فوائد رمضانية من المذهب الحنبلي
Ramadan Benefits as Taken from the Hanbali School
مجموعة ومختصرة من كتاب الإنصاف للمرداوي
Collected and Summarised from The Equity by Imam Al-Mardawi
* الصوم والصيام في اللغة : الإمساك ، وهو في الشرع: عبارة عن إمساك مخصوص في وقت مخصوص على وجه مخصوص
The words sawm and siyam in the Arabic language signify abstaining from something while in the Revealed Law it is an expression regarding a specific act of abstaining from something in a specific time in a specific way.
* فرض صوم رمضان في السنة الثانية إجماعا، فصام رسول الله عليه أفضل الصلاة والسلام تسع رمضانات إجماعا المستحب أن يقول “شهر رمضان” كما قال الله تعالى .
The compulsory sawm of Ramadan came into effect in 2AH by the Consensus of history and scholars. So the Messenger of Allah, may the best peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, made sawm for nine Ramadans according to the Consensus of history and scholars. It is praiseworthy that one refers to “Shahru Ramadan” or the “month of Ramadan” as was mentioned by Allah, Exalted be He.
ولا يكره قول “رمضان”بإسقاط”شهر” مطلقا، على الصحيح من المذهب .
It is not disliked to merely say “Ramadan” by dropping the word “month of” at all according to the sahih statement of the School.
*الناس تبع للإمام في الصوم والفطر إلا المنفرد برؤيته، فإنه يصومه .
So people follow the Imam in sawm and breaking sawm except in the case of the individual who saw the crescent moon by himself. In that case, this individual makes sawm along.
*إذا رأى الهلال أهل بلد لزم الناس كلهم الصوم، ولا خلاف في لزوم الصوم على من رآه. وأما من لم يره: فإن كانت المطالع متفقة لزمهم الصوم أيضا
When the people of a land saw the crescent moon, then all the people are required to make the sawm and there is no difference of opinion on the sawm being required for the one that saw the crescent moon. In the case of the one who did not see the crescent moon, then they must make the sawm as well if the horizons agree.
وإن اختلفت المطالع ، فالصحيح من المذهب : لزوم الصوم أيضا ، قدمه في الفروع ، والفائق ، والرعاية ، وهو من المفردات
If the horizons differ, then the sahih position of the Madhhab is that they are obligated to make the sawm as well. As well mentioned by the author of the Branches, author of Superior, author of Safeguarding and it is one of the specific things to the School.
*لو صاموا ثمانية وعشرين يوما، ثم رأوا هلال شوال: أفطروا قطعا، وقضوا يوما فقط. على الصحيح من المذهب، ونقله حنبل، وجزم به المجد في شرحه وغيره، وقدمه في الفروع
If the people did the sawm for 28 days, then they saw the crescent moon of the month of Shawwal, then they are to break the sawm for sure and they must make up the day they missed. And this is the sahih position of the School as was mentioned by Hanbal ibn Ishaq, explicitly stated by Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah in his commentary and others and given precedence in the Branches.
* لو برئ المريض مفطرا، فحكمه حكم الحائض والنفساء والمسافر
If the one who was ill or inform recovered at some point in the day and was not making sawm, then his ruling is the same thing as that of the one on her cycle, post-natal bleeding and the traveller in the same situation.
*لو حاضت امرأة في أثناء يوم، فقال الإمام أحمد: تمسك كمسافر قدم هذا الصحيح من المذهب.
If a woman started her monthly cycle at some point in the day, the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, stated, “Her sawm is broken but she should abstain from food for the rest of the day. And this is the same ruling as the traveller who reached his home city”. And this is the sahih statement of the School.
*لا يلزم من أفطر في صوم واجب غير رمضان الإمساك ذكره جماعة، وقدمه في الفروع .
In the case of the one who broke a wajib sawm that was not Ramadan, it is not necessary for this one to abstain from food for the rest of the day. And this was mentioned by a group of scholars and given precedence in the Branches.
*من لم يمكنه التداوي في مرضه وتركه يضر به، فله التداوي .
And whoever is taking medical treatment that does not allow him to make sawm and leaving the treatment would bring harm to him, then he takes the medical treatment.
