Q and A with Feedback: 12 Imams or Khalifahs?

4445e0591cdb99e0481cce86190dbf8cc8fb603c
Figure 1A: The 12 Infallible Imams of the Shi`ah.

This was a question from a noble sister regarding the issue of the 12 Imams or Khalifahs issue. I found it very useful so perhaps the readers might as well. Please read and enjoy!

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— On Sun, 11/9/11

From:
Subject: 12 imams
To: “htspub@yahoo.co.uk” <htspub@yahoo.co.uk>
Date: Sunday, 11 September, 2011, 21:28

Salam abu Jafar, I’m Sending you the email.

as-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

Noble sister A’ishah,

Thank you for your e-mail and may Allah reward you.

Narrated Jabir ibn Samura: I heard the Prophet (s) saying:
“There will be Twelve Commanders after me (Imams).” He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, the Prophet added, “All of them will be from Quraysh.”

This is not the hadith. The hadith is actually where the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “There will be twelve KHALIFAHS after me, all of them will be from the Quraish.” Sahih Muslim

Below are the refs, all from Sunni books of Hadith and taffsir.

1. Sahih al-Bukhari (English ver.) Hadith: 9.329. Sahih al-Bukhari, (Arabic), 4:165, Kitabul Ahkam. This hadeeth is narrated in many other sources as well, including:
2. Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol 5 p97 and 101 (who held the position that the Shi`ah were unbelievers)
3. Umadathl Qari- page 271 (The author of this work is the Imam, Mahmud al-`Aini (d. 871 AH),Hanafi scholar and enemy of the Shi`ah and he called them unbelievers)
4. Tafseer ibn Kathir Vol7 page 110 (A Shafi`ii writer by the name of Imam Isma`il ibn Kathir (d. 774 AH) is the author and he refers to all Shi`ah as cursed )
5. Jami Usul Volume 4 page 440 (Egypt)
6. Al Bidaya al Nihaya Volume 2 page 248 (This is written by Imam Kathir as well)
7. Sawaiqh al Muhriqa page 187 (A work written about the cults by Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haitami (d. 981 AH), in which is classes 12ers as cultists, innovators and in some cases unbelievers)
8. Hilayathul Awliya Volume 333 (This is written by Imam Abu Nuàim al-Isbahani (d. 280 AH), who called the 12ers unbelievers and most all other Shiàh)
9. Tarkeeh Kabeer Volume 1 446 (This was written by Imam Abu Ja`far at-Tabari (d. 280 AH), who was so offended at someone suggesting that his writings had some Shiàh tendencies that he fought that person the rest of his life until he died)

The point of all of this is that if you grant the authors as having veracity, then the Shiàh are wrong. If you should say that the authors are wrong, the Shiàh are still wrong.

If you accept the Sunni books, you have rejected the Shiàh as these authors have; and if you reject them you have rejected the Shiàh path.

Who are the 12? Fill it in and send it back to me. Thanks.

The twelve KHALIFAHS prophesied are:

1. Muàwiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (reigned 41-60 AH)

2. Yazid ibn Muàwiyah (reigned 60-64 AH)

3. Muàwiyah ibn Yazid (or Muàwiyah II) (reigned 64-67 AH) and there was also at the same time, Àbdullah ibn Az-Zubair (reigned 67-86 AH)

4. Marwan ibn al-Hakam (reigned from 67-70 AH)

5. Àbdul Malik ibn Marwan (reigned until 86 AH )

6. Al-Walid I (reigned until 93 AH)

7. Sulaiman I (reigned until 99 AH)

8. Ùmar ibn Àbdul Àziz (reigned 99-101 AH)

9. Yazid ibn Àbdul Malik (Yazid II) (reigned 101-105 AH)

10. Hisham ibn Àbdul Malik (Hisham I) (reigned 105-125)

11. Al-Walid ibn Yazid (Walid II) (reigned 125-126 AH)

12. Yazid ibn Al-Walid (Yazid III) (reigned the remainder of 126 AH for five months)

The evidence for this is the very text that you quoted but we will supplement it with additional proofs.

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, also said, “This matter will not pass until there have appeared among them 12 KHALIFAHS.” Collected by Imam Muslim.

He also said, “The affair of my Ummah will remains straight until the passing of 12 KHALIFAHS.” Collected by al-Bazzar.

There is also his statement, “Islam will always be foreboding, mighty until the passings of 12 KHALIFAHS.” Collected by Al-Bazzar.

There is also in the collection of Abu Dawud where he made the same statement and then the Companions asked, may Allah be pleased with all of them, “They what will there be?” He said, “There will be mass killings.”

This is true to form, for after the death of Yazid III, the Umayyads began to decline and in the East the Andalusian khilafah that they had built began to appear and then the Abbasids overthrew them.

This would be the last time all the people would be united upon one KHALIFAH of Quraish until the end of time.

This can be gleaned from Imam Abu Ja`far at-Tabari’s text on history under the relevant section, so please feel free to refer to it.

Please also remember that Banu Umayyah were from the Quraish. So this would hold with the hadith and there were a succession of them exactly 12 in number, before the eradiction.

Both Akhbari and Usuli would not declare their Imams khalifahs so how this hadith would be used as a proof by 12ers would be diffcult indeed.

Also keep in mind that when Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba, peace be upon him, self abdicated and gave the khilafah to Muàwiyah, this was called the “Year of Jamaàh,” as everyone was now united under one Imam and the murders of the khulafa (as all four of them were assassinated) stopped and the last one to die in his bed was Yazid III.

This has nothing to do with whether all of Banu Umayyah were moral or not. The issue is the prophecy and who it fits; and this is the position of Imams Ìyad al-Yahsubi and Yahya an-Nawawi, peace be upon both of them. Please see Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh in-Nawawi, vol.12, pp. 201-202

brother in Islam,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far al-Hanbali

Q and A with Feedback: Question from Bosnia

Bosna_regija_update
Figure 1A: Bosnia

There was a very good conversation that I had with someone some time ago. I thought that the readers might like to read some of what I receive. Please enjoy!

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— On Wed, 7/9/11, 

From:
Subject: Hanbali Text Society: Some questions/suggestions
To: htspub@yahoo.co.uk
Date: Wednesday, 7 September, 2011, 11:01

 

Assalamu `alaykum respected Shaikh,

May Allah The Exalted forgive you and us our sins, and may He reward you and us!

Wa `Alaikum us-Salaamu Wa Rahmatullah,

I’m sending this message from Podgorica, Montenegro (near Bosnia).

These days I’m reading your book “The Divine Texts” and enjoying it.

I have some questions/suggestions:
1) Do you have errata for this book (and other books)?  Can you please send it to me?  It would be nice if you kept an updated errata PDF file on your site http://www.htspub.com

Yes, I have some 56 mistakes, those that are slight spelling mistakes, .like Muhammd and similar things and then maybe other mistakes where there should be more filling. However at the time of completing it I thought that if I continue with this many notes it is going to become two volumes rather than a slim one.

I have also taken suggestions for a second print that will be coming soon. I am going to take the end notes and move them to the front so they are footnotes instead. Most of the Slaves of Allah, editor included, say this is a good logical step and should be continued.

This is based on the success of the Divine Lightning, which has the references as footnotes rather than end notes. If you have suggestions or input on this I would appreciate it.

2) I’m finding some of your remarks regarding science (my background is Electrical Engineering/Computer Science) a bit vague:

a) The one regarding meteorology/weather forecasting.  Isn’t meteorology/weather forecasting based on experimental science?  You haven’t even mentioned astrology, which, in my opinion, should have been mentioned in this context.

