Egypt, Sayyid Qutb and Al-Hakimiyah

Figure 1A: Sayyid Qutb is the source and reservoir for so many movements today that have murdered or ordered the murder of Muslims. Yet, some ill intentioned people three decades ago brought his works into English, infecting a new generation of young people.
Figure 1A: Sayyid Qutb is the source and reservoir for so many movements today that have murdered or ordered the murder of Muslims. Yet, some ill intentioned people three decades ago brought his works into English, infecting a new generation of young people.

The Imam and Shaikh, Hasan Ma’mun,[1] head of Al-Azhar, made the following query to a marja`:

What do we understand about Sayyid Qutb and his works, particularly Milestones (Ar. Ma`alam Fit-Tariq)?

The answer given by the marja`, Imam Muhammad `Abdul Latif as-Subki (d. 1388 AH),[2] may Allah have mercy on him, is as follows below:

At first glance of the book, the reader immediately comes to understand that the subject matter is calling to Islam; but its’ means are false and the text seeks to deceive the reader using popular religious sentiment. This is especially the case for the youth and young professionals, the primary audience to which the book is addressed.

They are those who would be moved without consideration to the claim of someone making a petition or appeal to the Religion. They would possibly accept such novel affairs being suggested to them and think that it is the pure call to the Truth for the Sake of Allah and that taking hold of this path is the way to Salvation.

I fervently desired to directly[3] quote some of the author’s more explicit statements so that we might have them in front of us and understand his thinking. The first quote I will give is where he has mentioned,

“The presence of the Muslim Ummah has been largely missing for centuries. It is a necessity that this Ummah be brought back in order for Islam to play its’ expected role in the leadership of humanity once again.

It is necessary that this Ummah is raised up. This Ummah has been buried under the rubble of false ideas, concepts, statutes and customs and all regimes and systems which have no connection to Islam or the Islamic methodology although this Ummah still might call itself the ‘Islamic World.’[4]

So the author in these lines is negating the existence of the Muslim Ummah for many centuries. What this amounts to is that all the years of Islam and its’ flowering, the Imams, the Luminaries of Knowledge in the Religion who laid down Commentary on the Qur’an, fiqh, ijtihad and that spread this faith with hard work to the very horizons of different countries – all of that is for nothing – and they have been in the Age of Ignorance and not Islam. This state therefore continued up until the time of the coming of Sayyid Qutb.

Sayyid Qutb, the author of the text, Milestones, says at another point:

“The world as of today is living – in its’ totality – in a state of the Age of Ignorance.[5] This Age of Ignorance has been established in place by enmity to the rule of Allah in the Earth and in contradiction to the specific attribute of Divinity, the essence of which is Al-Hakimiyyah.

Al-Hakimiyyah has been given to men and in this way the Islamic way has been undermined. The Islamic Methodology stands alone in this respect. Humanity under any regime that is not from Islam will worship one another in some way, shape or form.”[6]

He explains at another point, “It is only in the Islamic Methodology that all of humanity can be freed from worshipping one another and submit themselves to the pure worship of Allah Alone with pure devotion and submission to Allah Alone. This is the new concept which we have and are to give to the human race.

This new concept must take on a concrete and workable form of action and it is necessary that an Ummah live by it and to do this we need to bring about an Islamic Renaissance. Only by doing this can the movement attain world leadership, whether it be from near or far.

Now going forward, how can we bring about this point of action? It is necessary that a vanguard be formed with this express purpose and that upon formation it goes marching along, staying separate from the waves of the Age of Ignorance but at the same time having some links to some portion of it.

This vanguard, which has come into existence for this purpose and has just this intent in mind, is from the signposts along the road or the Milestones!”[7]

Sayyid Qutb then ends this statement with, “I have written this book Milestones for this hoped for and awaited vanguard which shall be appearing shortly!”[8]

This is a very clear and open call to establishing a vanguard from the people with a new mission for the “Islamic Renaissance.” The author is the one that has made himself responsible for putting into place the milestones for this vanguard and the mission that awaits it.

Qutb states, “We are now in a state of Ignorance just like the Age of Ignorance in the time when the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon brought Islam. In fact, the time we are in is of greater darkness as all of what is around us is Ignorance.”[9]

Take a further look at when he says, “So our most important mission is to change the collective reality of this society. This also means that our mission is to change the reality of Ignorance from its’ foundations and overturn it.”[10]

The author then states, “The way of change is not that we purify the land from the power of the Roman or Persian tyrant and false god and then give that over to an Arab tyrant and false god.

No! All tyrants and false gods are the same. The Earth belongs to Allah! The Earth is not to be purified except for Allah! This purification cannot be done unless there is raised the banner of: there is no god but Allah!

The way forward is not that we seek to free the people of the Earth from one false god and move them from the power of the Roman tyrant or Persian tyrant and false god and then give that over to an Arab tyrant and false god.

No! All tyrants and false gods are the same. All the people are Slaves of Allah Alone! People are not Slaves of Allah Alone until they have raised the banner: there is no god but Allah. This testimony of faith means exactly what the Arab knows it to be in his language!

There is no Hakimiyyah except for Allah! There is no Shari`ah except from Allah! There is no authority for anyone over anyone else! This is because all authority belongs to Allah. This is because the nationhood or national consciousness that Islam intends for the people is that of the `aqeedah which makes every man equal.