نقله حنبل فيمن به رمد يخاف الضرر بترك الاكتحال لتضرره [ بالصوم ] كتضرره بمجرد الصوم
And this was narrated by Hanbal ibn Ishaq regarding the one who was stricken with loss of vision that would harm him by leaving the application of kohl. So in that case, if leaving the thing would cause him real harm by making sawm, then he would not do so.
* المريض إذا لم يخف الضرر لا يفطر، وهو صحيح، وعليه الأصحاب، وجزم به في الرعاية في وجع رأس وحمى. ثم قال قلت: إلا أن يتضرر. وقيل لأحمد: متى يفطر المريض ؟ قال إذا لم يستطع .
The ill – when he has no fear of harm coming to him in the illness – does not break the sawm and this is the correct ruling of the School, as the Companions of the School agree upon it and it is clearly mentioned in Safeguarding regarding headache as well as fever. Imam Al-Mardawi mentioned that this is the case except when harm will come to him. Someone said to Imam Ahmad, “When is the ill or infirm permitted to break the sawm?” He said, “When he does not have the ability to make the sawm”.
قيل: مثل الحمى ؟ قال: وأي مرض أشد من الحمى؟
Then it was said to him, “Well, what about fever?” The Imam replied, “Is there any illness more severe than fever?”
* لو كان به شبق يخاف منه تشقق أنثييه: جامع وقضى ولا يكفر، نقله الشالنجي. قال الأصحاب: هذا إذا لم تندفع شهوته بدونه .فإن اندفعت شهوته بدون الجماع لم يجز له الجماع .
If his sexual desire was such that he feared that some harm would come to him, then he would engage in sexual intercourse and make up the sawm but not give expiation. And this is handed down through the narration of Ash-Shalanji. The Companions of the School have said this is when he cannot offset his sexual desire by other means. Now if he can offset his sexual desire without sexual intercourse, then he is not to engage in sexual intercourse.
*لو تعذر قضاؤه لدوام شبقه: فحكمه حكم العاجز عن الصوم لكبر أو مرض لا يرجى برؤه على ما تقدم قريبا. ذكره في الفروع وغيره .
If he had an excuse for making it up – like in the case of constant presence of overwhelming sexual desire – then his ruling is like the one who is unable to do sawm due to old age or illness without hope of it being lifted as what was discussed before. And this was discussed in the Branches and other texts.
*والمسافر يستحب له الفطر، وهذا المذهب. وعليه الأصحاب، ونص عليه، وهو من المفردات. سواء وجد مشقة أم لا. ولو سافر ليفطر حرم عليه .
It is praiseworthy for the traveller to break his sawm which is the ruling of the School as agreed upon by the Companions of the School and explicitly recorded from the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and it is from the unique rulings of the School. And this is whether he found difficulty in the travel or not; but if he travelled in order that he might break his sawm, this is impermissible.
*والحامل والمرضع إذا خافتا على أنفسهما أفطرتا، وقضتا، من غير إطعام، وهذا المذهب، وعليه جماهير الأصحاب، وقطع به أكثرهم. ويكره لهما الصوم والحالة هذه قولا واحدا .
In the case of the woman that is either pregnant or breastfeeding – when either of them fears for her health – she is to break the sawm and then make it up later but without having to feed anyone for the day. And this is the School and upon it are the great preponderance of the Companions of the School and decisively mentioned. And for either of these women, it is disliked for both of them to make sawm and the statement on this matter is but one statement.
*وإن خافتا على ولديهما، أفطرتا، وقضتا، وأطعمتا عن كل يوم مسكينا، على الصحيح من المذهب، بلا ريب. ولا يسقط عنها القضاء مع القدرة وقد ضعف الامام أحمد قول ابن عمر.
In the case that either of these women feared for the health of their children, then they should break their sawm, make up the sawm later and feed one needy person for every day they do not make sawm. And this is the authentic position of the School without doubt. And the make-up is not lifted from her when she is able to carry out the make-up and the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, considered as da`if the statement of Ibn `Umar on this topic.
*يجوز الفطر للظئر وهي التي ترضع ولد غيرها إن خافت عليه، أو على نفسها .