The statement about weatherforecasting was particular to people who claim that they know for sure how the weather is going to be, such as soothsayers and the like. It is one of the things Allah promises no man has sure knowledge of in the last ayah of Surah Luqman.

I apologise if it seemed vague.

b) The one regarding theory of relativity (and E=mc^2).  Similar to other scientific laws, it’s a law that is very useful (although it has been misused in nuclear weapons), and subject to Allah’s Power.  I don’t understand on what basis (you sound very general in your remarks) have you found this theory problematic?  The gist of this theory is that subatomic particles don’t interact with each other like billiard balls.

The statement regarding relativity had to do with (as I connected some aspects to Fred Hoyle) the belief in the universe being created. This was used as a means of asserting this claim by some people and Fred Hoyle is a sort of candidate for a proto-relativity US type theory with is steady state assertion.

It took Dr Jeffrey Weeks to finally expose the point that the universe is not eternal and has an end, a shape (similar to “a soccar ball” to quote him exactly). It is for this reason that the scholars of Islam went after the theory of relativity.

3) Do you have any plans to release Kindle versions of your books?  Shipping real books via Amazon to my country (I guess it’s similar for other countries) costs almost as much as half the price of the book.

I am thinking about it and it is on the cards as my publisher and other people have badgered me about it. They have just about worn me down.

4) I found a freely available PDF of your book “A Word of Advice”
Was this made available with your consent?

No, and I alerted my publisher and editors of this but I don’t know the legal ramifications and why those individuals keep displaying it. I use the money from royalties to pour into other projects. I just love for the texts to get out there so anything that comes back goes into projects. When someone does that, they are attempting to slow projects, accidently or with purposeful intent.

That’s it for now…  May Allah preserve you!

Please pray for guidance, tawfiq and baraka for me, my parents, my relatives…

 

Thank you for your kind words and the update. I hope you have found some benefit in my words. It is mainly the fact that I love for those scholars to come into English.

It may help to keep in mind that when the scholars normally go after something they do so with a mind to demolish false concepts and other things. So with the theory of relativity there have been side effects that have been good, but this was neither the original intent of its’ creators or the first principle to come from it.

The beginning point was to “try to posit a universe and explain it as if there was no god,” a point similar to how Charles Darwin tried to explain the origin of life.

I hope that clarified the point better on the reasons behind why the theologians made certain remarks that I footnoted.

was-Salaam,

brother in Islam,

Al-Hajj

P.S. I apologise for not addressing you as sister/brother, but I am unfamiliar with Bosnian gender names so I could not ascertain you to be male or female.

Q and A with Feedback: Divine Lightning Feedback

A noble brother from Germany sent me this information and we had a very good dialogue. Thank you to all those who contributed

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From:
To: ‘SOCSS Org’ <htspub@yahoo.co.uk>
Sent: Tuesday, 15 November 2011, 18:32
Subject: Questions about Muhammad b. ʿAbdulwahhab