Every man bearing this testimony, whether he be Arab, Greek, Persian or any other race, all are under the Standard and Banner of Allah! This is the way forward!”[11]

Let’s consider the statement, “The Hakimiyyah is for Allah” and there is no “Hakimiyyah except for Allah!”

This is the same thing that was said by the Khawarij of old[12] and this is the means they utilised to carry out the crimes they committed in the time of Imam `Ali ibn Abi Talib. This covers everything from the splitting of the collective of Islam, breaking the ranks of believers. Imam `Ali ibn Abi Talib said about this very word, “The statement is true but falsehood is being sought through its’ use.”[13]

The author at one moment calls to a new mission put forward for the “Islamic Renaissance.” Then in the next moment, he spreads out his call and makes it to the entire globe. This is a call and claim for the power of the vanguard that he himself sings for and that which he has written his book in expectation of and in order to guide them to his supposed way and call.

There is nothing more deceptive and destructive than this inclination; yes, this is an inclination to destruction, yet it has been named: the Path of Islam.

As we are on the topic, what exactly is the meaning of this “Al-Hakimiyyah” being for Allah Alone? Does the Religion go about with two feet among the people to stop, push and forbid them from the attempt at taking “Al-Hakimiyyah”?

Or is there some form of Allah that is being attributed in judgement in which He is reduced to a type of personality or principle that the author of Milestones envisages? This is the same author who has denied the existence of rulers, placed roadblocks in the road to rebel against every ruler in the Creation.

One can see in the very Qur’an we possess that there is an acceptance of the rulers of the Muslims and it is necessary for us to give them the right of obedience. It is likewise necessary for them to be just with regard to ourselves and to be responsible at all times and for there to be cooperation in the good with them.

Islam itself has never had proclaimed statement or doctrine that the rulers over the Muslims must be infallible messengers or preserved from error. Indeed it is the case that they will mistakes that are sometimes apparent and they are to be called so that they correct these mistakes and return to Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger. In addition to this, they are to take consultation in the matter with the People of Judgement[14] from the Muslims.

It is then very strange that now we should see one individual or a small collective rise up and draw out some type of strange path way and then label this “the way of Islam,” in exclusion to all others.

In order to have the establishment and safeguarding of the lives of the people, the existence of rulers is necessary so that they might discharge the affairs of the people with the Religion, just and sound principles and canons of law.

One of the well-known maxims of Islam is, “Indeed Allah has restrained with the authority whatever He has not restrained with the Qur’an.”[15] So when one knows all of this, how can it possibly be established in the mind of a human being the idea that a supposed vanguard needs to be established to dislodge all of the rulers from their positions and posts?

Now among the rulers are many who travel on the main according to what has been ordained for them from the different means that have come about and are harsh and rugged. This is not all rulers in all standpoints as might occur to the mind of some people.

In writing his book, the author has taken it to the most severe levels of deviation from what were authentic ways of understanding history and valid concepts.[16]

“It is paramount that the Muslim society be established upon the affirmation of the `aqeedah of there is no god but Allah and that Al-Hakimiyyah is for no one but Allah. When such a society as this is established as a clear reality, it becomes the life blood and reality and it is only at that time that the Religion will begin to be reflected and implemented in the regime along with the finer details and laws.”[17]

This is an unprovoked attack from the author on the reality of things. He repudiated the existence of a “Muslim society” and denied the existence of an “Islamic regime” and called to the awaited time where Islam shall be legislated and the needed society appears. He intends by this: the society in which he and his vanguard exercise power and bring about according to their own will!

Upon examination, it appears to us that the author has brought about some new idealistic fantasy in which he claims for himself the highest rank in establishing this new world; but before this can be done there must first be: the destruction of the current order of things without any precedent, permission or backing.

Then immediately after that, the rulers must be toppled and a new society built in its’ place and there shall be a new legislation for this new society.

The author goes on to give us the third and fourth fantasies, where he says, “The callers to Islam, when they have called the people to spread this Religion, it then becomes compulsory for the following: They call them to the acceptance of the `aqeedah.

This is so that if they are calling themselves Muslims and testifying since they were young that they were Muslims and teaching them the testimony that there is no god but Allah and learning it in truth, they need to live by it and know its’ meaning.

The truth of this statement is that it is returning Al-Hakimiyyah to Allah and rebelling against the transgressors of the Authority of Allah!”[18]

And his words carry on from that point in a similar fashion. This  jilted and frayed understanding of the author contradicts and negates Islam while he claims that he is the most jealous of the creation for teaching Islam.

Is this not a terrible tribulation waiting in ambush…this tribulation that is coming from a man that has imposed himself on the Religion and the wider society as well?

In summing up this ruling, I would like to say that upon completion of my reading of Milestones, I have noticed two things:

Firstly, the author is an overbearing and licentious man in his attitude. He looks at the world according to his dark fantasy and imagines it heading in the direction that he sees it or as evil as he imagines it.

