهربون لمعتمد الحنابلة، وعندما نحاققهم بالمعتمد يهربون لقول السلف الذي زوروه عليهم.

ينسبون للسلف نصوصًا ضعيفة وموضوعة، وعندما نحاققهم في صحتها، إما يتهربون، أو يعجزون عن إثباتها.

(4) whenever they are unable to narrate something from the First Three Generations, they flee to the mu`tamad of the Hanbalis but when the mu`tamad of the Hanbalis abandons them they flee to a statement from the First Three Generations that belies them, (5) they attribute to the First Three Generations weak and fabricated statements and (6) whenever the authentic statement from them belies them, they flee from it or are unable to affirm it,

عندما نقمعهم ونطالبهم بالادلة يتهربون بطرح الأسئلة بعد مطالبتنا، كي يشتتون الموضوع وبالتالي الهروب التكتيكي.

يلفون ويدورون كالثعالب، ليس لهم نقطة بحث جوهرية، ولا يعلمون ماذا يريدون.

(7) Whenever we ask them for proof or seek evidence in this regard, they run to a myriad of new questions after we sought from them clear answers. This is only to move the subject, subvert it, keep the goal posts constantly moving. They are like foxes in which they rummage from place to place without any fixed domain and they don’t know what they want to do.

يضعفون ما يرونه مخالفًا لقولهم وإن صححه الحنابلة وغيرهم من أهل العلم، ويصححون الضعيف، ويتبحون بتصحيح بعض الحنابلة.

ليس لديهم أي شيء صحيح صريح في الكتاب والسنة والاجماع يلزمنا، بل هم يريدون إلزام الناس بأفهامهم، وبدعهم ومقالتهم المبتورة عن السلف.

(8) They declare as weak whatever has been narrated that opposes their opinion, even if the Hanbalis and others from the People of Knowledge declared it authentic. They declare the weak as authentic by using one of the Hanbalis against all the others. There is nothing with them that is authentic and explicit in the Book, Sunnah and Consensus that requires us to follow them. On the contrary, they seek to force people to follow their statements, innovations and false declarations that lead away from the First Three Generations.  

يكذبون على العلماء ويدلسون عليهم نصوصا، ليست في المسألة المطروحة.لا يحسنون فهم كلام العلماء، ويحملونه ما لا يحتمل.ونصيحتي لطلاب العلم: أن يحذروا هؤلاء المتمسلفة، ومن أراد أن يطلع على تساجيلهم فهي عندي بالنص والصوت، وعلى الجميع الانشغال بالعلم والدروس وضبط المسائل

(9) They lie about the scholars, attribute to them corrupted or false statements that are not in reference to the matter at all. They do not understand well the statements of the scholars and they hold it according to an understanding that was not intended. So my advice to the students of knowledge is that they take caution with these philosophers. So whoever wants to look at their recordings, I have them with me in terms of writing and spoken lectures detailing their deviation. And everyone should be busying himself with knowledge, lessons and grasping matters and principles.

ولا تنشغلوا بهؤلاء لانهم يريدون صدكم عن العلم الصحيح وإرجاعكم لوصايتهم ، وتقزيمكم، وإخضاعكم، وفرض السيطرة عليكم، وهم جهال عوام، تافهون لا قيمة لهم في العلم بل هم عصابات وقطاع طرق.

They don’t busy themselves with any of this as they are seeking to impede you from the sound knowledge and return you over to their evil, doubts, submission to their ideas and they make it compulsory for them to rule over you. These are ignorant laity that have no knowledge and there is no weight to them in knowledge but they are a gang of thugs and robbers.

ولا تنخدعوا بدعوتهم لمذهب السلف، فقد حاققتهم بنصوص السلف. فما وجدت عندهم شيء ذو قيمة ولا اسانيد صحيحة. فهم فارغون ثرثارون متشبعون بما لم يعطوا.

Do not let their innovations deceive you into thinking that this is the “madhhab of the Salaf” as the texts of the First Three Generations have already abandoned them. You don’t find any value among them nor authentic chains of transmission. They are nothing more than a confused rabble that move around, claiming that which they were not given.

أبو الأمين آل جراح الحنبلي.

Abul Amin Ala Jarrah Al-Hanbali

ETIQUETTE WITH THE QUR’AN PT.4

The above text is a PDF in Arabic with English translation of a section of Al-Muntaha by Imam Al-Futuhi (d. 972) with Imam Al-Buhuti’s (d. 1051) on the topic of the mushaf and the respect due to it.

This was the text that I used when I taught the believers the opening tajwid and other rulings. We covered this and another text before I would let them touch the mushaf. This stands as a sober reminder to all regarding the sanctity of the Qur’an, the respect due to it, the holiness of Allah and His Righteousness.

I hope this is of benefit to all in question.

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

ETIQUETTE WITH THE QUR’AN PT.3

Reciting the Qur’an from a device that carries it

The following question was asked of a marja`:

Is it permitted to recite the Qur’an from a mobile phone[1] without wudu’?

The marja, Imam Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows,

At the time that the ayat of the Qur’an appear on the mobile phone,[2] at that point this object receives the same ruling as a page from the mushaf[3] and thus it is compulsory to have wudu’ in order to touch it.


[1] American: cell phone

[2] This means before that point wudu’ is not required to carry it as one is merely carrying the Qur’an.

[3] The mushaf is the place where the entirety of the Arabic Qur’an, that very book which was sent down upon the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, is written out in full without any commentary or attribution of any other book or language.

ETIQUETTE WITH THE QUR’AN PT.2

Qur’an Played On Telephones, Phonographs and other Electronic Devices

The following question was asked of a marja`:

Is it permissible using phonographs and similar devices today for the broadcast of ayat of the Noble Qur’an or is this not permissible?

The marja,` Imam `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d. 1346 AH), may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows:

It is compulsory to respect and honour the Noble Qur’an whenever it is recited and read as whether it is read by an angel, man, jinn, or coming from an inanimate object, it does not cease being the Qur’an.

It is respected in and of itself and not due to its recitation and what it is written upon or what tools are used to convey it. The ayat of the Qur’an, if it is conveyed by the phonograph or it is exiting as sound from it does not cease being referred to as Qur’an.

Allah, Exalted be He, has named the speech of organs and limbs as speech just as He said they would speak on the Day of Judgement:

The limbs shall say, “Allah caused as to speak that which had been spoken of and had come to pass.” Surah Fussilat (41), ayah 26

In this ayah, He did not say that they were whistling or clapping, as is thought by some of the laity. Now the recitation of the Qur’an in any way whatsoever in disrespectful places of heedlessness is not permitted as there is clear text from the scholars on this matter.