It is permitted for the milk mother – meaning, the one who breastfeeds someone else’s child – to break her sawm if she fears for the health of the child or herself.
*يجوز صرف الإطعام إلى مسكين واحد جملة واحدة .بلا نزاع .
It is permitted to discharge the food he would give one person for not making sawm to one needy person in one lump sum and there is no dispute in the matter.
*لا يسقط الإطعام بالعجز على الصحيح من المذهب، وهو ظاهر كلام الإمام أحمد رحمه الله، واختاره المجد، وجزم به في المستوعب، والمحرر، وقدمه في الفروع. وذكر القاضي وأصحابه: يسقط في الحامل والمرضع ككفارة الوطء،
The discharging of food to the needy is not lifted due to inability as per the correct ruling from the School, the dominant statement of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, the chosen ruling of Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, clearly mentioned by Ibn Sunainah in The Rulings Covering the Full Capacity of Needs, the Clarified Rulings, given precedence in the Branches. Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la Al-Baghdadi and his Companions have said that feeding the needy is lifted from the pregnant and breastfeeding that is unable to do so and this ruling is the same as for the expiation for the one who had sexual intercourse in the daytime of the month of Ramadan.
بل أولى للعذر، ولا يسقط الإطعام عن الكبير والميئوس بالعجز، ولا إطعام من أخر قضاء رمضان وغيره، غير كفارة الجماع .
And adhering to this ruling is even more emphasised when there is a valid excuse. Feeding the needy person for not making sawm is not lifted regarding the elderly and the one who has no hope of his illness being cured. And there is no feeding the needy regarding the one who delayed making up the sawm of Ramadan and other things with the exception of the expiation for sexual intercourse in the daytime in Ramadan.
*إن نوت حائض صوم فرض ليلا، وقد انقطع دمها، أو تمت عادتها قبل الفجر: صح صومها وإلا فلا .
In the case of the one on her cycle who intended to make a compulsory sawm in the night and her bleeding ceased or her cycle completed before the coming of the time of Fajr, then her sawm is valid. And if the blood had not stopped or the cycle elapsed, the sawm is not valid.
* لا تصح النية في نهار يوم لصوم غد على الصحيح من المذهب، وعليه الأصحاب .
It is not valid to make the niyyah in the daytime for a sawm tomorrow according to the authentic ruling of the School and the agreement of the Companions of the School on the topic.
*يعتبر لكل يوم نية مفردة على الصحيح من المذهب، وعليه أكثر الأصحاب، وعنه يجزئ في أول رمضان نية واحدة لكله نصرها أبو يعلى الصغير على قياسه النذر المعين، وأطلقهما في المحرر، والفائق، فعليها: لو أفطر يوما لعذر أو غيره: لم يصح صيام الباقي بتلك النية .
This then establishes that every day requires a separate niyyah or intention according to the authentic position of the School and the predominance of the Companions. There is a narrative from the Imam that it is permitted to make a niyyah or intention at the beginning of the month that covers the whole of it. And this position was advocated by Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la the Younger using his analogy on the specific vow. Both of these positions were mentioned in the Clarified Rulings and Superior. And on this same subject, it is mentioned that if someone broke a sawm on a day for some excuse or other than that, it is not valid to make sawm for the remainder of the month with that niyyah or intention that was made at the beginning of the month.
جزم به في المستوعب وغيره، وقيل: يصح قدمه في الرعاية، فقال وقيل: ما لم يفسخها، أو يفطر فيه يوما .
This was decisively mentioned by the author of The Rulings Covering the Full Capacity of Needs and others. It was also said that it is still valid as was given precedence in Safeguarding. The author of Safeguarding said, “It has been said that the niyyah remains intact as long as he did not remove it or break the sawm in a day”.
*لو قال: أنا صائم غدا، إن شاء الله تعالى، فإن قصد بالمشيئة الشك والتردد في العزم والقصد: فسدت نيته، وإلا لم تفسد ذكره القاضي في التعليق، وابن عقيل في الفنون، واقتصر عليه في الفروع؛ لأنه إنما قصد أن فعله للصوم بمشيئة الله وتوفيقه وتيسيره .