Secondly, Sayyid Qutb has used the name of Islam to excite the youth to what he believes is “religiousness.” This “religious” behaviour includes rebellion against rulers and all of what comes with that, whether it be shedding blood, assassination plots against people, destroying buildings, spreading fear in the society, taking away public security and safety, fanning the flames of tribulation and all other forms of corruption in which no one knows how long it could last other than Allah the Exalted.[19]

This is the meaning of the “Revolution of Al-Hakimiyyah” that the author keeps obsessing about in his writings. Taken from the meeraath website.

[1] trans note: 1311-1393 AH. He is Hasan Mustafa Ma’mun. The Egyptian Shafi`ii judge and former mufti over undivided Egypt, he was influential in building schools all over the country and making access to the scholars easier for the laity. He also started food and farming programmes to give greater access to the common people due to crop failures that came from the British period and the weakened monarchy.

[2] trans. note: When certain Salafi minded people see rulings such as these, they often resort to simplistic reasoning such as, “This shaikh is clearly a coward and afraid of jihad.” Or there is the common, “He is working with the government and blinded by the dunya.” The translator would like to explain that this marja` was in jail numerous times for his outspoken views and may possibly have met Sayyid Qutb during one trip to prison. Further to this, the author was the first one to speak against the political reality of the State of Israel and call for self defence movements among Palestinians and never backed away from this understanding until he died. He also considered the rulers of his time tyrants and began the process of what would later be the mobilisation of Muslims for the Consensus agreement on Jihad in Afghanistan that would dismantle the Soviet Empire. So this is hardly the life’s work of a coward or someone afraid to speak the truth about Islam. Rather, this is the clear statement of one of the most important authorities in Islam on one of the worst tribulations to strike the world of the Muslims.

[3] trans. note: This marja` actually read the first printing of the book Milestones or Signposts Along the Way (Ar. Ma`alam fit-Tariq) in the year 1964. The translator was unable to obtain this original copy but the next best was the 1973 edition, which had nearly the same pagination used by the marja.` Therefore, all citations from this work are based on the 1964 ed. which is closely followed in detail by the Dar ush-Shuruq, Cairo (1979, sixth ed.) under the patronage of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which the translator has had the opportunity to consult. The translations from the 1970s, particularly the Federation of Islamic Student Societies (FOSIS) have kept the original crackle of violence and fanaticism in this work. Later editions have sanitised the language or powder-puffed it in order to mask its’ more wide ranging deviation which the marja` astutely noticed immediately. It is for this reason that the translator has used both the 1964 and 1979 editions and not the sanitised, student friendly forms that currently circulate in the politically correct atmosphere at colleges, universities and the internet.

[4] Ma`alam fit-Tariq, Dar ush-Shuruq, Cairo (1979, sixth ed.), pp. 5-6

[5] Ar. Al-Jahiliyyah. Imam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy on him, said the following in defining this word, “The word is coming from the root, Al-Juhl. This signifies the absence of knowledge and the absence of acting by knowledge that necessitates action. This is just as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘When any one of you is fasting, let him neither behave wickedly nor use juhl. If a man curses him or disrespects him, let the fasting person say to him: I am fasting.’ The juhl mentioned here is false speech in place of the complex juhl which has been explained.” The Imam said in another place, “So due to this it has been named as Al-Jahiliyyah. So Jahiliyyah is principled and referred to due to it signifying an absence of knowledge or absence of acting by that knowledge. This is just like the word of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, when he said to Abu Dhar, ‘You are a man that still has some Jahiliyyah in you.’ This was said as he cursed a man and defamed his mother.” This is stated by Imam Ibn Taymiyyah in his Majmu`at ul-Fatawa, vol.7, pp. 329-330, Al-Baz edition. The Imam said in another place, “The people in the time in which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was sent were in the Age of Ignorance; but as far as after the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was sent, there is no Age of Ignorance at all, for there will always be a group from this Ummah manifest until the establishment of the Hour. As far as aspects of the Age of Ignorance, then it is in some lands of the Muslims or in some individuals, as the words of his, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Four things in my Ummah are from the Age of Ignorance.” Please see Iqtida’ us-Sirat il-Mustaqim Li-Mukhalafati Ashab il-Jahim, vol.2, pp. 230-231. The hadith just mentioned was collected by Imam Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj in the Book of Funerals, under the chapter of Dire Warnings about the Mourning Rituals and Wailing and classed by him as authentic. The full hadith runs as follows from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him: “Four things in my Ummah will remain from the Age of Ignorance and they will not leave them: Bragging about descendents, defaming and cursing ancestors in argument, seeking rain by way of the stars and wailing over the dead.”

[6] Ma`alam fit-Tariq, Dar ush-Shuruq, Cairo (1979, sixth ed.), pp. 6-8 (for the full context of the statement that occurs on p.8).

[7] ibid

[8] ibid

[9] ibid, pp. 16-17

[10] ibid, pp. 18-19.