The Imam, Abul Wafa’ `Ali ibn `Aqil Al-Baghdadi, one of the greatest scholars of Baghdad in the fifth age, in his book entitled, the Subsciences, said of the following:

“Oh, how many statements and actions are counted by the laity as coming from places of righteousness are counted by the scholars as sin. An example of this would be reciting the Qur’an in the markets. The people in the markets are shouting by calling out and making sales and it is not possible for them to listen to the Qur’an’s recitation during this time.

Thus to do that is the take the Qur’an lightly as it is being recited in places where it will not be respected.”[1] 

So the conveying of the Qur’an through phonograph or other means, its recitation or conveyance in coffee houses, markets and pathways is a greater form of disrespect.

An example of this would be his recitation in the markets and even if it was not a greater disrespect it does not take away from the fact that the Qur’an is being disrespected by doing this action.

Moreover, the phonograph and similar objects are tools and objects of sport and the Qur’an was not sent down for sport or play. It was indeed sent down so that the people might reflect on its signs and ayat, act by what is in the Book.

This is not the case for things like ghazal poetry, stanzas and rhythmic poetry that has such tools that are designed to give pleasure to the attendees and move their hearts towards it.[2] Allah, Exalted be He, has already told us:

TaHa. The Qur’an was not sent down upon you to give you hardship. It is only an admonition for the one has piety. Surah TaHa (20), ayat 2-3

Which remembrance is coming to pass for the one who is lazing around and sitting in coffee houses, market place stumps? The Exalted One has explicitly mentioned that He did not send down the Qur’an except as admonition.

He did not send it down in order that it might give hardship to His Ummah and then they would bring it around to places where it does not belong. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said that one of the Signs of the End of Time was that the people will take the Qur’an as a sport and play with instruments.

Moreover, Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, said:

And when the Qur’an is recited, then listen to it and remain silent at the time. Surat ul-A`raf (7), ayah 204

Thus the point of evidence that can be taken from the ayah is that the action is clear for the one that is not known is that the intent of the ayah is general. What is mentioned is proof that the intent is what is recited and not the reciter, that which is read and not the reader.

This is from the generality of the miracles of the Qur’an as the Qur’an and its recitation is without an individual, recited without a month. So just as it is not permissible for the reader to recite the Qur’an in places where people are heedless, likewise it is not permissible to emit it from objects that are used for the heedlessness of people.

In the case of the Qur’an, it is compulsory to respect it, whether the reader speaks it or the phonograph or any other tool that might be used for the action. If it is said, “The phonograph emits the sound in a whistling, crackling fashion and it is not like voices and the sounds that people make. Thus the same ruling cannot be applied.”

Our response to that would be that we are not content to say that the thing omitted from the phonograph and similar objects is buzzing or sound alone. Rather, we name this speech just as the speech of limbs mentioned in the ayah is also speech.

We do indeed grant the point that it is a crackling or whirling made by the object but this reproduces the sound that is understood and this is the recitation. So it is therefore compulsory to respect what is coming from the object as it is giving forth the Qur’an. And Allah is the One that gives success. [3]


[1] Al-Adab ush-Shar`iyyah wa Minah il-Mar`iyyah, vol.2, pp. 278-279 by Imam Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih Al-Maqdisi (d. 763 AH)

[2] (trans. note:) This does not mean that one does not enjoy listening to the Qur’an; the difference is that the musical experience is one of enthrallment through feelings coming from inside out based upon what the person interprets of the verses or poetry. In the case of the Qur’an, the feelings of enjoyment, reflection, grandeur and reflection are coming from the Revelation and penetrating the very soul, which will produce a different impact and the physical signs of this will be utterly different than that of music.

[3] Taken from Al-Mawahib ur-Rabbaniyyah fil-Ajwibati `An il-Ajwibat il-Qazaniyyah: Al-Ajwibatu `An As’ilati Ba`d il-Mudun, pp. 252-253

ETIQUETTE WITH THE QUR’AN

The following question was asked of a marja`:

As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

Is it permitted to place the Noble Qur’an in the bedroom, i.e. on a table while the husband and the wife are having sexual intercourse in that room? Does this not constitute a lack of etiquette with the Book of Allah? May Allah reward you with good for answering this question.

The marja, Imam Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows,

Yes, what you have said is indeed true. To have sex in the same room where the Qur’an is on the table is lack of etiquette with the Qur’an. What you should do if possible is place the Qur’an in another room.

BOOK REVIEW: HASHIYAT UR-RAWD IL-MURBI`

I had been hunting for more details on assistance with memorising Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` by Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d. 1051)[1] and some students of knowledge had shared with me some possibilities for the affair. A few had asked, “Well, why are you memorising the Rawd. Just do the Dalil”.

So the argument opened up again (as friendly as it is!). There is a friendly discussion among students of knowledge and some scholars about the best text for memorisation when people look at mastering fiqh. One body is composed of the scholars of northern Arabia, Sham and half of Iraq. Their understanding is that the best text for memorisation is Dalil ut-Talib by Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi (d. 1033).[2]

Before we lay out their argument, let us first look at the origin of the discussion. Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620),[3] the great Palestinian sage and one of the Renewers of the Religion for his age, wrote a text known as the Sufficer.[4] This was his gathering together all the previous literature on the topic of fiqh and especially the Renewer of the Religion that succeeded the Imam and Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (d. 561)[5] in the mastery of fiqh, namely Abul Fath Nasr ibn Futyan – known as Ibn Al-Manni.[6]

After the death of the Imam Ibn Al-Manni there were two main scholars that collected together the books before them, including Ibn Al-Manni’s and perfected the affair. They were the two great Imams, Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 652)[7] and Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620).

The former was a detailed writer and put together a systematic but brief approach to fiqh but it was not voluminous. In the latter’s case, he was more voluminous and detailed and wrote an entire curriculum in fiqh. The intermediate text, known as the Sufficer, was taken and commented upon judiciously by scholars down through the ages.

By the time of the 9th century, the great Palestinian Imam, `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d. 885)[8] had brought together two texts that fleshed out the Sufficer, one being the mammoth Way of Equity,[9] while the other was The Rectifier.[10]   

Then came the 10th century and the commentators of that period, Imams Musa ibn Ahmad Al-Hajjawi (d. 968),[11] a Palestinian and Taqi ud-Din Al-Futuhi (d. 972),[12] an Egyptian. They would add additional commentary notes on the Sufficer and also other statements of literature to flesh out meanings and give new insights when the newer issues of their time appeared.

Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi (d. 968) went one step further and summarised the Sufficer in his celebrated work, The Provision for the Seeker of Sufficiency.[13] This was not just a summary but also leaned back on the great Iraqi law scholar, Ad-Dujaili’s[14] text The Brief Exposition [15] to buffer it.

Then the 11th century came and there were the two stand out scholars of that time, Imams Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi (d. 1033) and Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti (d. 1051). Imam Al-Karmi took his own and Imam Al-Futuhi’s commentary on the Sufficer and summarised it and created a smaller text entitled, Dalil ut-Talib.    

Commentary works on The Sufficer/Dalili

Imam Al-Buhuti took The Provision and made a large commentary entitled, the Enclosed Meadow. After the time of Imam Al-Karmi came the commentary works upon from Imams Ahmad ibn `Awad Al-Mardawi (d. 1101), Salih ibn Hasan Al-Buhuti (d. 1121), `Abdul Qadir ibn `Umar At-Taghlabi (d. 1133) in his Obtaining the Means in Commenting upon Dalil ut-Talib,[16] Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini (d. 1189),[17] Isma`il ibn `Abdur-Karim Al-Jarra`ii (d. 1202), Ahmad ibn Ahmad Al-Maqdisi (d. 1204) and Ibrahim ibn Duwayyan (d. 1353). And these are just main commentaries.

Cliff Notes on The Sufficer/Dalil

Next came smaller commentary works like Imams Ahmad ibn `Awad Al-Mardawi (d. 1101), Mustafa Ad-Dumani (d. 1194), `Abdul Ghani ibn Yasin Al-Lubadi (d. 1319), Musa ibn `Isa Al-Qaddumi (d. 1336), Salih ibn `Uthman Al-Qadi (d. 1351), `Uthman ibn Salih Al-Qadi (d. 1366) and Muhammad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn Mani` (d. 1385).

Smaller Rhyming Texts on the Sufficer/Dalil

Then scholars made smaller rhyming texts on the Dalil and they include Imams Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Al-Wa’ili (d. 1271), Ahmad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul Qadir As-Siddiqi (d. 1343), `Abdul Qadir Al-Qassab (d. 1360), Sulaiman ibn `Atiyyah (d. 1363), Sulaiman ibn Hamdan (d. 1397) and Musa Muhammad Shahhadah Ar-Ruhaibi, one of the students of Imam Ahmad ibn Salih Ash-Shami (d. 1414).

And there it is, in terms of the history of the text and its layout, commentaries, notes, rhyming texts that were smaller that fleshed it out. And it is due to this that northern Arabia, Sham and half of Iraq (and this includes the Hanbalis of Kuwait and northern Iran who actually came from Iraq) have chosen this text for judgement and the courts, scholars and the like fall back on it for commentary and use of day-to-day matters, not just merely pure worship. 

Adherents of the ‘Dalil is best’ understanding lay out their arguments in the following fashion:

Firstly, the sheer volume of literature in commentary on the Dalil, in both large commentaries and also smaller rhyming texts. This then stands to reason that the Dalil is the best choice for memorisation and not The Provision or The Meadow.  

Secondly, there has been more than three hundred years of fleshing out issues and resolving affairs from the Dalil and associated literature. Any ambiguity and the like has been removed.

Thirdly, the text is clearer and easier to work out rather than some cryptic statements that might appear in The Provision. And one of the points of a text for memorisation is clarity and easy use in memorisation. So the Dalil stands in the best position for this act.

These are indeed very convincing statements; but let’s look at the other end of the spectrum for the rank of the Provision by Al-Hajjawi (d. 968) as well as its commentary The Meadow by Al-Buhuti (d. 1051).

As was said, Imam Al-Hajjawi (d. 968) wrote the Provision as a summary of the Sufficer but also included Ad-Dujaili’s (d. 732) Exposition as a big influence. Now understand that this summary spread through most of Arabia, Egypt, big portions of Iraq and most of the Gulf region. And this was indeed the preferred text.

In fact, when the Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali Al-Musharraf (d. 1079)[18] found that Al-Buhuti had written his commentary on the Provision, he burned his own copy and told his students to follow only that one alone. The fact that this is the preferred one should be indicative of how high in esteem students and scholars alike held the text. So let’s talk about this some more.

First: the literature on the Provision is very lengthy as well.

Commentary works on The Provision/Meadow

There is a commentary on the Provision by Burhan ud-Din Ibrahim ibn Abi Bakr Al-`Awfi’s (d. 1097) Bughyat ul-Mutatabbi` fi Halli Alfaz ir-Rawd il-Murbi`. The Imam of his time, Ahmad ibn ibn Manqur (d. 1125) wrote his Al-Fawakih ul-`Adidah fil-Masa’il il-Mufidah which follows the Provision quite closely.

Cliff Notes on The Provision/Meadow

This includes `Abdul Wahhab ibn Fairuz’s (d. 1205) notes on the Meadow, Salih ibn Saif ibn Ahmad Al-`Atiqi’s (d. 1223) notes on the Meadow, `Abdullah ibn `Abdul `Aziz Al-`Anqari (d. 1373) also wrote a cliffnote layout on the Meadow. We also have `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran Ad-Dumi’s (d. 1346) smaller commentary on the Meadow as well as another one by Ibn Dawayyan (d. 1353).

There is Ibn `Atiyyah’s (d. 1363) Al-Masa’il which examines the differences between the Provision and the Uttermost Boundary. Then there is also the same author’s Rawdat ul-Murtaad, which covers the most important issues of the Provision, takes Al-Buhuti’s commentary notes and shrinks all of this down into a versified poem spanning 1091 lines.

Second: since Al-Hajjawi (d. 968) wrote the Provision and Al-Buhuti (d. 1051) wrote his commentary, there have been ample commentaries and discussion on the texts together. In some instances, the Meadow is seen as a text and not just the Provision alone. And this is the reason for the commentaries on the Meadow being given added attention.

Third: although some passages of the Provision by themselves are more cryptic, together with the Meadows the problem is solved. In addition to this, far more issues are covered and resolved in the Meadow than its rival and there are no rare issues listed (and Al-Hajjawi asserts this to be the case at the beginning of the Provision).