Assalamu ʿalaykum,
Wa `Alaikum us-Salaamu wa Rahmatullah,
Dear Shaykh Abū Jaʿfar,
I hope this mail receives you in your best health.
Perhaps you remember our Mail Exchange. I have some Questions regarding Muḥammad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhab and his relation to his Father.
1.       Did Shaykh ʿAbd al-Wahhab really warn people from his son?
Some Najdis with whom I’ve discussed say, that this is a lie which (the najdis call him Shaykh „al-Kadhibin“ )(astaghfirullah) Aḥmad Zayni Dahlan has introduced first.
The sources I have quoted for opposition to Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab have nothing to do with his father warning against him. In the literature, it is stated that he was angry about him and his beliefs. This can be gleaned from the sources in Misbah ul-Anam by Imam `Alawi al-Haddad (who knew Sulaiman ibn `Abdul Wahhab and had taught him and visited them from Yemen) and as-Suhub ul-Wabilah by Imam Muhammad ibn Humaid an-Najdi (who quotes from his uncles and great uncles, who actually witnessed the movement and its’ rise.
It makes little sense that a chain of transmission from the author to his uncles and great uncles and father can be weak. As-Suhub is not a book of hadith, it is a book of history. Eye witness accounts cannot be weak because they are eye witness accounts.)
Further to this, Imam Zayni Dahlan cites where he derived his sources from and how. His history book, Khulasat ul-Kalam is second only to the Ottoman records. The same goes for his other records. As for his being a Shaikh of the liars, it will be problematic for Salafiyyah as all the chains of transmissions of hadith scholars post him, including salafis who claim they studied hadith have him in the transmission.
they therefore have a liar in their transmission. So then where are the true chains of transmission in this era? Remember that the Indians who claim to have studied hadith have them in their transmission and so do those in the western Arab lands. Finally, why was he chosen by the Ottoman judiciary and those in the Hijaz to be head over his madhhab if he was unreliable?
I found something like that also in as-Suhub al-Wabilah, but the Najdi said, that this is a very weak Isnād (the Shaykh says he has heard from a group of people who’ve heard…) etc.
Also they narrate, that Abdulwahhab has praised his son Muḥammad (we can find this in Al Bajjānu wal Ish-hār).
The quote supplied is from literature 100 years after the movement (the same thing goes for books that are 100 years later that claim he never made takfir but he just warned or that he said he had no problem with madhhabs or sufis and such) and they are not even linked to the scene of the events. Almost all the literature that I have quoted is from eye witnesses who were either natives or quoted second hand from native inhabitants/eye witnesses.
Then he claims, that the saying in Suhub al-Wabilah can’t be true, because the author narrates that Abdulwahhab was angry at his son, because he didn’t wanted to learn fiqh. But we know that Muḥammad ibn Abdulwahhab has an Isnād in Fiqh going back to Ghulam al-Khallāl, and he was a student of Shaykh Muḥammad Hayat as-Sindi and Abdullah b. Ibrāhīm b. Sayf b. Abdillah an-Najdi.
No, Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab does not have a teaching license, which would require memorisation and details and such. He is in no chain of transmission of any hadith from the Hijaz region, while the aforementioned authors most certainly are in fact.
The claims to his lineage in different subjects is well known. If you check in the bibliography, the agreed upon sources of Salafiyyah list no such thing, but rather that he narrated some hadith. There is no chain of transmission for the collections and salafis only have Imam Muhammad Hayat as-Sindi narrating the hadith. Salafis often do this action.
At the beginning of the dars on hadith, most hadith memorisers will start off quoting their chain of transmission. This is exactly what is in the well known biographical literature of Salafiyyah itself. The author of the chain of transmission mentioned nothing of Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab having permission or being at any level. This chain would be known by any student in his class as it would have been introduced in the beginning.
I have heard durus of Shaikhs Muhammad Abu Shahbah (recorded), Muhammad Hasan ash-Shanqiti (live) and others and they do the same. I am not a scholar because I sat in the class, heard the hadith and then quoted it. Produce the scholars that held him in the rank of a scholar. The same applies to the claims about chains back to al-Khallal, as-Sindi, an-Najdi and others. Please refer to the quotes of all the scholars at the beginning of the book for further details.
The statement in As-Suhub had nothing to do with fiqh. Ask for him to read you the manuscript or 1995 printed edition before corruption by Bakr Abu Zayd or from the direct text.
How would you answer to these?
2.       You wrote in „The Divine Lightning“, that Muḥammad b. Abdulwahhab changed after his trip to Bilad ash-Sham through Iraq, cause he found the books of Shaykh Muḥammad Amir as-Sanani and Ibn Taymiyyah.
No, I did not. Read pp. 25-26. The change came after these books had been found but his theology was fully codified when he had made the detour because he read the extracts by himself rather than having them read to him. There was no mention that he found the books while he was in Iraq or Sham.
Remember that Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah’s books were not in mass circulation as they are today as there is much complexity. Teachers often read/taught them privately as can be seen from the chains of transmission from Imam `Abdul `Aziz Al al-Hanbali (d. 1295 AH), may Allah have mercy on him, who narrated it only to students who had memorised a certain amount. People did not merely have them in their libraries as has happened today.
But Najdis claim, that Muḥammad b. Abdulwahhab never changed and that he always had this opinion. Al-Bassam writes in his work: „ʿUlama al-Najd“:
„One day Shaykh Muḥammad Hayat as-Sindi saw Shaykh Muḥammad b. Abdulwahhab staying at the Room oft he Prophet, while the normal people were doing things of bida and shirk tawassul. His Shaykh Muḥammad Hayat asked him, what he thinks about these people, and he answered: „They are doing wrong things in their zeal, while thinking that they are behaving right.“ (P. 131)
The quote you gave needs to be checked as it actually occurred in Madinah when he was watching the people at the Rawdah. This is according to eye witness literature as quoted by Imam as-Sindi himself to `Alawi al-Haddad in Misbah ul-Anam. I have mentioned this on pp. 30-31 of the Divine Lightning. This is also discussed in authoritative Salafi literature that can be found in the bibliography section of the book.
So this is a proof that Muhammad never changed his mind, cause this happened in Makkah. Also it is said, that Shaykh Muḥammad gave him Ijāzah. But you have wrote in The Diving Lightining, that it is not known that any of his teachers considered him as an ʿalim, whos able to give rulings.
Again, this has already been addressed before, so evidence will still need to be brought by those claiming his scholarship. Please read the section on all the scholars again as none of those quoted held him in the post of a scholar. This is on pp. 25-57
Also al-Bassam says: „The Shaykh discussed with the ʿUlamāʾ about their Shirk and the Shirk oft he normal folk. His teacher Muḥammad al-Majmuʿi supported him in this and the true ʿAqidah entered his heart.“ (P. 133)
No, the issue discussed by the Shaikh had to do with the people who would sometimes do acts of tasawwuf naked and  also impermissible acts at the graves. This issue is affirmed by all literature but the issue has to do with the principle of condemnation; the condemnation of the action was permitted. However it would not be until 1153 AH that his theology would be revealed in full in which he said the people doing the actions were not only wrong but pagans. Again by going through the bibliography this literature can be found.
And it is also said, that he wrote his Kitāb at-Tawḥīd in Basrah.
No, this is not stated in the book under the introductory chapter of the Khawarij. I have not written that at all. However this is discussed in the text `Aqidat ush-Shaykh Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab is-Salafiyyatu wa Atharuha fil Islami, which is the most authoritative text of Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab and the most exhaustive. However the claim that it was written in al-Basrah is upheld by other documents but there is some dispute about it. And what is more, there is dispute if Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab even wrote the whole book without help from an underwriter.
Al-Bassam says, that he has found the books of Ibn Taymiyyah etc. in al-Ahsa and not in ash-Sham, and that Muḥammad b. Abdulwahhab started with his dawa while his father was alive, but in The Divine Lightning you’ve wrote, that Muḥammad b. Abdulwahhab waited till his death of his father. Al-Bassam also says, that Abdulwahhab criticized his son because he was to hard on them, not because his dawah itself.
3.       What do you say to Ibn Abdilhadis refutation of Shifa as-Siqam?
  It’s irrelevent and has nothing to do with the cult of Salafiyyah and was not cited under any of the foundational disputes between the scholars and Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab. And what is more, the author’s name is Ibn al-Mabrid, as there are some six or more Ibn `Abdul Hadi personalities.
Like always: I’m writing to you because I believe you have a good portion of knowledge about this topics, and my Questions are for learning, not critic.
Thank you for your time. Please answer me even if you are working on the main answer – just so that I know that you have received it. Please help me in understanding these points and support me in our work against this cult.
Please read the entire book from cover to cover before asking any further questions as much of what you have asked I have already answered. It may be the questions that you have are answered in the book. this was written over a long duration of time so please take the time to read through the entire thing before sending through any more questions.
was-Salaam,
brother in Islam,
al-Hajj
Assalamu ʿalaykum

Q and A with Feedback: the khuff

This was a question asked only a month or so ago:

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as-Salaamu `Alaikum,

Noble brother,

I apologise for the long time but many things were pressing. Could you please pass on this note to brother Harun. Also, please make sure the citation stays in place and in full.