[11] ibid, pp. 23-25

[12] trans. note: Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, says of them, “They have exited from the religion, opposed the religion, pulled away from Islam, isolated themselves from the Collective, gone astray from the Path and the Guidance, rebelled against the authority, unsheathed the sword against the Ummah, made their blood and wealth permissible for spilling and seizure, showed enmity to whoever opposed except the one who believed as they do and upheld their beliefs and opinions, and established their astray ideas. They are insulters of the companion of Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and his close relatives, they oppose them and disavow themselves of them, level charges of kufr and high treason against them. The Khawarij believe their opposition to the laws of the Revealed Law to be Islam, they do not believe in Punishment in the Grave, the Hawd, the Intercession or anyone exiting the Fire from the believers who had entered it for a period of time. They say that whoever came with a lie or sin, major or minor, and did not repent of it before death, is in the Fire for all eternity. They have the same beliefs as the Bakriyyah regarding measured wealth, as well as having among them the Qadariyyah, the Jahmiyyah, the Murji’ah and the Rafidah. They do not accept the Collective, but actually oppose them and their Imam, delay the prayer from its time, fast before sighting the crescent moon, break fast for `Eid before sighting the crescent moon, contract marriage without a guardian or ruler to give permission for the girl, contract temporary marriage, commit some forms of riba regarding the dirhem. They do not accept prayer in khuffs or wiping over them, the authority of the ruler over them, the khilafah being seated in Quraish, along with many other things with which they are in opposition to Islam and its people. It is sufficient that the people of astrayness be described that their opinion, madhhab and religion are not from Islam at all.” The Imam clarified further, “The Khawarij have many names. They are called Hururiyyah from the people of Harura, while the Azariqah are from the people of Nafi` ibn al-Azraq. They have some of the most filthy beliefs, positions far from Islam and the Sunnah. The Najdiyyah started with their leader, Najdah ibn `Amir al-Haruri. The Ibadiyyah started with their leader, `Abdullah ibn Ibad. The Suffriyyah started with their leader, Dawud ibn An-Nu`man, while the Khawarij also have the Muhallabiyyah, Harithiyyah and Kharramiyyah. All these are Khawarij, rebellious sinners who oppose the Sunnah and have exited the religion. They speak of the Arabs and free men as having the same ruling, and they do not believe that the Arabs have neither right nor rank, and they do not love them but hate them. They show deep hatred, envy and enmity towards them in their hearts. This is an evil statement innovated by a man from the people of Iraq. He was followed by a small group of people and the curse was upon him.” Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 35-36

[13] All these events were discussed in detail by Imam Ibn Kathir in his work entitled, Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, vol.7, pp.278-324.

[14] trans. note: This is a reference to the marja` people when there is either a layman ruler or in the case of a marja` ruling and being regulated by other marja` people of the same class and category.

[15] trans. note: This is a mawquf statement quoted from `Umar ibn Al-Khattab but more likely and authentically quoted from `Uthman ibn `Affan, may Allah be pleased with both of them, as cited by Imams Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi in his Tarikh Baghdad, vol.4, pp. 106-107; Yusuf ibn `Abdul Barr in his At-Tamhid, vol.1, pp. 115-117; Taqi ud-Din ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH) in his Majmu`a Fatawa, vol. 11, pp. 393-395, Dar ul-Ifta’, Riyadh (Ibn Qasim ed.).

[16] Trans. note: This means that although it is correct that there have been and are tyrannical rulers, this does not mean that the Ummah has vanished or that all rulers have been that way.

[17] ibid, pp. 32-33

[18] ibid, pp. 34-35

[19] trans. note: Notice the foresight that the marja` possesses. We live in the aftermath of the Jama`at al-Ummah, GIA, Jama`at ul-Jihad, Ikhwan spinoffs, Jama`at ul-Muslimin (better known as Jama`at ut-Takfir wal-Hijrah), SGFJ, FIS, Al-Qa’idat ul-`Aridah, Jama`at al-Islami and a host of other spiritually impoverished and mentally deranged individuals and segments within society and not to mention the current situations in Libya, Sham, Tunisia and elsewhere.

Endowments and their Importance for the Muslims

Figure 1A: The house of Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him. This building is an endowment.
Figure 1A: The house of Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him. This building is an endowment.

Imam Musa ibn Ahmad al-Hajjawi (d. 968 AH/AD 1573), may Allah be pleased with him, made the following point on Endowments (Ar. Waqf):[1]

Endowment is the act of setting aside something specific and having it for use by the people in perpetuity. This can validly be initiated either by stating so or making this the case by a specific action.

An example of this would be someone making a plot of his land a masjid and then giving the people permission to pray with it; or it could be a graveyard in which the one making it an endowment gives permission for people to be buried within it as an endowment.

He could effect this in words by saying, “I have made this an endowment.” The dedicator could also say, “I set aside this as an endowment.” He could even say, “I have put this for permanent use and benefit by others.”

If he referred to making an endowment by implicit words, the individual could say things such as, “I have made this a charity for the people.” He could also say, “I have made this sacred.” Furthermore, he could also say, “I have begun this as an endeavour.”

Conditions for the Endowment:

  1. The condition for someone making an implicit endowment is that they specifically have to intend it as such.
  2. He must also intend that benefit will be taken from the thing given in perpetuity so long as the thing remains. Examples of this would be having as endowment a field, an animal or other things.
  3.  The endowment must be something based on righteousness, like masjids, treasure, sufficing the poor, near relatives that are either Muslim or a Jew or Christian under governance and paying jizyah.

It cannot be given for the benefit of someone at war with the Muslims, a church or synagogue, the inscription of Torah scrolls or writing out of Injil literature or the books of apostates.