Fourth: Al-Buhuti (d. 1051) has preference over Al-Karmi (d. 1033) in consideration of rulings and thus it makes more sense to study Al-Buhuti’s works as he has done and published far more.

Fifth: the Meadow is a doorway to all the other texts on the topic by the same author.

Sixth: Al-Azhar has put together a three-volume curriculum that is more expansive and user friendly than the one it collected for Al-Karmi’s work, which would obviously give it higher rank.

Seven: this text, along with the rest of Al-Buhuti’s works, are what is dominant in the Gulf countries, Arabia proper and other locations so it would make more sense to make use of the text as it is more popularly spread.

Eight: this is one of Al-Buhuti’s final works, his final being the `Umdat ut-Talib, which was written about six months before his death and follows along the same track as his Meadow.

Nine: Although it might appear to have fewer commentaries, this is because fewer things needed to be fleshed out on account of how detailed the first commentary was in the first place. All other comments on the texts have tended to deal with footnotes, cliffnotes and other affairs. There are countless advantages to the Meadow that simply cannot be denied.

Ten: the text in print is almost always on yellow paper, which aids for it being easy on the eyes.

Eleven: it has a flow and cadence that makes it FAR easier to memorise.

And it is this that leads me to today’s book review. The book review is covering Hashiyat ur-Rawd il-Murbi`, a two-volume work written by the great scholar, `Abdul Wahhab ibn Muhammad ibn Fairuz At-Tamimi (d. 1205).

In terms of the topic, let us talk about the author first. He is none other than the Shaikh, the Imam, the high ranking and senior scholar, `Abdul Wahhab ibn Muhammad ibn Fairuz Al-Wuhabi At-Tamimi.

The historian and Qadi, Muhammad ibn Humaid An-Najdi (d. 1295),[19] may Allah have mercy upon him, said of him:

عبد الوهاب بن محمد بن عبد الله بن فيروز التميمي الأحسائي. ولد قبيل الظهر يوم الثلاثاء غرة جمادى الآخرة 1172، وأخذ عن والده من صغره فقرأ عليه الحديث ومصطلحه والأصلين، والنحو، والمعاني والبيان، والمنطق، والفقه والقرائض، والحساب، الجبر، والمقابلة، والهيئة, وغير ذلك،

He is `Abdul Wahhab ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Fairuz At-Tamimi Al-Ahsa’ii. He was born at the time of Zuhr, Tuesday at the onset of Jumada Al-Akhirah 1172. He took knowledge from his father[20] in his early years and recited hadith, terminology of hadith and the Book and Sunnah, grammar, expression, public speaking, logic, fiqh, inheritance, general math with engineering, algebra, science and other things besides that.

وأخذ أيضًا الحساب عن

العلامة السيد عبد الرحمن الزواوي المالكي وأخذ النحو عن الشيخ عيسى بن مطلق، وكان عنده أعز من أبنائه ومهر في جميع ما قرأ، وبهر في الفهم حتى فاق أقرانه

He also took general math and engineering from the scholar, As-Sayyid `Abdur-Rahman Az-Zawaawi Al-Maliki. He took grammar from the Shaikh, `Isa ibn `Abdullah ibn Mutlaq[21] and he was occupying a higher position than the sons of the scholar and he mastered all of what he read and excelled in comprehension of his time above that of his contemporaries.

فصار كثير من رفقائه تلاميذ والده يقرأون عليه، وكان ذا حرص واجتهاد إلى الغاية، قليل الخروج من المدرسة حتى إنه اتفق له سبع سنين لم يخرج منها إلا لصلاة الجمعة، وأما الجماعة ففي مسجدها، والأكل يأتي له من بيت والده مع الطلبة، وأكبّ على تحصيل العلم وإدمان المطالعة والمراجعة والمذاكرة والمباحثة ليلًا ونهارًا،

So he became from the most beloved of the students of his father and the students read to him. He strove hard and went to the furthest point of effort and ijtihad. He left only a little bit from the Madrasah until he spent 7 years without having left from it except for the Jumu`ah. And as for praying in jama`ah, then this is in the masjid of the Madrasah. At the time of eating, it would be brought from the house of his father and he would eat with the students at the Madrasah. He spent his nights and days striving to obtain knowledge and was always reviewing, revising, remembering and researching.

لم تنصرف همته إلى غيره أصلًا

And his intent never left from striving to perfect the knowledge.

حتى إنه لما تزوج بأمر والده وإلزامه أخذ ليلة الدخول معه المحفظة فلما انصرف عنه الناس نزل السراج وقعد يطالع الدروس التي يريد أن يقرأنها في غد، ويقدر في نفسه أنه بعد إتمام المطالعة يباشر أهله فاستغرق في المطالعة إلى أن أذّن الصبح، فتوضأ وخرج للصلاة، وحضر دروس والده من أولها، ولم يعلم والده بذلك لكونه لا يبصر، ولما فرغ من الدروس أتى إليه ولده وسلّم عليه فبارك له وبارك له الحاضرون،

This carried on until the time that his father ordered him to get married and he did so but the night that they came to him and the people pulled away to leave him with his wife, he had a lantern brought and sat going over his lessons so that he would have what he needed for review the next day. He carried on doing so by himself and intended that after he finished his review he would consummate with his wife. However, he became engrossed in his review to the time that the Adhan was made for Subh prayer. So he make wudu,’ headed out to Salah, attended the lesson of his father from the beginning. His father did not know he was doing that on account of the fact that he could not see. So when the lessons finished, his son would come to him, give salam and the father would bless him and so did the congregation.

وفي الليلة الثانية فعل كفعله بالأمس ولم يقرب أهله من غير قصد للترك، لكن لاشتغاله بالمطالعة فيقول في نفسه: أُطالع الدرس ثم ألتفت إلى الأهل، فيستغرق إلى أن يصبح، فأخبرت المرأة وليها بذلك، فذهب وأخبر والده بالقصّة،

So the second night the same thing happened as what had happened in the first instance and he did not go near his wife other than the fact that he wanted to be left alone but he busied himself with his review and said to himself: I will review my portion and then I will go to my wife. However, he again became preoccupied and the time for the Subh prayer came. It would be at that point that his wife would inform her wali of what had happened. The wali then went to the father and informed him of what had happened.