If someone said, “I am making sawm tomorrow, if Allah, Exalted be He, will”. If he used that expression on account of doubt about whether he would do it or not, waving in the intention and intent, then his niyyah is nullified. And if he intended it to magnify the Name of Allah and that he is doing so by His Will, Success and Ease, then the niyyah is sound and has not be nullified. And this was mentioned by Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la the Eldere in the Marginal Notes, Ibn `Aqil in Funun and mentioned in truncated fashion in Branches.
كما لا يفسد الإيمان بقوله: أنا مؤمن إن شاء الله تعالى غير متردد في الحال .ثم قال القاضي: وكذا نقول في سائر العبادات: لا تفسد بذكر المشيئة في نيتها .
So the niyyah or intention remains in force as long as there was no doubt in the statement in just the same way as Iman is not nullified is someone said, “I am a mu’min, if Allah, Exalted be He, wills” without any wavering in the affair. And Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la the Elder also said, “And also we say this of the remaining acts of worship that one does not nullify the said act by mentioning the Name of Allah in this way in his niyyah or intention for the act”.
* لو خطر بقلبه ليلا: أنه صائم غدا فقد نوى قال الشيخ تقي الدين: هو حين يتعشى يتعشى عشاء من يريد الصوم، ولهذا يفرق بين عشاء ليلة العيد وعشاء ليالي رمضان
If he had a thought in his heart in the night, “Indeed I will be making sawm tomorrow”, then this established the niyyah or intention. The Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “This means that at the time evening comes the niyyah and intention is made for the one who intended the sawm. And it is due to this that he makes a distinction between the niyyah for what could be the night of `Eid and the evening on the nights of Ramadan”.
*الاكتحال بما يجد طعمه كصبر يفطر، ولا يفطر الإثمد غير المطيب إذا كان يسيرا، نص عليه لو نام نهارا فاحتلم لم يفسد صومه، وكذا لو أمنى من وطء ليل أو أمنى ليلا من مباشرة نهارا .
Using kohl in a capacity in which its taste can be perceived, like in the case of sibr, this breaks the sawm. If he used kohl from ithmid without taste or scent he would take in, then this does not break the sawm when it is only a little that he used as explicitly mentioned by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. If someone slept in the daytime and had a wet dream, this does not break his sawm. Furthermore, if he ejaculated from sexual intercourse in the night or just ejaculated in the night from skin to skin contact in the day, this does not nullify the sawm.
* لو هاجت شهوته فأمنى أو أمذى، ولم يمس ذكره: لم يفطر على الصحيح من المذهب وإذا قبل أو لمس فأمذى: فسد صومه هذا الصحيح من المذهب، نص عليه، وعليه أكثر الأصحاب.ولو كرر النظر فأمنى، فسد صومه، وهذا المذهب، وعليه أكثر الأصحاب.
If his sexual desire was kindled and he ejaculated or released pre-seminal fluid and he did not touch his penis, this does not break his sawm according to the authentic position of the School. And when he kissed or touched and then released pre-seminal fluid, his sawm is nullified according to the authentic position from the School as explicitly mentioned by the Imam and established upon by the majority of the Companions of the School. If he should fantasise repeatedly until he ejaculated, then this nullifies his sawm. And this is the School and upon this are most of the Companions of the School.
*ظاهر كلام الإمام أحمد والأصحاب: أنه لا فطر إن لم يظهر دم في الحجامة قال في الفائق: ولو احتجم فلم يسل دم، لم يفطر في أصح الوجهين
* الحجامة من المفطرات لكن لا يقاس عليها غيرها كالفصد وسحب الدم.
The dominant statement of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the Companions of the School is that the sawm is not broken if no blood came out during the hijamah process. The author of the Superior said, “If someone did hijamah and no blood came out, the sawm is not broken according to the most authentic of the two narratives in the School”.
*الصحيح من المذهب: أن الجاهل بالتحريم يفطر بفعل المفطرات ونص عليه في الحجامة وعليه أكثر الأصحاب .
The authentic ruling from the School is that the one that commits a nullifier of the sawm – although ignorant of the things that nullify the sawm – has still nullified it as was explicitly mentioned by the Imam on this topic and on the matter of hijamah and this is the case for most of the Companions of the School.