Both the last will and testament and the endowment are of the same ruling in that what has been mentioned must be honoured and that whatever is invalid to put as the last will and testament is also invalid to put as the endowment.

If the endowment is for some act of righteousness besides the masjid or such, then the specific thing must be in possession of the one that is seeking to give it as an endowment. It also cannot be promised on behalf of an angel, animal, grave or an unborn child.

  1. The endowment cannot be given partially but must be given in totality. It is not the case that it could ever have a time limit or condition on it being an endowment; nor does he have the right to sell it on when he wills or give it as a gift. If he should make such an intention, the item in question cannot be given as an endowment and the condition attached is nullified. The endowment is not based on the acceptance of the one who receives it nor it leaving from his possession.

If the individual giving the endowment sets one or a number of valid conditions for how it is to be carried out or managed, it is necessary to adhere to this principle, i.e. if he leaves it to the children of his children or prefers one individual over another or even if he leaves it to one individual in question.

If he should say, “This endowment goes to my children. Then after them, their children,” the condition should be honoured; the same holds true if he should declare that the one with the most acumen or knowledge should be in charge of the endowment after him and the specifically named party.

If the dedicator makes a general statement about the benefits taken from the endowment and does not make any qualifying remark, then both the rich and poor, male and female and so forth are equal in taking benefit.

Someone may also be declared as trustee over the endowment to see that it is properly managed. In the event that the dedicator declares that the endowment is for his son, other than his son and then for the poor, then the male and female children are equal in that regard as the language was general.

After that, the endowment is then given to the children of his children and so forth on down but to the exclusion of the children of his daughters as the general speech like this includes defined parameters that specify sonship.

So if he said, “The endowment is for the son of his son and his descendants of his line,” such a condition holds and is binding on those carrying out the endowment for him after his death.

If he said, “This endowment is for his sons or the sons of such and such,” and specifically mentions the males, then this is binding except in the case where he mentions a tribe. In that case, the women fall under the statement regarding the tribe but not their children.

In the event that he mentions near relatives, the people of his household or his nation, such wording includes both males and females from his children, the children or his father and his grandfather and the grandfather of his father.

This same rule holds true for all other statements that allude to females or them having a share and the judgement is given in favour of females in this case.

When someone declares an endowment for a group of people but does not specify it when he is able to, then the ruling on the endowment is general and all categories within the group are treated equally.

However if an endowment is made for a group and it’s not possible to specify them, then it is permissible for the dedicator of the endowment to specify someone or mention one individual or a few individuals.

The endowment is a covenant of surety that must be fulfilled and can never be revoked or loosened from its’ binding character. An area or thing that is specified as an endowment cannot be sold except in the case that its’ benefit has depreciated while its’ proceeds are to go towards something like it to replace it.

An example would be if there was a masjid that was dilapidated. If that masjid, all the things connected to it and whatever was besides the general structure was beyond use, it would be permissible to give this to another masjid that is to replace it or give charity using it and spend that charity on the poor among the Muslims.

[1] Taken from Zad ul-Mustaqni` fikh-tisar il-Muqni`, pp. 141-142

Several Jumu`ahs in One City?

Figure 1A: An example of a Jami` Masjid in Nablus.
Figure 1A: An example of a Jami` Masjid in Nablus.

Several Jumu`ahs Due to Lack of Space at the Masjid


The following enquiry was made by the marja` of Kuwait, Imam `Abdullah ibn Khalaf ibn Dahyan, to another marja`:

There is a recorded statement by Imam Mansur al-Buhuti[1] in his Cliff Notes on the Uttermost Boundary[2] regarding the Jumu`ah prayer. The discussion centred around a Central Masjid being overcrowded and whether another jumu`ah was to be done.

Is the statement regarding having several jumua`ahs in one city due to overcrowding general, i.e. in that it refers those people present or even those who would not be present? Or is there another ruling? What is the ruling in this regard?[3]

The answer given by the marja`, Imam `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran ad-Dumi (d. 1346 AH), may Allah have mercy on him, is as follows below:

The explicit understanding held by the scholars of the school is that it is not permissible to establish the Jumu`ah prayer in two places or more in a city without need. This was explicitly mentioned by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah[4] in his text, The Sufficer[5] as well as his other books.[6]

If the Jumu`ah is established in two places or more without need then the Jumu`ah of the grand Imam[7] is valid while if they were equal in number, then the second is invalid. If both Jumu`ah prayers occur at the same time and the grand Imam is ignorant of the second,[8] then both Jumu`ahs are invalid from the two parties. [9]

The difference of opinion is on the question of what to do when there is a jumu`ah that occurs in two places due to some need. There are two narrations that have been given by Imam Al-Majd ibn Taymiyyah[10] in The Authoritative Statement in Fiqh:[11]

“So is it permissible to have jumu`ah prayers in two places or more when there is a need? There are two narrations in this regard. If we say that it is not permissible – meaning if there is no need for it – then the second jumu`ah prayer will be invalid unless specific permission to conduct it has been sought from the grand Imam. Once permission is sought, then it will be valid.

It has also been stated that the first jumu`ah is valid without restriction; but if a second jumu`ah happened without the knowledge of the Imam and his congregation, then the first jumu`ah of the grand Imam and his congregation will be invalid and they must pray Zuhr after this jumu`ah.