فدعاه والده وعاتبه وأخبذ منه المحفظة، وأكّد عليه بالإقبال عليها، وكان رحمه الله كثير التحرير، بديع التقرير، سديد الكتابة، قلّ أن يقرأ كتابًا أو يطالعه إلّا ويكتب عليه أبحاثًا عجيبة واستدراكات غريبة، وفوائد لطيفة،

The father then called his son, rebuked him and stressed to him the importance of going to his wife. `Abdul Wahhab ibn Muhammad – may Allah have mercy upon him – was one who spent a lot of time bringing forth researches, going over written principles, writing on detailed matters. Seldom did he read a book or review it except that he would write some wondrous or insightful points upon it as well as oft missed matters for the reader to ponder, and detailed benefits.

فمنها القليل ومنها الكثير، فمن أكثر ما رأيته كتب عليه “شرح المنتهى” للشيخ منصور ملأ حواشيه بخطه الضعيف المنوّر، فلم يدع فيه محلًا فارغًا بحيث إنّي جرّدتها في مجلّد، وضممت إِليها ما تيسّر من غيرها، وفيها فوائد بديعة، لا توجد في كتاب، وكذا رأيت “شرح الإقناع” و”التصريح” و”شرح عقود الجمان”للمرشدي و”شرح جمع الجوامع” الأصولي وغيرها وصنّف تصانيف عديدة، منها ما كمل، ومنها ما لم يكمل، لاخترام المنية له في سنّ الشبيبة،

Sometimes he wrote a little bit and then at times he would write a great deal. Must of what I saw him write was what he noted upon the commentary of the Uttermost Boundary by the Shaikh Mansur Al-Buhuti. He dictated some things down in very light but illuminated marginalia. He did not leave any page blank but instead he would put it in notes and these notations reached one volume. I looked at some of what he wrote and there were a number of benefits of noteworthy value that had not been present in the original work. I also saw his commentary on The Sufficiency,[22] the Exposition, Well Tied Ropes by Al-Murshadi, the Collection of All Collections in Foundational Principles by As-Subki[23] and other things. He wrote a number of works, some of them complete while others not so due to the onset of difficulties associated with old age.

فمنها “حاشية على شرح المقنع” وصل فيها إلى الشركة، وهي مفيدة جدًا، وممّا كمل “شرح الجوهر المكنون” للأخضري في المعاني والبيان والبديع،

Some of these works include his Cliff Notes on the Commentary on the Sufficer,[24] in which he reached to the Book of Partnerships.[25] And this was a book that was very beneficial. Then there was another text on the Commentary of the Preserved Gem [26]by Al-Akhdari[27] in analysis, public speaking and prosody.

ومنها “إبداء المجهود في جواب سؤال ابن داود” وذلك أن تلميذه الشيخ عبد الله بن داود

There is another in which he had notes on the[28] Exposition of the Ijtihad coming from the Questions offered by Ibn Dawud.[29]

سأله عن القول المرجوح وعن المقلد المذهبي، وعن الناقل المجرد، ومنها “القول السديد في جواز التقليد”،

And this came about regarding a question brought to him by his student, the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Dawud[30] who asked about the preferred statement and the taqlid of a madhhab and the transmission of a text from a verified authority.  And then there is another work by him entitled, The Decisive Word before the Deed regarding the Permissibility of Taqlid [31] that was penned.[32]

ومنها “زوال اللبس عمّن أراد بيان ما يمكن أن يطلع الله عليه أحدًا من خلقه من الخمس” وله قصائد بليغة ومقطعات عديدة،

There is also another work Lifting the Doubt regarding the one who wanted to clarify what is possible that Allah unveil to one of His Creation regarding the Five Matters of the Unseen[33] that he put together.[34] He also possesses rhyming texts and a number of other texts that use Arabic letters to rhyme and make poetry.

Imam Muhammad ibn Humaid An-Najdi goes on to say:

وتوفاه الله في مرضه ذلك في شهر رمضان سنة 1205 في بلد الزبارة ومن ساحل بحر عمان، ودفن بها، ورثي بقصائد شتّى من غير أهل مذهبه وبلده فضلاً

عنهم، وعظمت مصيبة أبيه به، لكنّه صبر واحتسب، وأتته التعازي والمرائي من علماء الشام وبغ وغيرهما.

Allah would take him back to himself due to an illness in the month of Ramadan in the year 1205 while in the land of Az-Zubarah not far off from the sea of `Uman and he was buried at that place. Much poetry and the like was recited for him even from people not from his madhhab and land as a blessing and favour from them. This was a great blow to his father but he was patient and remained steadfast. Those coming to give condolences and see the site include scholars from Sham, Baghdad and other locales. [35]

In terms of the work, it is exactly what it purports to be, a brief text that comments upon points laid out by Al-Buhuti. Without too much fanfare or lengthy introduction, the author heads straight into the topic and begins fleshing out meaty issues.

As I am memorising the Rawd after having completed hifz of Al-`Umdah, the yellow/golden paper is a handsome and easy-on-the-eyes aesthetic that eases the process of hifz. There is very little variation between Al-Buhuti and Al-Ahsa’ii and the line in the middle of the page for interlinear style is a welcome approach.

There are no intrusive notes and the only footnotes tend to be the hadith, ayah citations or listing manuscript variations. Neither the publishing house nor the editor has put anything superfluous into the text or the associated notes that belong with it.

Amazing points that will assist you

So here come the notes that should snatch your attention:

1): clear Arabic text without smudging

2): the notes are taken by the commentator and similar terminology is used so that it aids in hifz. You can tell this was the point of Al-Ahsa’ii

3): the commentator has kept the same order as the author as well as the headings

4): the commentator gives grammar points, permitted variations in the original work and permissible ways of reading the text and the subtleties that come with these readings

5): strong pedigree. The commentator comes from a long line of scholars and the text through examination can be seen to have been proofread or at least trialed with students of knowledge. Some of the answers to queries can be seen to have come from post or pre-lesson exchanges that students brought in the first reading

6): the constant insertion of the benedictions upon the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him into the text. This is useful for the one who holds doing so as wajib and is a good reminder for those who hold it as mustahabb.

7): the expression of the mu`tamad or depended upon ruling but also the second strongest statement in the event that the depended upon cannot be carried out

8): he explains the reason for disputes happening, the evidence depended upon by each side and the grammar utilised by each side in cases where it is appropriate.

9): the commentator gives the takhrij of the ahadith and even gives discussions on variances that may exist in individual manuscripts, the commentary citing the hadith and the hadith itself from the original manuscript. And on the same topic he gives some concise but useful jarh and ta`dil on certain narrators and the wording in the ahadith that are cited.