When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, was with one of his companions, he was wearing his khuff after having made wudu.’ At another point in the day, he was making wudu,’ and the companion was assisting him. He was about to remove the khuffs, but the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Leave them on, for the two khuffs I have entered into the wudu’ when they were put on at a time of purity.” He then wiped over them.
Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, vol.4, pp. 254-255; Abu Dawud in his Sunan, Book of Purification under the chapter of Wiping Over the Two Khuffs; Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Bukhari in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih, Book of Purification, under the chapter of Wiping Over the Two Khuffs; Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih, Book of Purification under the chapter of Wiping Over the Two Khuffs and classified as authentic.
Imam Abul Qasim al-Khiraqi (d. 334 AH/AD 946), a student of Imam Salih al-Baghdadi, a student of a Tabi`ii, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, stated, “And he is not allowed to wipe over the khuff that does not reach the ankles or the khuff is cut below the ankles. This is not allowed.” Al-Mughni, vol.1, pp. 329-330
 Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, ruled, “It is permissible to wipe over every type of khuff, as long as it is possible to sustain movement in them, whether it (the khuff) be from animal skin or hide, felt, or whatever else is like it. If it is of wood, timber, iron or things such as that, then some of our companions have said, ‘It is not permissible to wipe over it, for the rukhsah (dispensation) that has been related regarding the well known khuffs is by necessity and the necessity does not call for this (wiping over wood, timber or iron khuffs) in most cases.’
Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la said, ‘The analogy of the school is the permissibility of wiping over it, for indeed a khuff covers what is possible to move and sustain mobility in just as the animal skins or hide.’ ” Al-Mughni, vol.1, pp. 330-331. The Imam has also mentioned, “It is permissible to wipe over the two khuffs and whatever is like them, whether it be the thick socks or what is worn on top of the khuff, as long as they are established on the two feet.” Al-`Umdah, pp. 15-16.
 Imam Abul Qasim al-Khiraqi stated, “And it is not permissible to wipe over anything except for the two khuffs or whatever is like that that is established by itself and similar to it that goes past the ankles, meaning the tony boy parts of the lower leg. And the same thing holds for the thick sock that does not come off when one moves around in it. And if that thick sock is established by wearing a sandal over it, he may wipe over them. But if he should take the sandal off and the thick sock comes down, it nullifies wudu.’ ” Mukhtasar al-Khiraqi `ala Madhhab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp. 17-18.
 Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, stated, “And if the khuff is something impermissible, meaning that is stolen, or made of pure silk, it is not permissible to wipe over it according to the authoritative ruling in the school. And if he should wipe over them and pray in them, he will need to repeat wudu’ and prayer, as he was disobedient for wearing them and it is not permissible to make a dispensation in such things just as it is not permissible for the one travelling to commit acts of disobedience to have the dispensation of shortening prayers during travel.
So if he did travel to commit acts of disobedience, it is not permissible for him to wipe over the khuffs for more than one day and one night, as a day and a night are not specified for travel nor does it count as one of the dispensations. So it is not from the dispensations, which is the opposite of wiping over the khuff for more than one day and a night. Indeed the dispensations of travel are not permissible to use to commit acts of disobedience. And this includes the shortening and combining of prayers.” Al-Mughni, vol.1, pp. 330-331
This means that the khuff is made out of some permissible substance, whether that is camel, horse, buffalo, goat, caribou, zebra, deer or any other type of cattle/livestock (that have been slaughtered according to how Allah has mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah), or it is felt, wood, iron, steel, metal, wool, polyester and so forth. As for khuffs made from hide, if it was an impermissible animal that was killed, or it was a permissible animal killed unlawfully (cf. Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah), then even if the hide was tanned, it would not be lawful to pray in these, although one might wear them. More info…
This has to do with the thickness of the khuff or what is like it. Thickness does not mean water proof. We will give some examples of what the scholars intend when they mention thickness. Imam Baha’ ud-Din al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, commented, “And it is permissible to wipe over the the jawrab and the jarmuq. This is due to what has been narrated from al-Mughirah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, wiped over his jawrab and his sandals.
And this is collected by Imams Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi, with at-Tirmidhi adding, ‘This hadith is authentic.’ Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said, ‘Wiping over the socks (tr. Note: Ar. jawarib) has been mentioned by seven or eight companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.’ And the jarmuq has the same meaning as the khuff, because it is worn and covers the foot, making it possible to sustain movement in it. Thus it is like the khuff.
The jawrab as a condition must be thick, in that it covers the foot, for when it is thin, it shows the foot and it is not permissible to wipe over it as it is not covering it. And this is the same for the torn khuff in that one may not wipe over it. And it must be established on the foot by itself without being tied, then if it falls from the foot by movement or due to heaviness, then it is not permissible to wipe over it.” The Imam says further, “And for the jarmuq, the condition is that it reaches the ankles as it is the place that is compulsory to have covered. And it is necessary for both ankles to be covered, just like the rest of the foot.” Al-`Uddah, Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 50-51
Imam Mansur al-Buhuti, may Allah be pleased with him, explained the matter, “Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, said, ‘I feel no worry in my heart about the issue of wiping, as there are some forty ahadith from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, on the subject.’ And the thick jawrab is what is worn on the foot over the khuff without it being made of hide, as the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, wiped over the jawrab and the sandals as is collected by Imams Ahmad and others and declared authentic by Imam at-Tirmidhi.
And one may wipe over anything like them, meaning what resembles the khuff and the jawrab, like the jarmuq. And the jarmuq is the small khuff, it is is permissible to wipe over it as the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, did so. And this is collected by Imam Ahmad and others.” Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp. 35-36
Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, explains this, “One of the conditions is that it covers the area that would normally be exposed for wudu,’ and this area must be covered in totality. And if any of the foot is exposed, it is not permissible to wipe over it, as the ruling is what covers the area that is to be wiped over. And the ruling is that whatever is exposed is to washed, meaning the feet, so there is no way to join between them, the feet must be fully covered and just as if one of them became exposed it would not be permissible to wipe over them. And if a hole formed in a thick khuff that had an outside of animal hide and an inside of yarn or strings and the strings or yarn became exposed, it would be permissible to wipe over them.
This is because the foot is still covered. And even if there is a long hole that does not expose the foot, it is permissible to wipe over it. But if the khuff is thin and this happens, it is not permissible to wipe over it as the foot is not covered. And if there is padding when the hole opens up in the khuff and it is firmly placed where the foot does not become exposed when he walks, it is permissible to wipe over it, as this is just like yarn or strings inside of the footgear and not the foot.
The second point is that it must be possible to sustain movement within the khuff or thing like the khuff. So if it falls down or away from the foot by movement or due to it being heavy, it is not permissible to wipe over them, as what is called for is that one can sustain movement in them, whether it is animal hide, clothing or thick socks. This is due to what has been narrated from al-Mughirah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, wiped over his socks and his sandals.
And this is collected by Imams Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi, with at-Tirmidhi adding, ‘This hadith is authentic.’ Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said, ‘Wiping over the socks has been mentioned by seven or eight companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.’ And the reason for this allowance is that it is worn and covers the foot and is possible to sustain movement in it, just like the khuff. If someone should take pieces of blanket and tie them on the legs, it is not permissible to wipe over them, as they are not established by themselves. They are only established by tying them.” Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.1, pp. 58-60
Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din, may Allah be pleased with him, states further, “And so it is permissible to wipe over the two socks only so long as they possess the same ruling as the khuffs, namely 1) they are thick, meaning that no part of the foot is exposed 2) one is capable of sustained movement within them.” Al-Mugni, vol.1, pp. 330-331.
Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said the following, “It is not permissible for the one travelling to commit acts of disobedience to have the dispensation of shortening prayers during travel. So if he did travel to commit acts of disobedience, it is not permissible for him to wipe over the khuffs for more than one day and one night, as a day and a night are not specified for travel nor does it count as one of the dispensations. So it is not from the dispensations, which is the opposite of wiping over the khuff for more than one day and a night. Indeed the dispensations of travel are not permissible to use to commit acts of disobedience. And this includes the shortening and combining of prayers.” Al-Mughni, vol.1, pp. 330-331
The expression one day and night which in the Arabic appears as ‘yawman wa laylan’ has a few points to it. This means one day and one night. But how do we understand what is meant by this speech? We will look at the Words of Allah and then examine the context. The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, commanded that the traveller may wipe over his khuffs three days and their nights while the resident may wipe over this khuffs for one day and one night. Collected by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, vol.6, pp. 26-27.
Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, said of this narration, “This is the most noble hadith on the subject of wiping over the khuff, because it took place during the Battle of Tabuk. This was the very last battle the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, took part in so it was the last action on the subject.” Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 50-51.
There have been some in this particular era that have taken this and the other ahadith on the subject to be referring to 24 hours. They would reason that as we are on a 24 hour clock, the wiping of the khuff would end at 12am, which would signal a new day in countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada and others. However, we would need to take a closer look at the hadith. The hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, advises, “Three days and their nights.”
The word for “day” used in Arabic is “yawm” while the word used for “night” is “lail” in Arabic. We will need a definition of these terms in context. When defining the word “yawm,” Imam Ibn Mandhur, author of the most authoritative Arabic dictionary, defined it as, “The well known period of time referred to by this title which is from sunrise to sunset.” Lisan ul-Arab, vol.12, pp. 773-774. The same author goes on to define the expression “lail” as, “Lail is the end of the nahar and its’ beginning is from the setting of the sun. The night is the opposite of the nahar and the night is the shadows while the day is the light. So when speaking of them singly, one would say, ‘a night and a day.’ ”
He said further, “Nahar is the name of every day while lail is the name of every night…and the opposite of the day is the night…so night is the opposite of the day and the day is the opposite of the night.” Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.11, pp. 720-722.
The gist of this definition is that the “day” for a Muslim begins at sunset. Thus sunset on Monday night becomes Tuesday, so from sunset on Monday to sunset on Tuesday, the night that comes first and then the daylight up until sunset is counted as one “day,” which in this example would be Tuesday. We can see that this is what is referred to in the hadith when we were given permission to wipe over the khuff for three days and “their nights.”
And what is more, the 24 hour clock did not start to become popular globally until AD 1300 onwards, but before hand the Muslims would have no such understanding of a 24 hour clock. So the hadith, the dictionary definition and the scholars show us that the understanding for a “day” and the wiping period would be from sunset to sunset.
Thus one who was a resident and did his first wiping over the khuff at the time of sunset prayer, would be allowed to do so until the next sunset. Once that next sunset came, a “day” would have elapsed and he would have to remove the khuffs and make wudu’ by washing his feet as normal. The same would be the case for the traveller given permission to wipe over the khuffs for three days and their nights.