*حكم الحائض تؤخر الغسل إلى ما بعد طلوع الفجر: حكم الجنب على ما تقدم على الصحيح من المذهب. و يستحب للجنب والحائض إذا طهرت ليلا: الغسل قبل الفجر .
The authentic position of the School regarding the woman who has finished here cycle delaying the ghusl until after the coming of the Fajr time is the same thing as the one that is junub and thus the sawm is valid; however it is praiseworthy for the junub and the one that finished the monthly in the night to make the ghusl before the coming of the Fajr time.
*ولا يجب على كافر ولا مجنون ولا صبي وهو الصحيح من المذهب مطلقا، وعليه جماهير الأصحاب، قال القاضي: المذهب عندي رواية واحدة: لا يجب الصوم على الصبي حتى يبلغ .
Neither the unbeliever, insane or demon possessed, nor child is required for the sawm of Ramadan. And this is the authentic position from the School in absolute terms and this is the position of the great preponderance of the Companions. Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la Al-Baghdadi said, “The School’s ruling according to me is one narration in which it is not wajib for the child to make the sawm until he has reached adulthood”.
وعنه يجب على المميز إن أطاقه، وإلا فلا، وأكثر الأصحاب أطلق الإطاقة، وهو ظاهر ما قدمه في الفروع، وقدمه في الرعاية، وحدد ابن أبي موسى إطاقته بصوم ثلاثة أيام متوالية ولا يضره .
There is another ruling narrated from the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal that it is compulsory on the child that has reached seven years of age when he is able and if he is not, then it is not required. And most of the Companions of the School have based the ruling on the subject of ability, which is the dominant statement put forward by the authors of the Branches, the Safeguarding. Ibn Abi Musa has conditioned the ability of the child on if he is able to make sawm for three days concurrently without it harming him. If so, then he can do the rest of the month.
ولكن يؤمر به إذا أطاقه، ويضرب عليه ليعتاده .
But when the child is able to make sawm, he does so and is disciplined when he leaves it in order for him to develop sawm as a habit.
*وتطلب ليلة القدر في العشر الأخير من رمضان وفي ليالي الوتر آكد. هذا المذهب .وعليه الأصحاب .وقال في الكافي: والأحاديث تدل على أنها تنتقل في ليالي الوتر .
The Night of Power should be sought in the last time nights of Ramadan, specifically in the last odd nights out of the ten. And this is the ruling of the School and upon what the Companions of the School stand upon. Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah mentioned in Source of Satisfaction: “The ahadith indicate that the Night of Power moves throughout the odd nights among the ten”.
قال ابن هبيرة في الإفصاح: الصحيح عندي أنها تنتقل في أفراد العشر، وحكاه ابن عبد البر عن الإمام أحمد .قال المرداوي: وهو الصواب الذي لا شك فيه.
Imam Ibn Hubairah said in his work The Eloquent Reply: “The authentic position to me is that one searches for the Night of Power in the odd ten nights of Ramadan. And this was narrated by Ibn `Abdul Barr from the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal”. Imam Al-Mardawi mentioned that this is the correct position without any doubt about it.
والحمد لله رب العالمين..
Praise be to Allah, Lord of all creation.
As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan
 d.762 (AD1365). He is Shams ud-Din Abu `Abdillah Muhammad ibn Muflih ibn Muhammad ibn Mufarrij Al-Maqdisi Ar-Ramini As-Salihi. Universally known as Imam Ibn Muflih, he is the author of classic texts such as Al-Furu`: Sharh ul-Muqni`, Al-Adab ush-Shar`iyyah wal-Minah ul-Mar`iyyah and a number of other works. Known for his knowledge, he was marja` of his time and one of the authorised commentators on the works of Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah. cf.As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `Ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.1089-1093
 693-771 (AD1294-1370). He is Abul `Abbas Ahmad ibn Al-Hasan ibn `Abdullah ibn Abi `Umar Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi. Authority, fiqh specialist and great grandson of the great saint, Abu `Umar Al-Maqdisi, he wrote some five books on diverse topics including fiqh. One of Salihiyyah’s greatest graduates, he breathed his last at 78 years of age.
 d.695 (AD1296). He is Najm ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hamdan ibn Shabib ibn Hamdan ibn Shabib ibn Hamdan Al-Harrani. Specialist in fiqh, Usul, he is author of some five works and later taught in Cairo. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.271-272.