Drawbacks to the book?

Drawback #1: I don’t think this would be too much of a drawback but the notes only go up to the book of Waqf. This is not a problem but only one of the issues with the author dying before completing the topic. And as a side note, the rest of the text of Al-Buhuti is easier to memorise and also sort out so the absence of cliffnotes might not be too much of a loss.

Drawback #2: There seems to have been a battle between the editor and the publisher which from my side I am happy the publisher won as the editor had an agenda. It would appear that the editor had Salafi tendencies that he wanted to inflict upon the text along with numerous spelling errors and slips in attention to detail but the publishers detected this and halted it. In terms of the errata, they were judicious in pointing it out.

Drawback #3: For those that are beginning readers, there is no tashkil on the consonantal text thus one will have to have some knowledge of grammar or perhaps a teacher help with sounding out both the text and the commentary notes.

Drawback #4: The notes from the commentator leave you wanting more as they are so enticing and pregnant with meaning! Perhaps this is not a drawback but more of a desire.

So for the students of knowledge using this as a hifz manual for Al-Buhuti’s classic text or a reference manual altogether when doing research and fleshing out principles, this is a must have!


[1] d. 1051 (AD 1656). He is Abus-Sa`adat Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Buhuti. Egyptian marja` and one of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School in the later age, he studied with premier scholars of Sham, such as Imams Yahya Al-Hajjawi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. The Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d. 1079 (AD 1674), when he learned that Al-Buhuti had penned his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, burned his own text and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 472-474

d. 1033 (AD 1623). He is Mar`ii ibn Yusuf ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Bakr Al-Karmi. Considered by his peers to be a master of all sciences, this Palestinian marja` was the premier scholar of Egypt in his time but studied with the great scholars of Sham as well. Although concentrating his energies on creed and fiqh, he covered many of the most trying issues of his time, such as the widespread use of coffee and cigarettes. He was renowned as a defender of righteouness and an enemy to sin. cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 463-467.

[3] 541-620 (AD 1146-1223). He is Muwaffaq ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudamah An-Nabulsi Al-Jamma`ili Al-Maqdisi. Renewer of his age, scholar, judge, jurist and expounder, he wrote some 200 or more books, touching on every subject in Islam. He learned from scholars of Iraq and Sham, combining both traditions successfully to bring about one of the greatest scholars the world had seen. cf. Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 52-54

[4] Ar. Al-Muqni`

[5] 470-561 AH (AD 1078-1166). Reviver of the Religion in his age and one of the two people in history to have permission to give rulings in all four madhhabs, he was a scholar of all disciplines but focused the bulk of his time on purification of the heart, theology and higher mind sciences. Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp. 244-253. 

[6] 504-583 AH (AD 1111-1187). He is Abul Fath Nasr ibn Futyan ibn Matar Al-Baghdadi. A great scholar of Iraq and teacher to multitudes, he is the teacher of most of the scholars of Sham and Iraq in his age with respect to the sciences of fiqh, theology and hadith. Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp. 301-307.

[7] d. 652 (AD 1266). He is Majd ud-Din Abul Barakat `Abdus-Salam ibn `Abdullah ibn Abil-Qasim ibn `Abdullah Al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali Ibn Taymiyyah Al-Harrani, also referred to as Al-Majd. The second highest voice in the school for canonical texts, he wrote his famous work, Al-Muharrar fil-Fiqh (Eng. The Consecrated and Recorded Matters Regarding Legal Rulings), which quickly became one of two foundational sets of works for cataloguing opinions and rulings of the scholars. Adh-Dhail `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 201-205

[8] 820-885 (AD 1417-1480). He is `Ala’ ud-Din Abul Hasan `Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Mardawi As-Sa`di As-Salihi. Judge, jurist, historian and grammarian, he was known for writing books on the narrations and debates within the Hanbali School. He organised the arguments under chapter headings, then acted as chief judge for most of his later life until his death. He wrote more than 20 books and was a mujtahid murajjih. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 76-81

[9] Ar. Al-Insaf fi Ma`firat ir-Rajih fi Madhhab Ahmad ibn Hanbal

[10] Ar. At-Tanqih

[11] 895-968 AH (AD 1490-1561). He is Abun-Naja Sharaf ud-Din Musa ibn Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Salim ibn Ahmad ibn `Isa ibn Salim Al-Hajjawi Al-Maqdisi As-Salihi. Hailed widely as a mujtahid, theologian, Shaikh ul-Islam, as well as the chief faqih of Sham, he wrote books and made fatawa that caused his fame to grow. Once he reached over the age of thirty, the scholars convened and declared him the source of authority for the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his time. The Imam did not rest at this point, happy with his achievement, but continued on, writing numerous texts, summaries and foundational works. One of these was Zad ul-Mustaqni`, which is a summary of the depended upon book Al-Muqni` by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620 AH/AD 1223). A simple yet effective summary, the document is the most widely used and commented summary of the book today. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanbabilah, vol.3, pp. 1134-1136

[12] 972 AH (AD 1565). He is Taqi ud-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Rushaid Al-Futuhi Al-Masri. Known as Chief Qadi, Shaikh ul-Islam, Imam Al-Futuhi was one of the greatest Egyptian Hanbali scholars to have ever lived. In his youth, he memorised Al-`Umdah, Al-Muqni`, Al-Kafi and scores of other texts. His first teacher was his father, Imam Shihab ud-Din Ahmad Al-Buhuti Al-Hanbali, and was also in the company of others such as Imams Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, and a host of others. As per the practice of the Egyptian Hanbalis, he then travelled to Sham and studied with the Hanbali scholars for a number of years and then returned and became the most knowledgeable in Egypt of the madhhab, not long after penning his masterpiece Muntaha Al-Iradat, a book that was so lauded, senior judges Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti and Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi commented on it in their works Daqa’iq Uwl in-Nuha and Sharh ul-Muntaha, respectively. Upon the death of Imam Taqi ud-Din Al-Futuhi, some scholars said that the madhhab died, as there was no one who brought about another legacy as rich as his own and that of his father. Fortunately, others such as Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti came after, and today we have some Subki, Futuhi and Sayyid families teaching the original methods and principles. Students of Imam Al-Futuhi included Shihab ud-Din Ash-Shuwaiki in Madinah and his student, Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi, who would later be the great judge of Sham. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `Ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 854-858  