 

originally cited from the text: The Primer by Imam Musa al-Qaddumi, translated by al-Hajj Abu Ja`far al-Hanbali, pp. 37-41

was-Salaam,

al-Hajj

Q and A with Feedback: Salafi institutions

Sunday, 8 July 2012, 21:41
as-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,
Noble brother,
Sorry for how long it took to get back to you. Let me start by saying that Al-Maghrib Institute is a very secretive organisation and they do not often like to tell the people what books they are teaching and how they are teaching them. However, information can still be gathered.
Errors in Theology
Al-Maghrib is Salafi and teaches the false three tawhid theory that most nations in the past knew that Allah was their Lord, that they used to say La ilaha illallah but that they were still idol worshippers. Further to this, they also continue to advance the notion, with the books of Abu `Ammar Yasir al-Qadhi (who translated and commentated upon the books of the salafi founder, Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab, more particularly Kashf ash-Shubuhat fit-Tawhid, which in English is A Critical Analysis of Shirk) that people in this Ummah today are worse than the idol worshippers of old.
Please see:
The Team at Al-Maghrib
Those on their team, from `Abdullah Hakim Quick to their advisory panel and other people like Yasir Al-Qadhi, are indeed Salafis. One can listen to their lectures and compare that with the books of Salafiyyah and found that it is the same cult but just pretending to be Sunnah. Ask them about the theology of Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab and whether most of the Ummah today is engaged in shirk. Ask them if salvation is by faith alone from the mercy of Allah or whether deeds are part of salvation. As them if someone can have shirk in their tawhid. As them if the unbelievers had some aspects of tawhid and were only missing the “Tawhid of Worship.” All of this is the theology of Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab.
Errors regarding the Scholars who are in Charge of the Ummah
This same organisation makes a number of bizarre claims, exalting themselves above the scholars with the cry of, “Qur’an and Sunnah.” These same individuals have attacked the Sunni scholars of the past (such as Imams Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, as-Sakhawi) and continue to do so and Al-Maghrib still blindfollowers the literature of Yasir al-Qadhi and uses his books.
Please see:
Errors in fiqh
These same people claim that the position about the hands being under the navel in the salah is incorrect, not a difference of opinion but incorrect. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal also negated this narration with another narration to state that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, forbade people from praying with their hands on their chest. Please see Bada’ii ul-Fawa’id, vol.4, pp.49-59 for the full discussion and the hadith on it.
The position of Al-Maghrib is here: http://forums.almaghrib.org/showthread.php?t=42415
Thus my advice to any intelligent person would be to stay away from Salafiyyah and this would include Al-Maghrib as it hides its’ true theology until people are well invested and then spiritually molests them and tries to destroy their faith. There are obviously more quotes but just the fact that they belong to the creed of Salafiyyah is enough.
I have translated two very thick books written by scholars, quoting from more than 60 books of scholars from the time of Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab, stating that Salafiyyah is major kufr and in a general sense, Salafis are kuffar. This ruling as the same against the Ahmadiyyah, 12er Shi`ah and so forth. I advise you to stay away from them and not poison your theology with kufr as Salafiyyah is another god, another Islam and another Muhammad (the wrong one, namely Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab).
was-Salaam,
al-Hajj

Q and A with Feedback: Deoband and Barelwi

two-men-fighting
Figure 1A: The Barelwi-Deobandi fight can easily be summed up in just one picture.

Here is another example of some really useful questioning and feedback that I received recently. I would like to thank all the contributors to the blog and the website for their inquisitive attitude.

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From:
To: htspub@yahoo.co.uk
Sent: Tuesday, 5 June 2012, 15:10
Subject: Hanbali Text Society: Aqeedah point

Salaam ya Shaykh,

wa `Alaikum us-Salaamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu,

Please forgive me for asking this question. I know that you have no interest in the Barelvi Deobandi divide and I do not blame you.

Correct.

But as a man who has researched this issue I am leaning heavily to the views of Imam Ahmad Rida Khan.

Right.

My question is one and only one regarding the dispute. Deobandis say Allah SWt can lie but chooses not to. Barelvis and others argue that lying is a flaw and flaws are impossible for Allah SWT hence to say it’s possible for Allah SWt to lie is a kufr staement. Please clarify this matter as it became very confusing after Shaykh Nuh came out with his article on this issue and yet a Barelvi brother produced an article which seems sooo strong which is here
http://www.sunniport.com/books/The%20Truth%20About%20a%20Lie%20v.2.pdf

Forgive me and please don’t be upset I sincerely am confused on this isue because my heart leans to the barelvi position and if that is so it means its kufr to hold Allah SWT can lie as it’s a flaw.

The scholars of the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah have mercy on him, when asked about this issue, whether iman is created or uncreated gave the same reply. Just discussing the matter is kufr, as it assumes

1) both sides have a legitimate right to be heard

2) `Ilm ul-Kalaam  or speculative theology, has a place in Islam, when it has been forbidden by the scholars of Muslim Orthodoxy just to look at them, let alone study them.

3) there are possible limits for Allah and this can be discussed.

In the supplication after the Adhan, the Hanbali scholars make specific reference to the statement, innaka La Tukhlif ul-Mi`ad (Indeed You never break Your Promise). Breaking promises are such are limitations and as such it is not permitted to attribute to Him when he has said, There is no thing like Him. He is the All Hearing, the All Seeing.

The argument to which you make reference is a result of speculative theology and is immediately rejected by myself as per the scholars of the school due to the wickedness of the tools used in deduction. So in a nutshell, this is my position.

Therefore, just to discuss the possiblity or whether or not Allah might have a limitation or boundary is kufr. Allah is in no need or boundaries or limits. And with Allah is every success.

was-Salaam,

al-Hajj Abu Ja`far al-Hanbali

Q and A with Feedback: Mass Transmitted Evidence

large-crowd-people-4259743
Figure 1A; Mass transmitted evidence is important in Islam.

I received this question on 12 August 2004 but I believe it still has biting relevance today. I have reproduced it below for the benefit of readers. I have mainly put the reply I gave to the brother regarding tawatur.