 d.273 (AD886). He is Abu `Ali Hanbal ibn Ishaq ibn Hanbal ibn Hilal ibn Asad Ash-Shaibani. Notable memoriser and trustworthy, he witnessed and wrote on the Inquisition of the Imam and the events immediately following. cf.Adh-Dhahabi’s Tadhkirat ul-Huffaz, vol.2, pp.599-601.
 d.653 (AD1266). He is Majd ud-Din Abul Barakat `Abdus-Salam ibn `Abdullah ibn Abil-Qasim ibn `Abdullah Al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali Ibn Taymiyyah Al-Harrani, also referred to as Al-Majd. The second highest voice in the school for canonical texts, he wrote his famous work, Al-Muharrar fil-Fiqh (Eng.The Consecrated and Recorded Matters Regarding Legal Rulings), which quickly became one of two foundational sets of works for cataloguing opinions and rulings of the scholars. cf.Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhail `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp.201-205
 164-241 (AD780-855). He is Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. The Imam of the Hanbali School. He learned from some of the premier students of the Companions and their students, such as Imams Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Yusuf ibn Ibrahim, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Ash-Shaibani. In addition having memorised one million ahadith, he was a tireless campaigner for the Orthodox faith, suffering torture as well as incarceration for preaching against the cults. cf.Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.5-17; 58-124
 This is known as imsak, which is the practice of abstaining from food and drink out of respect for the sanctity of the day but it is not a sawm as the sawm is broken and needs to be made up. cf.Al-Buhuti in Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, vol.1, pp.195+
 Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “So wajib entails what is necessary to carry out and what is blameworthy – according to the Revealed Law – to abandon in any sense, meaning at all times”. cf.Al-Madkhal, pp.146-147
 820-885 (AD1417-1480). He is `Ala’ ud-Din Abul Hasan `Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Mardawi As-Sa`di As-Salihi. Judge, jurist, historian and grammarian, he was known for writing books on the narrations and debates within the Hanbali School. He organised the arguments under chapter headings, then acted as chief judge for most of his later life until his death. He wrote more than 20 books and was a mujtahid murajjih. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp.76-81
 This is when this is a real medical condition. This means it is validly diagnosed through a valid medical doctor as a valid disorder based upon valid data from a valid diagnosis.
 This is because this is a disorder that reaches the level where it is treated like an involuntary illness. Keep in mind, this is when it is a real medical condition.
 d.230 (AD893). He is Isma`il ibn Sa`id Al-Jurjani At-Tabari Al-Kasa’ii Ash-Shalanji. Originally Mu`tazilah and Hanafi, he left it and joined Muslim Orthodoxy and became a student of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. cf.Abul Hussain Al-Baghdadi in Tabaqat, vol.1, pp.1, pp.103-104
 Ar. haram. Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “The impermissible is the opposite of the compulsory and taken from the same root word that signifies the inviolate nature of the thing. This word refers to what is not permitted to come near. In the Revealed Law, this word signifies that which if someone did, said or intended in the heart an affair, he is to be censured as that matter is blameworthy”. Al-Madkhal, pp.153-155
 Ar. makruh. Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “So the disliked is the opposite of the praiseworthy. The praiseworthy is that which has been commanded – according to the Revealed Law – but not in an emphatic sense to necessitate it being compulsory. That which is disliked has been forbidden but not emphatically so to necessitate it being impermissible. So the one who so abandons this deed receives praise while the committer of the action is not receiving censure”. Al-Madkhal, pp.153-155
 Meaning the child in the womb or the child she is breastfeeding
 d.73 (AD695). He is Abu `Abdir-Rahman `Abdullah ibn `Umar ibn Al-Khattab Al-Qurshi Al-`Adawi Al-Makki. One of the early Muslims who entered Islam with his father before adulthood, he also made the Hijrah. He was too young for the Battle of Uhud but thereafter attended every other battle with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. He narrated 1,630 ahadith from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to his students. He would later die in Makkah three months after the martyrdom of `Abdullah ibn Az-Zubair. cf. Al-Maqdisi’s Al-Kamal, vol.1, pp.342-344
 Ar. mubah. Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “So this is something announced as being permitted or something in which permission has been granted. The permitted thing – according to the Revealed Law – is when the declaration of the thing by Allah is of equal capacity between doing the act or leaving it. There is neither praise connected with carrying out the act nor censure for not carrying out the act. According to the vast majority, the thing called mubah has not been commanded to be carried out”. Al-Madkhal, pp.153-155