[13] Ar. Zad ul-Mustaqni` fikhtisar il-Muqni`

[14] 664-732 (AD 1278-1346). He is Siraj ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Al-Hussain ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Ad-Dujaili Al-Baghdadi. Born in a town near the Tigris River, he was a faqih, preacher, grammarian, teacher and author, he was known for righteousness and good conduct and was one of Baghdad’s premier scholars. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 417-418

[15] Ar. Al-Wajiz

[16] Ar. Nail ul-Maarib

[17] 1114-1189 (AD 1702-1775). He is Abul `Awn Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini An-Nabulsi Al-Hanbali. Renewer of his era and one of the chief authorities of the Hanbali Legal School in his time, he learned from Grand Imams such as Muhamamd Hayat As-Sindi, `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi and others. He acted as judge and jurist for all of Sham. He wrote books in the field of comparative creed, fiqh, inheritance, manners, medicine and grammar. It was this noble scholar who received a letter of assistance from the scholars of Arabia against the Salafi Movement. He wrote five volumes of books against the group, the shorter and more famously known being, Questions and Answers Regarding Najd, which upon receipt by the scholars of Arabia became a rallying point for the Orthodox. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 140-143

[18] d. 1079 (AD 1668). He is Sulaiman ibn `Ali ibn Al-Musharraf At-Tamimi An-Najdi. Chief Qadi and judge of Najd in the Arabian Peninsula during his life. Imam Sulaiman famously sat with Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti and learned most of his knowledge. Upon hearing that Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` had been written, he commanded his students to burn his own fiqh books and use only Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` and related texts. He had just ten students, but focused on advanced level studies, making them Qadis after him, including Imam `Abdul Wahhab ibn Sulaiman. cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 173-174

[19] 1236-1295 (AD 1821-1878). He is Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn `Ali ibn `Uthman ibn `Ali ibn Humaid ibn Ghanim An-Najdi Al-Makki. Chief Judge in Makkah, he studied under some of its greatest scholars and in his travels gained knowledge from the Qaddumi and Shatti families. He suffered persecution, and directly witnessed atrocities and other trials under the Salafi movement, which was gaining more of a foothold in Makkah where he resided. He was the author of some ten books on various subjects. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 160-161.

[20] d. 1216 AH (AD 1801). He is Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Fairuz at-Tamimi Al-Ahsa’ii Al-Hanbali. Born in Al-Ahsa,’ he was one of the torch bearers of truth against the organisation founded by Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab. Imam Muhammad ibn Fairuz (as he is popularly addressed) studied with some of the brightest minds of his time, coming to hold double digit licenses in each of the eighteen sciences of Islam. There is no scholar of hadith in the era in which we live that does not have him in their chain of transmission. After continued opposition and hatred between the Orthodox scholarship and the Muwahhidun cult, the Imam was exiled from the city and fled to Iraq, not before seeing scores of scholars murdered or suffer the same fate as himself. Most of his works remain in manuscript form in libraries throughout the world, such as Princeton, Berlin, Chester Beatty and others. cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 400-406

[21] 1179 (AD 1768). He is `Isa ibn `Abdur-Rahman ibn Mutlaq ibn Khamis Al-Maliki. One of the chief scholars of Al-Ahsa’, he was an enemy to Salafiyyah, firm in Religion and was strong against innovation and modernism that was trying to make an appearance. Born with diminishing division, he worked hard in the memorisation of the Qur’an, the Sahih of Imam Al-Bukhari and numerous texts. cf. `Abdul Qadir’s Tahfat ul-Mustafid, pp. 394-395

[22] Ar. Al-Iqna` , the author being Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi.

[23] 727-771 (AD 1327-1370). He is Taj ud-Din Abun-Nasr `Abdul Wahhab ibn `Ali ibn `Abdul Kafi As-Subki. Chief Qadi, historian, hadith scholar and specialist in fiqh who although born in Egypt in the capital city of Cairo moved to Damascus with his father. Coming from a long line of Egyptian scholars with roots in South Egypt, he left behind a large footprint in Usul, fiqh, history and a number of other areas. cf. Az-Zirkili’s Al-A`lam, vol.4, pp. 184-185.

[24] Ar. Hashiyat ur-Rawd il-Murbi`

[25] Ar. Kitab ush-Sharikah.

[26] Ar. Sharh ul-Jawhar il-Maknun

[27] 920-983 (AD 1519-1582). He is Abu Zaid `Abdur-Rahman ibn Abi `Abdullah As-Saghir ibn Muhammad ibn `Amir Al-Akhdari. Algerian specialist in many sciences of Islam, this high ranking judge, jurist and Sufi wrote a number of rhyming texts to assist students of knowledge in learning detailed matters of Islam. Tarjumat ul-Akhdari, pp. 19-20

[28] This came about because Salafis started to try to make a difference between “following the evidence” and being “madhhabi”. And as is typical, Salafis would use violence and death threats to try to spread the new religion. And this is in additional to their repulsive and repugnant theology in which they liken Allah with/to His Creation. As Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti (d. 1274) said, “May Allah curse whoever has this creed”. The Divine Texts, pp. 115-117

[29] Ar. Ibda’ ul-Majhud fi Jawab Su’ali Ibn Dawud

[30] d. 1225 (AD 1810). `Afif ud-Din `Abdullah ibn Dawud Az-Zubairi, Al-Basri Al-`Iraqi Al-Hanbali. Preacher, teacher, heresiographer and soldier, this particular scholar was born and lived most of his life in Az-Zubair, the great stronghold of Orthodox scholarship just outside Basrah. He studied under its premier scholars but decided to go to Al-Ahsa’ in Arabia to continue his studies. He learned from the scholars Muhammad ibn Fairuz and his son, `Abdul Wahhab. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, pp. 254-255

[31] Ar. Al-Qawl us-Sadid fi Jawaz it-Taqlid

[32] This issue was tackled because the cursed Salafi cult that was in Yemen and Arabia came and said that every common Muslim is obliged to be his own mujtahid and “follow the evidence” and that the madhhabs “contradicted the Book and the Sunnah.” So this text was crucial for dispelling some foolishness. As Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti (d. 1274) said, “May Allah curse whoever has this creed”. The Divine Texts, pp. 115-117

[33] Ar. Zawal ul-Labsi `Amman Arada Bayan Ma Yumkin An Yutli`ullahu `Alaihi Ahadin Min Khalqihi min Al-Khams

[34] And this work would break the back of fake Sufis (and is even applicable today) who claim their shaikhs have the knowledge of the Five Things of the Unseen and even some aberrant Sunnis today that try to insist that the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, possessed this, in spite of the fact that the First Three Generations never understood anything of the sort (!) How fitting it is that fake Sufis should have the grandshaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani say the following and destroy their sectarian diatribe:

“So Allah the Exalted said of the matter:

And what will make you know what is the Night of Power [Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 2].