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as-Salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

Noble brother,

Thank you for your question and may Allah reward you for your diligence. With regard to Tawatur, it has the following points to be kept in mind,

  1. Acceptance of tawatur is clear and must be accepted (it is compulsory, i.e. fard), as it touches on creedal points. This point is stressed by Imams Abu Hanifah (al-Fiqh ul-Akbar, p. 5 of all Arabic text), Muhy ud-Din (al-Qawl ul-Fasl: Sharh ul-Fiqh ul-Akbar, pp. 332-333), Abu Ja`far at-Tahawi (Bayan us-Sunnah, creedal point #76) and `Abdul Ghani al-Maidani (Bayan us-Sunna wal-Jama`ah: Sharh ul-`Aqidat ut-Tahawiyyah, pp. 112-113), may Allah be pleased with all of them, in their texts.
  1. The Qur’an was transmitted through tawatur means and of course to reject that would be false, as it was mass transmitted.
  1. It is for this reason that we find some of the earliest texts of creed affirming the use and acceptance of the belief in wiping over the socks, by such luminaries as Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal, `Ubaidullah ibn Battah, Abu Hanifah, Abu Hafs an-Nasafi, Abu Ja`far at-Tahawi and others, may Allah be pleased with them.
  1. This issue, although making reference to the fiqhi principle of wiping over the leather socks, is actually theological in nature as affirmation of this and other types of ahadith of its’ kind is affirming the tawatur.
  1. If someone denies the tawatur, their judgement would depend upon the following issues,

a.  If the person was a new Muslim, he would be excused as he has just entered into the faith and has not learned such foundations.

b.   If the person believed in the tawatur but disagreed about the content of the tawatur, this would be valid and the person would be a Muslim. An example would be the tawatur nature of the flood. Every single Muslim, laymen and theologian, believes that the flood took place and that it has been passed down unbroken. However, there is a disagreement over whether the flood was global or not. Thus all sides affirm the tawatur fact of the flood being passed down, but in its’ content there is some disagreement, which is why there are two opinions about the flood being global or not. And this is merely a minor difference in the branches of creed and not the foundations, therefore one is still within the fold of Islam, no matter what side they are on

c. There are those who would deny tawatur in form and content, which is kufr without any doubt, for example the Imami Shi`a denial of the consensus around Abu Bakr as-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, as the Khalifah of the Muslims and first leader after the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, the fact that the Qur’an is uncreated and not created, that Allah will be seen on the Day of Judgement by believers, that only prophets and angels are infallible and many other points that are established by tawatur.

I hope that this helped and that it made sense. And with Allah is every success and help,

Was-Salaam,

Brother in Islam

Night of 15th of Sha`ban…Is it True?

blue-moon-tree
Figure 1A: Photo courtesy of http://www.timeanddate.com

The great Hafiz, Imam Zain ud-Din Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d. 795 AH), may Allah be pleased with him, said of the night of the 15th of Sha`ban and its’ benefits:

Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’ii, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, al-Hakim all narrated from the hadith of Al-`Ala’ ibn `Abdur-Rahman from his father from Abu Hurairah from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said,

“When the month of Sha`ban reaches midway, do not fast until the month of Ramadan.”

Imam at-Tirmidhi and others narrated this matter. The scholars differ regarding the authenticity of this hadith and then also acting on it. As for the authenticity of the hadith, it has been declared to be so by Imams at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibban, al-Hakim, at-Tahawi, Ibn `Abdul Barr.

However there has been discussion about this hadith by those greater and more knowledgeable than those previously mentioned. They state, “This is a hadith that is rejected.”

Those sharing this opinion include `Abdur-Rahman ibn Mahdi, the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abu Zur`ah ar-Razi and Abu Bakr al-Athram. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said of this hadith, “Al-`Ala’ did not narrate any hadith worse than this one.” The Imam then went on to reject the hadith and answer it with another hadith,

“Do not precede Ramadan with a fast by a day or two days.”

So the understanding that one can take from the hadith is that it is permissible to precede Ramadan with a fast that is more than two days. Abu Bakr al-Athram said of this matter, “The ahadith on the topic in total contradict the hadith of al-`Ala’ and the other ahadith on the topic indicate that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to fast all of Sha`ban, then follow it up with Ramadan.

He did indeed forbid from preceding Ramadan by two days with a fast, but that hadith is indeed divergent and contradicts the other authentic ahadith on the topic.”

Imam Abu Ja`far at-Tahawi said of the hadith of al-`Ala,’ “That hadith is abrogated and Consensus has been narrated on not acting on this hadith.”

Most of the scholars hold the position that the hadith is not to be acted on while others took hold of the hadith – like ash-Shafi`ii and his companions – and forbade from beginning an optional fast after the middle of Sha`ban for the one who does not normally fast due to some other sunnah fasts.

Some of the latter day scholars of our school also agreed with them in that, but they differed in the reason for the prohibition. Some of them said that it is for the reason that it is feared that someone may increase days in the month of Ramadan that are not from it. However this position is far from the mark as after the 15th of Sha`ban is indeed mentioned.

It is also far from the mark as the prohibition in the hadith states that someone should not precede Ramadan by a day or two days. This shows that they knew that this month was before Ramadan so there is no confusion.

Others scholars of the school said that the prohibition is so that the individual might remain strong for the fasting coming up in the month of Ramadan. So this is a tenderness towards him so that he does not become weak in Sha`ban from fasting to the point that he cannot fulfil Ramadan.

This position has been narrated from Waki` and he understood that the fasting of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in the month of Sha`ban in which he either fasted all of it or most of it and then followed it up with Ramadan. All of this is to do with the fast after the 15th of Sha`ban.

Now with regard to the topic of fasting on 15th Sha`ban, then this is not completely forbidden as in general this is from the recommended white days that one would fast in succession, which are the 13th, 14th and 15th of every lunar month and this is praiseworthy.

A command was narrated to fast in the month of Sha`ban specifically and the day was referred to in particular. This hadith appears in the Sunan of Ibn Majah with a weak chain of transmission from `Ali from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said,

“When the middle of the month of Sha`ban appears, then stand in the night and fast in the day of this time. Indeed Allah the Exalted descends at the time of sunset to the lowest sky.

He says, ‘Is there someone who is seeking forgiveness so I can forgive him? Is there someone who is asking for sustenance so that I might give it to him? Is there someone in tribulation so that I might relieve him? Shall I not do as I have said? Shall I not do as I have said?’ This time remains until the time of Fajr.”

Regarding the virtues of the 15th of Sha`ban, there are a number of other ahadith and the scholars have differed when discussing them. Most scholars consider these ahadith as weak while Ibn Hibban declared some of them as authentic.

Imam Ibn Hibban mentioned in his Sahih the aforementioned hadith and others like it, including the hadith of `A’ishah, who said, “The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was absent from his bed one night.  I went out looking for him and found that he was at the graveyard of Jannat ul-Baqi`.

His head was raised towards the sky and he said, ‘Did you fear that you had been abandoned by Allah and His Messenger?’ I said in reply, ‘I thought that you had gone to visit one of your wives.’

He said in reply, ‘Indeed Allah, Blessed and Exalted, comes down the lowest sky on 15th of Sha`ban and forgives more people than there are hairs on the sheep looked after by the dogs of shepherds.’

This hadith was also collected by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah but at-Tirmidhi mentioned from al-Bukhari that the hadith was weak.

Ibn Majah also mentioned a hadith from Abu Musa from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said,

“Indeed Allah comes to the lowest sky on 15th Sha`ban and He forgives all of His Creation with the exception of the idol worshipper and the one addicted to intoxicants.”

The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, narrated a hadith from `Abdullah ibn `Amr from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,who said,

“Indeed Allah comes down to His Creation on 15th Sha`ban and forgives His Slaves with the exception of two: the one addicted to intoxicants and the one who committed suicide.”

This same hadith was also given from Ibn Hibban in his Sahih text from Mu`adh and the hadith is attributable.