 This is regarding discharging the fidyah
 d.616 (AD1219). He is Abu `Abdillah Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Idris As-Samurri. Known is Ibn Sunainah, he was Shaikh of the Hanbalis in his time and chief marja` and judge or Samurra’. His text is one of the depended upon books from after his time and cited often on more detailed affairs. He would breathe his last at 81 years of age. cf.Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhail, vol.2, pp.120-121
 Ar.Al-Muharrar fil-Fiqh
 d.458 (AD1063). He is Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Farra’ Al-Baghdadi. Grand marja` and spiritual father to 40 other grand maraji`, he was the first to catalogue the rise of the Ash`ari jama`ah. The Imam’s extensive teaching record and written legacy gave us a number of classics. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 166-198
 This is because the cause for that niyyah to be valid has not yet come into force, namely the maghrib that signals a new day for a new sawm for which he will be making the niyyah.
 The one who has greater hadath (which is called junub) that requires ghusl, is not in a suitable state to touch the Qur’an, make salah or the like until they have had the ghusl. Someone who had lesser hadath would not be in a suitable state to make salah or touch the Qur’an unless they had wudu’. So the matter of hadath is connected with the actions a believer may or may not do, not to his salvation or spiritual state. The following hadith is a case in point, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, “The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, came across me in the one the streets in Madinah and at the time I was in a state of junub. So I avoided him and went to take a bath. When I returned, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, ‘Abu Hurairah! Where have you been?’ I replied, ‘I was junub, so I disliked sitting in your company. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, ‘Glory be to Allah! The believer never becomes impure (najis)’.” Collected in Al-Jami` us-Sahih by Imam Muhammad ibn Isma`il Al-Bukhari, The Book of Ghusl, under the chapter of The Junub may Leave from the House and Go into the Market and Other Places and classed by him as authentic.
This statement and others should show that someone in a state of junub is not forbidden from sitting with people, visiting the market, talking on the phone or other mundane activities. There should be no superstition attached to this state, for the junub and lesser hadath is again, to stress the point, connected with certain actions of worship that one may or may not do, not their relationship with Allah or other believers. The believer is never najis. Thus one who is in either state may supplicate Allah, make dhikr, read certain beneficial books of Islamic knowledge and prepare, cook and serve food. There is further discussion on this in the main body of the work and other notes.
 Ar. mustahabb. Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “The praiseworthy – according to the Revealed Law – is that which if one does it, he is rewarded while if he was to abandon it, he is not punished in any sense, whether it is abandoned for something else or not”. cf.Ibn Badran in Al-Madkhal, pp.151-152
 d.458 (AD1063). He is Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Farra’ Al-Baghdadi. Grand marja` and spiritual father to 40 other grand maraji`, he was the first to catalogue the rise of the Ash`ari jama`ah. The Imam’s extensive teaching record and written legacy gave us a number of classics. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp.166-198
 d.428 (AD1033). He is Abu `Ali Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Musa Al-Hashimi. Qadi, preacher, writer and specialist, he wrote a number of works in fiqh, one of the most famous being Al-Irshad. cf.Mafatih ul-Fiqh il-Hanbali, vol.2, pp.62-63
 541-620 (AD1146-1223). He is Muwaffaq ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah. One of the Revivers of Islam in his time, scholar of fiqh, hadith, ihsan, math and many other disciplines, he is one of the highest voices of authority in the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Please see Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp.105-119.
 499-560 (AD1104-1165). He is Abul Muzaffar `Awn ud-Din Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn Hubairah Ash-Shaibani Al-Baghdadi Al-Hanbali. Scholar extraordinaire and enemy to innovation, his hostility to the government of the time put him in close encounters that he was able to avoid. He was a senior teacher in his time and rulers both feared and respected him. He died as a martyr after being poisoned. cf.Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu, vol.3, pp.211-243