“So it is as if He is saying, ‘Muhammad, if it was not that Allah taught you it and its grandeur, you would not have known it!’ So everything that is in the Qur’an with the expression ‘what made you to know’ (Ar. adaraaka), then Allah has indeed taught him what it was while the expression ‘what will cause you to know’ (Ar. yudareeka) then he did not know it and did not disclose to Muhammad the knowledge of it. An example of this is the statement of His, Mighty and Majestic,

And what will make you to know? It may be that the Hour is indeed near. [Surat ul-Ahzab (33), ayah 63]

“Thus He did not make it clear to him when its time was to come”. cf. Al-Ghunya, vol.2, pp. 261-262, Dar Ihya’ it-Turath il-`Arabi, Beirut, 1416 (AD 1996) [with editorial and prep. notes by Muhammad Khalid `Umar and Riyadh `Abdullah `Abdul Hadi]

As for the Five Things of the Unseen, they are mentioned by Allah, Exalted be He, in the following ayah:

Indeed Allah has in His Sight the knowledge of the Hour, what shall be sent down of weather, what is the wombs while no soul knows what it shall earn tomorrow and no soul knows in which land it shall be taken. Surah Luqman (31), ayah 34

[35] cf Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 277-279, Maktabah Al-Imam Ahmad (no date of print given)

FAKE MUJTAHIDS AMONG THE LAITY

( معيار الاجتهاد والتقليد )

The Pitfalls of Ijtihad and Taqlid

by Shaikh Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji

رسالة إلى طلبة العلم سواء من طلبة الدراسات العليا أو خريجي كليات الشريعة أو المعاهد المفتوحة .

This is a message to the students of knowledge, whether they be in the highest levels of learning, outside of the universities of the Revealed Law or the open institutes.  

المجتهد من شروطه أن يكون عالمًا بآيات الأحكام ومواضعها ومعانيها وطرق الاستدلال بها ، وكذلك السنة وتمييز صحيحها عن ضعيفها في أقل الأحوال تقليد إمام في ذلك والناسخ والمنسوخ منها ، ومواطن الإجماع ، ثم العلم بأصول الفقه ، واللغة العربية بنحوها وصرفها وبلاغتها على الأقل .

The mujtahid has conditions and one of them is that he is a scholar of the ayat of judgement, their application, means and ways of extracting evidential affairs using them. And  likewise there is the Sunnah, differentiating the sahih from the da`if in the smallest of incidents in taqlid of an Imam in that, knowing the nasikh and mansukh of it, the places where Consensus is established. Then after this comes Usul ul-Fiqh, the Arabic language – its grammar and morphology – with its expression that is lost on all but a few.

سل نفسك هل أنت ممن امتلك آلة الاجتهاد وشروطه المختصرة الذكر آنفًا ، والمبسوطة في كتب أصول الفقه ؟!.

So ask yourself: Are you someone who has the tool of ijtihad? Do you have the conditions laid out briefly just moments ago that are laid out in detail in the books of Usul ul-Fiqh?

فإن كان جوابك : أنك لم تمتلك أدوات الاجتهاد وشروطه فأنت عامي مقلد قولًا واحدًا لا خلاف بين العلماء في ذلك مطلقًا .

So if your answer is no and you do not possess the tools of ijtihad and its condition, then you are a layman, making taqlid and this is one statement and there is no difference among the scholars in that at all.

أما قضية مجتهد مسألة :

Now there is one point that needs expression on the topic of the mujtahid.

فهي خلاف ما يفهمه العامي أنه يجوز له الاجتهاد في المسألة الواحدة دون   امتلاكه لشروط الاجتهاد وتوافرها فيه ، وهذا مما لا خلاف فيه أيضًا ، فمتى ما امتلك شروط الاجتهاد يجوز له ان يسمي نسفه مجتهد مسألة . حينها يمكن لك الاجتهاد

So on this point there is a difference of what the layman understands in that it is permitted for him to make ijtihad on the one principle without possessing the conditions of ijtihad and encompassing them. And this has no difference of opinion in it. So when he possesses the conditions of ijtihad in that area, he can permissibly call himself a mujtahid of a matter and at that time it is possible for you to make ijtihad.

.فمعيار الفرق بين الاجتهاد والتقليد

But the pitfall is the difference between ijtihad and taqlid.

ما قرره الأصوليون من شروط للاجتهاد ، وما سوى ذلك مزاعم لا صحة لها لا في الواقع وقد تكون في ذهن صاحبها .وليعلم أن دعاوى القدرة على الترجيح والنظر هي دعاوى فارغة من المحتوى خاوية لا حقيقة لها .

What the scholars of Usul have established from the conditions of ijtihad is well known and whatever is besides that represents claims that have no validity to them or reality and it is merely something in the mind of the carrier of such thoughts. So let it be know that the claims to be able to join between and examine evidences while not being a mujtahid are empty claims that are devoid of merit and have no reality to them.

وليحذر طالب العلم مهما حصَّل من ألقاب فإنها لن تشفع له يوم القيامة فقد حذرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال القضاة ثلاثة : واحد في الجنة ، واثنان في النار ، فأما الذي في الجنة ، فرجل عرف الحق فقضى به ، ورجل عرف الحق ، فجار في الحكم ، فهو في النار ، ورجل قضى للناس على جهل فهو في النار » رواه عأبو داود.

Let the student of knowledge beware so that there does not result with him what has happened to others as there is no intercession for such a one on the Day of Resurrection. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “There are three types of judges, one in the Paradise and two in the Fire. In the case of (1) the judge in the Paradise, he is a man that knows the truth and gives judgement by it. Then there is (2)a man who knows the truth but transgresses in the judgement and he is the Fire. And there is (3) a man who gives judgement for the people while ignorant and he is the Fire.” Collected by Imam Abu Dawud.

فأنظر نفسك بين هؤلاء وسلها أي الأقسام انا .

So look into yourself among all of the categories mentioned in the hadith and ask, “Which of these categories do I belong to?”

وكتب

فارس بن فالح الخزرجي

7 / 5 / 1442

This was written by Faris ibn Falih Al-Khazraji

7 Jumada Al-Uwla 1442

Sham, Iraq, Egypt: the Authoritiesٍ