The same Imam, Ibn Hibban, narrates a hadith from `Uthman ibn Abil `As that is attributable where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“When the 15th of Sha`ban comes, someone calls out, ‘Is there someone who is seeking forgiveness so that I might forgive him? Is there someone who is asking so that I can grant his request? I will not turn anyone away from me that asks Me except the one who commits fornication or adultery with a woman and an idol worshipper.’ ”

There are other ahadith on the subject but there is weakness in all of them. It is narrated from Nawf al-Bikali that `Ali, peace be upon him, came out on 15th of Sha`ban and most of the people came out looking at the sky. `Ali then said, “Dawud, peace be upon him, came out on this exact same day and looked at the sky. He then said, ‘This is an hour in which Allah called out:

Anyone that calls Me, I will answer him. Anyone who asks My Forgiveness, I will forgive him. This is as long as he is not a numerologist, magician, poet, astrologer, palm reader, policeman, taker of bribes, someone who is a drum or music player.’

Allah! Lord of Dawud, forgive the one who calls on You this night and the one who aks your forgiveness on this night.”

The night of the 15th of Sha`ban was venerated and used for strenuous worship by the followers of the Companions from the people of Sham like Khalid ibn Ma`dan, Makhul, Luqman ibn `Amir and others. There were a group of them who extolled the virtues of this night and held it in regard.

It was however said that this came from traditions that had an Israelite origin. Once this practice and the knowledge of the practice became widespread in the different lands, the people differed about the 15th of Sha`ban.

There were some people who accepted the night of Sha`ban and others who agreed with them in venerating this night and holding it in special regard. Some of these included a group of worshippers from the people of Al-Basrah and others besides.

This veneration was repudiated by most of the scholars of Al-Hijaz, such as `Ata’ ibn Abi Mulaikah. `Abdur-Rahman ibn Zaid ibn Aslam also narrated this position from the scholars of fiqh as authorities of the people of Madinah – which is the position the companions of Imam Malik – and others and they said that all the things done in veneration of that night are a innovation.

The scholars of Sham differed in how to go about venerating the night of Sha`ban and how to show it respect. There were two positions that they adopted in the matter:

1)     This group held that it was praiseworthy to venerate the night by gathering a congregation together in the masjids. Khalid ibn Ma`dan and Luqman ibn `Amir and others used to wear their best clothes on that day, burn incense, wear kohl and in the night stand for extra prayers in the masjid. Those who agreed with them in this were Ishaq ibn Rahawaih who when discussing the actions on this night, like a group of people standing in optional congregational prayers, said, “This is not an innovation at all.” This was also narrated  from Harb al-Kirmani in his book, al-Masa’il.

2)     A group of scholars hold that all the practices mentioned above that are done in the masjids on this night – namely congregational prayer, story-telling, supplication are disliked; but it is not disliked for the man to pray by himself individually on this night. This is the statement of Imam al-Awza`ii, the Imam of the people of Sham, their scholar of fiqh and teacher. This is actually the nearest position to the truth, if Allah, the Exalted so wills.

It has been narrated from `Umar ibn `Abdul `Aziz that he wrote to his worker in al-Basrah, “You need to keep vigil on four nights of the year in which Allah completes and perfects in them his mercy on the first night of Rajab, the night of the 15th of Sha`ban, the night of `Id ul-Fitr, the night of `Id al-Adha.”

I would like to say for the record that the authenticity of this statement is disputed. Imam ash-Shafi`ii, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “It has come to our attention that the supplication is answered for a surety on five nights: the night of Friday, the night of the two `Ids, the beginning of Rajab, the night of the 15th of Sha`ban. All of what has been narrated about these nights is praiseworthy.”

As for the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, there is no direct statement made by him about the night of 15th of Sha`ban. There have been two narrated statements from him about standing in the night and also another two narrations about the night of the two `Ids.

There is a narration from him that it is not praiseworthy for people to stand in prayer the night of the two `Ids – in congregation – as it has not been narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and his Companions.

He did consider it praiseworthy in the narration due to an action of `Abdur-Rahman ibn Yazid ibn al-Aswad who was from the Followers of the Companions.

Likewise standing in  prayer on the night of 15th of Sha`ban is neither established from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, nor the Companions; but this practice was established from a group of Followers that represented the high ranking people of the scholars of fiqh among the people of Sham.

It is narrated from Ka`b ibn al-Ahbar who said, “Indeed Allah, the Exalted, on the night of 15th of Sha`ban, sends out Jibril, peace be upon him, to the Paradise and orders him to beautify it and he says after that, ‘Indeed Allah, the Exalted, has freed in this night slaves the number of the stars in the sky, the number of the days of the creation and their nights, the number of leaves of the trees, the weight of the mountains, the number of the camels.’ ”

Sa`id ibn Mansur narrated, “It was narrated to us by Abu Ma`shar from Abu Hazim and Muhammad ibn Qais from `Ata’ ibn Yasar, who said, ‘There is no night after the Night of Power more virtuous than the 15th of Sha`ban. Allah, Blessed and Exalted be He, comes down to the lowest sky and forgives all of His Slaves except the idol worshipper, the one addicted to intoxicants, the one that cuts family relations. On that night, the number of people freed from the fire are many indeed in huge number. As for the one who is rejected on this night?! Great indeed is the loss! Allah has increased your loss on this night. This is indeed a great loss for you if this should happen.’ ”

I weep for myself, as indeed I have a right to weep,

I can claim no ignorance and have no doubt about what I shall reap!

If I was to say that in all the time that I lived I am perfect,

In those words I lie and that is my defect.

The days of Sha`ban and its’ 15th night have come,

As the sign of piety has appeared, it’s now time that I have some.

By my life, in all truth have I wasted my life in desecration?

Let me use this night so that the Lord of creation will save me from devastation!

 

The believer on this night should busy himself in the Remembrance of Allah, the Exalted, calling on Him, asking for forgiveness of sins, covering the faults, lifting of difficulties and that over and above all that repentance. Indeed, Allah the exalted will have forgiveness on whoever repents to Him.

Stand in prayer on the noble night of 15th of Sha`ban,

The honour of this month is well known, so worship if you can!

How many man has stood on that night to be safe and sound,

The date when the pages are laid bare and speech of the year’s plans abound!

Hasten to do good before the end of that time,

Beware of dying in a state of loss which on this night would be a crime!

Fast in the day – Allah help you – and hope in Him,

So that your troubles might be lifted and you feel joy again!

It is specifically for a Muslim at that time to avoid sins which would hinder him from the forgiveness of sins and acceptance of his supplication on that night. It has already been narrated that the only people that will not be forgiven on that night will be the one possessing shirk, the one who committed suicide, those who commit fornication or adultery.

These three sins are the most egregious of sins in the sight of Allah just as has been mentioned in the hadith of Ibn Mas`ud and the authenticity of this text is agreed upon. He asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Which sin is the most severe?” He answered, “That you make a rival for Allah and He created you.”

He was asked by Ibn Mas`ud, “Then what?” He was told, “That you kill your children out of fear that they will eat from your own food.” After that he was asked, “Then what?” Then he was told, “That you fornicate or commit adultery with the wife of your neighbour.”

Allah, the Exalted, then sent down, as a confirmation of that statement,

And those who do not call on another god with Allah, nor slay a soul that Allah has declared sacred except by a valid right and they do not commit adultery or fornication.  Surat ul-Furqan (26), ayah 68

Another one of the sins that hinder from forgiveness is the Muslim hating his own brother out of something that he desires for himself. This hinders from forgiveness most of the time and this stops forgiveness and mercy. This has been mentioned in the Sahih collection of Imam Muslim as narrated by Abu Hurairah where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said in an attributed hadith,

“The Gates of the Paradise are opened on Monday and Thursday and every soul is forgiven that has not associated partners with Allah. The only one not forgiven would be the one that has some matter of hatred between him and his Muslim brother. When Allah sees that He says to one of the angels, ‘Check his affair until these two reconcile.’ ”

This hatred that hinders forgiveness was described by Imam al-Awza`ii as something that is in the heart, like hatred for the Companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

This hatred is greater and more severe than the hate that would happen among equals. Imam Al-Awza`ii also mentioned this as every worker of innovation that divides the Ummah.