In the event that the grand Imam in the first jumu`ah and the second jumu`ah begin the prayer at the same time, then both prayers are invalid.

If he did not know about them and both jumu`ahs started the prayer at the same time, or even two different times, then what is to be done? Are they to pray Zuhr after it? Do they pray the Jumu`ah at all? There are two narrations about this matter.”[12]

The latter day scholars have shown preference to the position that it is valid to have a number of jumu`ahs in different places, provided that there is a valid need as discussed in texts such as The Sufficer, The Rectifier,[13] The Uttermost Boundary[14] and others.

They considered “need” to cover things such as overcrowding in the central masjid of the area due to people. This was explicitly mentioned by the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah[15] in Digest of Egyptian Legal Rulings[16] and this ruling was followed by the two great commentators on the Uttermost Boundary, namely Imams Al-Futuhi[17] and Al-Buhuti.

The vast majority of our scholars hold that the word, “the people” on its’ outward form without any investigation of whether they are present or not in the gathering. This was the case for the early scholars.[18]

The latter day scholars[19] did differ about the meaning of the expression due to three possible understandings of the expression:

1. The intent of the “the people of the land or area” means that those mentioned are required to attend Jumu`ah whether they are present in the congregation or not.

2. The intent of those people mentioned is anyone who his presence validates the Jumu`ah prayer in the most general sense.

3. The intent regarding “the people of the land or area” means whoever is present for the Jumu`ah prayer.

The second of the three mentioned positions is held by Imam Al-Buhuti in his Cliff Notes on the Uttermost Boundary.[20]

Imam Al-Futuhi stated in commentary to his own work, The Uttermost, “Like the overcrowding of the masjid of the area due to its’ people.”

In his Cliff Notes, Imam Al-Buhuti said the following, “I hold that expression to be absolute and general for everyone who his presence validates the Jumu`ah prayer.

And this is the case even if he did not pray the Jumu`ah prayer and even if the Jumu`ah prayer was not compulsory for him at that time. Based on this, the number of jumu`ahs in an urban area for the need of the people is valid.” [21]

If we stop at this point, we can say that the inquiry has been answered; but there is still another issue within the question that needs to be answered.

Now let the questioner pause at the words of the two commentators, Al-Futuhi and Al-Buhuti, “So the overcrowding of the masjid of the area due to its’ people,” and let him ask if this is general or not.

The answer to the question is that Imam Al-Buhuti considered the pronoun, “its” in the expression “its’ people” to be referring to the land or area and not the masjid.

If he had declared the pronoun as belonging to the masjid, then the ruling would have specifically been for the people of the masjid and that would have been in a metaphorical sense and those referred to would have been those present for the prayer.

When you look at the text and see that he declared the pronoun “its” belongs to the “land or area,” this is therefore general for the people of the area. It is not hidden on your mind that the people of the land is a more general term than those who are required to prayer Jumu`ah when it has become compulsory for them and those who it has not become compulsory for them.

The expression, “the people,” is more general in scope than “those who are present for the Jumu`ah” and “those who are not present for it.” The reason for this is that the expression “people” is general and its’ understanding does not hinder from the expression being shared in its’ meaning.

The word “people” is the name of a group and not one of them. This can be seen in words like “mankind,” “animals,” “water” and “dirt.” Mankind does not refer to one man but all of them collectively.

The word “animals” does not refer to one animal but all of them as a collective. The same can be said of the fact that water does not refer to one drop or dirt to one speck, but to all of it. The evidence that the word, “people” is general is when you use qualified statements like, “The people of the land honoured everyone except the young among them.”

If this expression, “people” was not general, then it would not have been valid to use a qualified statement as in the case just mentioned.

The indicator of an expression being general is the validity of using a qualified statement with it although the number exempted is not mentioned.

Likewise, this same principle exists in the science of Foundational Laws.[22] So when the Imams al-Buhuti and Al-Futuhi – in their respective commentaries – state, “The overcrowding of the masjid of the area due to its’ people,” and take the phrase in its’ general form without qualification, this is correct.

Returning to the three statements of the latter day scholars above, the first two groups regard the understanding of Imam al-Buhuti in a general sense. If someone were to consider carefully and adopt the ruling of Imam Al-Buhuti, then such an individual has not missed the mark at all.

If one were to adopt the third position mentioned above, this is far from the intent of the text as the one not present for the Jumu`ah prayer could include firstly the one who delayed due to some excuse or secondly the one who abandoned it due to laziness or taking it lightly.  Adoption of this third ruling is restricting a general statement without another qualifying phrase.

If you say that the individual not present for the Jumu`ah did so out of laziness or taking it lightly, then we would establish no reward for him and there would be no ruling attached to him.

If on the other hand, the individual not present for the Jumu`ah had an excuse for his absence, then it would cause hardship by requiring him to be present for Jumu`ah and this is a valid principle in the judgements of Revealed Law.[23]

The reason for this is that most excuses that occur are accidental and not always occurring. If we intended to hold to this ruling, there would have been no need to investigate deeply and affirm matters.

