Below are examples of more of the great questions that you have been asking. I apologise that I have not answered more but I assure readers that I will try my utmost to post more of these in the future. And with Allah is every success.
can u plz give me the evidence for these questions?
Question 1: wearing a hat?
Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali mentioned,
“Some people seek to draw near to Allah by means that Allah and His Messenger have not given. Such an action is rejected and false. Examples of this include pray in front of the Ka`bah by clapping and whistling, listening to musical instruments, dancing, showing the head when one is not in ihram, and things such as that which are newly invented matters that Allah and His Messenger did not mention as ways of drawing near to Him.” Jami` ul-Ulum wal-Hikam, pp. 73-74, hadith #5
This understanding is coming from the ahadith mentioning the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, wearing a hat most waking hours. There is no single narration of him bare headed other than the hajj, his sleeping and sexual intercourse and other emergencies.
Besides this, we have no other time with him being bare headed. This is the reason why, as the Imam above mentioned, those who uncover their heads as an act of worship and they are not in hajj, they have committed an innovation as it was known of the Muslims that they always covered their heads.
The Messenger of Allah, used to wear a black `amamah. This is collected by Imam at-Tirmidhi in his Sunan. The Messenger of Allah used to wear a head covering (now referred to by many in Arabic as a tarbush) with a `amamah, a head covering on its’ own but told his companions not to wear the `amamah without the head covering.
This was collected by Imam at-Tirmidhi in his Jami` us-Sunan. This means that he did not want the top of the head exposed, which was the custom of the idol worshippers. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, when he went to the bathroom he covered his head. Collected by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, when he came to his wives for sexual intercourse, he covered his head. Collected by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan.
Imam al-Bukhari has a chapter in his Sahih under the Book of Wudu’ called Wearing the `Amamah. This has to do with wiping over them as the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings did this to keep from having to take it off. This was not during war, rather it was nearly all the time. In addition to this, the Messenger of Allah commanded the male Companions in Imam al-Bukhari’s Sahih to bare their heads on hajj and that it was impermissible to cover them during that time.
Based on the ahadith above and more, the Hanbalis understand the principle, a compulsory command is not lifted unless the command after is one stating it to be impermissible. (Ar. لا يرفع الوجوب إلا بالتحريم) So this principle, based upon all the ahadith about him covering his head, is what the Hanbalis depend upon. This was why Imam Ibn Rajab, may Allah have mercy on him, was so strict about this point.
Question 2: two adhans in juma salah?
The practice was first done by the Companion and khalifah `Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him. He began this process in his time. We are allowed and obliged to follow him as per the words of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him,
“Follow my sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly guided successors after me, hold on to it stubbornly.” Collected by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and classified by him as authentic.
Question 3:tarawih 8 or 20 rakah?
In the Hanbali School, the sunnah of Tarawih is 20 raka`at. Although it is permissible to do more or less, we are discussing the sunnah. The sunnah is 20 raka`at. When the second Khalifah, `Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gathered the people together for Tarawih, they prayed 20 raka`at and three witr.
This is taken from the Muwatta of Imam Malik ibn Anas, Book of Salah in Ramadan, under the chapter of Standing in the Night in Ramadan, hadith #254
The same thing was done by the companion `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him in Iraq when he ordered a man to pray 20 raka`at, then there was also his student al-Hasan al-Basri, may Allah have mercy on him.
This is discussed by Imams:
Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah in Al-Mughni Sharh Mukhtasar ul-Khiraqi, vol. 1, pp. 833-837; Mansur al-Bahuti in his Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `An Matn il-Iqna`, vol. 1, pp. 400-410.
Question 4: is there any salah call tasbih?
The prayer of tasbih has a number of ahadith regarding it. There is certainly argument about the authenticity of some of the ahadith regarding it, but no scholar forbade it being prayed. It is mentioned in the collection of Imams Abu Dawud and at-Tirmidhi.
This prayer has been advocated by the Imams:
`Abdul Qadir al-Jilani in his Al-Ghunya, vol. 4, pp. 327-330; Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah in Al-Mughni, vol. 1, pp. 803-804; Najm ud-Din ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi as mentioned in Mukhtasar Minhaj ul-Qasididin, Book of Optional Prayers, Chapter of Prayer of Tasbih; Mansur al-Bahuti, Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `An Matn il-Iqna`, vol. 1, pp. 410-419
Question 5:do we need to recite sura fatiha after imam recite in the salah?
In the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, it is not compulsory to recite Surat ul-Fatihah behind the Imam in the loud or silent prayers (but it is praiseworthy if one does so). We will just quote a few evidences, one of them is Surat ul-A`raf (7), ayah 204.
There is also a hadith, in which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Who is competing with me in the recitation?” Thereafter, the people kept silent whenever the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him, led them in prayer.
Collected by Imams Abu Dawud, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj and Malik ibn Anas and classed by them as authentic. This is the reasoning that Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din, may Allah have mercy on him, as mentioned in Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 156-157.