Ibn Thawban also said that the one who is hating of the truth is every abandoner of the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who has gone against the Ummah, spilling their blood.

This is the hatred that I mean when I say that it is the innovation that causes a break in the Collective of the Muslims, their blood, wealth and honour being declared permitted. This is like the innovation of the Khawarij, the Shi`ah and others.

The best of actions are to have a heart clean from hatred in all its’ forms and the best way to have a clean heart is to stay away from the hatred and rage present in the people of desires and innovation.

This same innovation of showing hatred towards the early generations of the Ummah and their hatred and animosity towards them, believing that it is permitted to declare them unbelievers, innovators, astray is also present among some.

When the heart is clear from this form of hatred, one will not show hatred towards the main body of the Muslims. He will only want good for them, advise them sincerely and he will love for them what he loves for himself.

Allah, the Exalted, has already described the believers and their main body when they said,

Our Lord! Forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith. Do not make our hearts to have hatred towards those who believe. Our Lord! Indeed You are the Benevolent, the Most Compassionate. Surat ul-Hashr (59), ayah 9.

There is a narration in the Musnad from Anas ibn Malik that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to his Companions,

“In three days there will come out to you a man from the people of Paradise.”

Then a man came out and `Abdullah ibn `Amr decided to become his guest to find why he was one of the people of Paradise. So for three days he slept in his home, to look at his deeds. However, while with him, `Abdullah ibn `Amr did not see any large deeds and after the three days he informed him of this and asked why he would be special.

The man remarked that he knew of nothing other than that as long as he had been alive he had made sure that there was no hatred in his heart towards any of the Muslims. `Abdullah ibn `Amr then said, “This is what has reached the level! This is the truth of the matter!”

In the Sunan of Ibn Majah, there is the narration from `Abdullah ibn `Amr in which he said, “It was said to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Who is the best of people?’ He said, ‘Every one with a tranquil heart and a truthful tongue.’ The people remarked, ‘We know about a truthful tongue; but what is the meaning of the tranquil heart?’ He answered them, ‘It is the one who is pious, pure of heart, who there is no sin in the heart nor evil intention towards other. This heart also bears no ill will or envy towards another.’

One of the early generations used to say, “The best of deeds are pure hearts, humble selves, those who sincerely advice the Ummah.” So with these descriptions, it can be seen that this is reached by what is in the heart and not by hard work expended in the actions of fasting and prayers.

My brothers, avoid the sins which will hinder the slave from the forgiveness of his Lord, the Lord who His Name is the Forgiver. He is the Forgiver in all of the ways of mercy, repentance, seeking forgiveness. As for shirk, then it has been mentioned:

Indeed, whoever associated partners with Allah, then Allah has made the Paradise impermissible for him and his home is the Fire. The oppressors shall have no helpers. Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 72.

As far as the topic of killing, then if the people of the skies and earth had gathered together to kill one Muslim without right, Allah would have put all of them in the Fire. When discussing fornication and adultery, Then take warning in the strongest possible terms from the wrath of the Most Forceful One.

All of the creation are Slaves of Allah and His Handmaidens. There is no one with more jealousy for His Right than Allah so that any handmaiden or slave violates this by fornication will surely provoke Him.

So due to this holiness and jealousy, He has forbidden all types of perversions and commanded that the slaves lower their eyes. As far as the hate that is in a slave towards his brother, this is evil and the intention will be to harm that brother.

Do not think that Allah is unmindful of the what the oppressors do. He has only delayed them for a day in which their eyes will roll back in their heads in abject terror. Surah Ibrahim (14), ayah 42

Is it not enough for you to know the reasons why forgiveness might be hindered at the times where it should most ardently be sought and the forgiveness of sins is most assured?

Destroyed is the slave that lost his way from his Lord,

All due to reasons stemming from acts of disobedience!

May mercy be upon the one who his heart was clean,

There is no fear there of the Day of Accounting of all things seen!

The thunder shall assuredly roll on that day,

On the very day that the hair of children shall be grey!

I have sins in abundance that need to be forgiven,

A life of waste, so I should fear when I am risen!

When I act I do deeds but I don’t know and I fear,

That I might have acted when my hear was not sincere!

`Ikrimah and other scholars of commentary mentioned the ayah,

 And in that night every matter is indeed settled by the Most Wise. Surat ud-Dukhan (45), ayah 4

They said in their commentaries that it is a reference to the night of the 15th of Sha`ban; but the Vast Majority say that this is actually referring to the Night of Power and that is the correct position.

`Ata’ ibn Yasar said, “When the night of the 15th of Sha`ban has come, the angel of death is shown a page that has written on it instructions to take the soul of whoever is written down on it.

It is also listed for the slave what will come to pass for sustenance, those who will marry, what will be built, the name of the place and time of death. It is at that point that the angel is just waiting for the command to go and take the soul.”

Let the one deceived by his long life and happy with his wicked deeds think and know that the death will come shortly to every one and he does not know when he will suddenly be grabbed.

Every one that is alive with his family thinks everything is in his grasp,

But has no idea that death is closer than his own sandal strap!

One of the early generations said, “How many have risen to face a new day and didn’t finish it? How many people planned for tomorrow but never made it? Had you been able to see the end and how, you would have been angry about the time lost and the deception that grabbed you.”

I run through life as if I will be forever,

Day by day I realise that the Hereafter is forever!

I don’t know if I will see another afternoon,

Then I don’t know if I will live to the morning when I see the afternoon!

How many people have there been that exhausted themselves in seeking earthly riches,

That went down into the grave having failed to fulfil their wishes?

It is as if you passed all your time and efforts and strain,

To obtain or reach something that would cause you great pain!

Then comes to the time of the washer to prepare you for your shroud,

Hastening you on to your grave no matter the voices raised or how loud!

There is nothing to stop the carrying of the shroud and strips of cotton,

Whether you are many or few, your appointment is not to be forgotten!

Men before you passed away and went on and you can see,

You will follow in their footsteps shortly not long…just wait and see!

The carriers call one another to lift them and head to the grave site,

Carrying people like you to move on into the dark night!

When they lower you into that dark grave, no safety for you,

No safety or protection from the consequences of things you now do!

Who will help you on the day you enter in the presence of the Most Compassionate,

The One Benevolent to His Slaves decides the destination that is permanent!

Death will come no matter how long the lifespan,

You will be taken whether your life is short or long, no matter how much you plan!

My brother, I advise you so please listen to me,

By Allah, you should seek His Help to be in good stead for eternity!

Don’t you see the signs all around you that are present every day,

The end will reach you and your friend, so prepare for the end of days!

Taken from Lata’if ul-Ma`arif Fima Li-Mawasim il-`Ami min al-Waza’if, pp. 151-157

The Homosexual Revolution…Still in Progress

Gay-Imam-Muslim-Marriage
Figure 1A: A Muslim man willing to conduct gay marriages.

I had mentioned before about this threat…now the matter has accelerated. Soon this will come to the United Kingdom in a major way. Please read the following and think about the severity of what is occurring. Think about the very provocative title: Imam blesses union of gay Muslim couple in France.