It may be that the time for the Jumu`ah elapses and the ruling would not fit such an individual. Yes, such a thing was stated by Ibn Hajar al-Haitami from the Shafi`ii scholars. He mentioned in his commentary entitled Satisfying the Need [24]in explanation of Imam an-Nawawi in the original primer entitled The Clear Instruction[25]:

(Nawawi): “So the third of the conditions of the Jumu`ah is that it has not been preceded by a jumu`ah and there is no jumu`ah being commenced at the same time in the same area except in the case of overcrowding or the difficulty of the people being gathered in one place.”

Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haitami then commented, “So the context here would appear to indicate that the pronoun in the expression “gathered in one place,” is in general for the people of the area – both the one who Jumu`ah is required of, the who it is not and the one who his presence validates the Jumu`ah – and not anyone else.

However to understand the statement in this way is far from the mark indeed; but that which is indicated is the one who is present for the Jumu`ah as is normally understood.”

These are the words of Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haitami. Now you can see here that the judgement is attached to the one who is present of the jumu`ah as is customarily known. Even if he had inclined towards the implausible position being the correct one, he would have found that the foundational laws of his madhhab would not have agreed with this understanding.[26]

The first ruling that was mentioned some time ago is held by most the scholars of the school as they attach the rulings of the Jumu`ah being that the one who has been required it being more general than the one being from the people who are present or not.

This has been stated by Imam Safi ud-Din `Abdul Mu’min[27] in his commentary on The Authoritative when he remarked, “The one who is from the people of Jumu`ah, it is not permissible for him to travel after the sun has risen until he prays the Jumu`ah prayer.”

So you can see that this Imam holds that the people of jumu`ah are absolutely those who are required to pray it. His understanding is that whoever is not required to make the Jumu`ah prayer is therefore permitted to travel.

You should look at the statement of Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, the author of the original text of The Authoritative, “Whoever Jumu`ah has become compulsory for, it is not permissible for him to travel in the day until he has prayed the Jumu`ah.”

Whereas the intent of the one who is required to pray Jumu`ah are the people who fit the ruling, Safi ud-Din changed the expression of The Authoritative to the words, “Whoever is from the people of the Jumu`ah,” in order to clarify the meaning of the statement. This is the explanation of why there are the three rulings mentioned previously.

As for my ruling, the chosen position of Imam Al-Buhuti in his notes on the text is the most preferred position; namely that he permits that the expression holds those who can go even if it is not required for him to be there such as in the case of the one who is young and would benefit from hearing the khutbah and being in the gathering of the people of goodness and religion.

It is also important specifically in these latter days when we need to have a large amount of Muslims present and to have an increase in the ranks of those praying.[28]


I will also give another word from the Shaikh, Mar`ii Al-Karmi in The Uttermost and the commentary of the Shaikh of our Shaikhs, Shaikh Mustafa as-Suyuti[29] on this text.

Shaikh Mustafa as-Suyuti says in commentary,

“A group of our scholars held the position that several jumu`ahs will be valid whether there is a need for it or not.

This is the case as according to a narration from Imam al-Marwazi, Imam Ahmad was asked about jumu`ahs being prayed in two different masjids. He responded to the query by saying, ‘Let him pray it.’ ”[30]

This narration is the one chosen and I have mentioned that this is my chosen ruling in an answer that I gave previously to a question addressed to me from the city of Beirut regarding the matter. The gist of the answer that I gave was that stopping more than one Jumu`ah has no depended upon evidence for it when it is required.

The only issue that remains is when we hold it to be permitted to have a number of jumu`ahs for a need, is it then the case that there can be two, three or are the third and fourth jumu`ahs impermissible?

The answer bears two rulings. One is that it is impermissible to have the third jumu`ah if there is enough room to have two in two places and this is what has been mentioned in The Uttermost and explicitly stated in The Sufficer[31] and also Commentary on the Uttermost.

The second point to be made is that when it is permissible to have a number of jumu`ahs, there can be no limitation on its’ number according to a need. What this means is that when it is permissible to have a number of jumu`ahs due to a justified reason, then one cannot limit it to two three or four.

This position has been advocated by some of the Shafi`ii scholars and the great scholar, Ghannam an-Najdi[32] followed them in this matter in his Cliff Notes on the Uttermost Boundary  according to what he believed to be correct.

Al-`Allamah an-Najdi stated,

“This understanding is necessary and it is judged that it is not required to pray the Zuhr prayer after the Jumu`ah. This has been mentioned in my notes on The Cliff Notes of Imam Al-Buhuti. So this statement is not far from the statement mentioned by the Imam, Al-Buhuti in the commentary.”

Taken from Al-`Uqud ul-Yaqutiyyatu fi Jayyid il-As’ilat il-Kuwaitiyyah, pp. 159-162

[1] d. 1051 AH. He is Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Idris al-Buhuti al-Masri. The great marja` of Egypt, he was also a mathematician, barber, cobbler and wrote numerous books on different topics, including fiqh, philosophy, calculus and so forth. Imam Al-Buhuti, along with Imam Al-Karmi, is the foremost latter day sage in theology, fiqh and all temporal and spiritual matters.

[2] Ar. Al-Hashiyah: Irshad Uwl in-Nuha Li-Daqa’iq in-Muntaha.

[3] trans. note: The background to this question is very important and needs to be explained in a little bit of detail. In the Muslim heartlands, from where Islam spread, in the early generations the masjids were of different types. There was the masjid ul-bait (Eng. “house masjid,” this is a room set aside in someone’s home as a masjid, where a man and especially a woman would pray optional prayers and those coming before or after a prayer as these extra prayers were not performed in the masjid), the masjid ratib (Eng. “the weekly masjid,” where one would pray all five daily prayers every day. There is usually one of these in each Muslim neighbourhood) and then finally the masjid jami` (Eng. “the Central Masjid” of a city where the people pray jumu`ah prayer on Friday. The ratib masjids are left and the people pray jumu`ah at the jami` of their area).

The jami` in Kuwait (which at the time was the only one), began to fill up and become crowded, so this marja` asked the marja` of his time, Imam `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran ad-Dumi, whether it would be valid to have another jami` build for the purpose of carrying out another jumu`ah due to overcrowding. In the US, Canada and the UK, this ancient practice of the Sunnah is virtually non-existent and has a knock on effect for the validity of all the jumu`ahs. It is for this reason especially that the translator offers this ruling. The history and evidence of these different types of masjids can be found in the sources being quoted in the main body of the text and referenced in the footnotes.

[4] d. 620 AH. He is Muwaffaq ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi Al-Jamma`ili  an-Nabulsi. A scholar of fiqh, creed, inheritance, mathematics, astronomy and a decorated war hero during the Crusades Rebellion, he is the most authoritative voice in the school after Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, in the derivation of rulings and such. He is the preferred marja` over Imam Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 653 AH).

[5] Al-Muqni` fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal ash-Shaibani, Maktabat us-Sawad it-Tawzi,`  London (1421 AH), pp. 69-70.

[6] Please see the texts Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Dar ul-Fikr, Beirut (1412 AH), vol.1, pp. 255-256; Al-Mughni wash-Sharh ul-Kabir `ala Matn il-Muqni`, Dar ul-Fikr, Beirut (1401 AH) vol.2, pp. 181-192.

[7] The Grand Imam is either the senior marja` chosen by a group of maraji` or the khalifah that was appointed or chosen by one or several marja` people.

[8] What is meant by “ignorance” here is that the grand Imam and/or the marja` people have not given permission for more than one jumu`ah to be established in a locale.

[9] This is nearly a direct quotation from Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.1, pp. 255-256.

[10] d. 653 AH. He is Abul Barakat Majd ud-Din `Abdus-Salam ibn `Abdullah ibn Abil Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Taymiyyah al-Harrani. The second highest voice in the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal after Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, his text Al-Muharrar is one of the foundational summation/commentary works of the latter day and is depended upon.

[11] Ar. Al-Muharrar fil-Fiqh

[12] Al-Muharrar fil-Fiqh, Dar ul-Kitab al-`Arabi, Beirut (1422 AH), vol.1, pp. 142-143.

[13] Ar. At-Tanqih. The author of this work is Imam `Ala’ ud-Din `Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Maqdisi al-Mardawi as-Sa`di (d. 885 AH). He was and lived in the age of the last of the mujtahidun al-murajjihun. He wrote books on intra-madhhab and exo-madhhab differences as well as foundational principles, theology and more.

[14] Ar. Al-Muntaha. The author of this work is Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf ibn Abu Bakr ibn Ahmad ibn Abu Bakr ibn Yusuf ibn Ahmad al-Karmi an-Nabulsi (d. 1033 AH). A marja` and avid writer on matters of theology, he is one of the two greatest voices in the latter days. His work, Al-Muntaha, is the foremost text in fiqh and all moral matters.

[15] 661-728 AH. He is Taqi ud-Din Ahmad ibn `Abdul Halim ibn `Abdus-Salam ibn Taymiyyah. A famous scholar of different disciplines, his father, cousins and grandparents on both sides were maraji` and were known for their piety. Although bearing a righteous standard in most issues, he had some eleven issues that required correction from contemporary and latter day maraji`.

[16] Al-Fatawa al-Masriyyah

[17] d. 972 AH. He is Taqi ud-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn `Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Futuhi al-Masri. The famous Egyptian Judge and Marja`, the books of Al-Karmi and Al-Buhuti lean on his seminal work and commentary, Muntaha al-Iradat fi Jami` Ma` at-Tanqihi wa Ziyadat, and subsequent commentaries by the aforementioned cite him frequently. Known to friends as Ibn An-Najjar, many believe him to have been the greatest marja` from Egypt in centuries.

[18] Ar. Al-Mutaqaddimun. These are the scholars spanning the period 241-561 AH.

[19] Ar. Al-Muta’akh-khirun. These are the scholars from the time period 561-the current age. There is sometimes reference made to Al-Mutawassitun (the scholars of the middle age), but this is nothing more than a subset of the latter day scholars.

[20] Al-Hashiyah: Irshad Uwl in-Nuha Li-Daqa’iq in-Muntaha.

[21] Al-Hashiyah: Irshad Uwl in-Nuha Li-Daqa’iq in-Muntaha, Mu’assasat ur-Risalah, Damascus (1421 AH), vol.1, pp. 322-323.

[22] Ar. Al-Usul

[23] trans. note: meaning that if someone had a valid illness, i.e. flu, broken bones, absence from the city/county /town, requiring him to attend would cause hardship. In cases, such as this, someone could be excuse from Jumu`ah attendance.

[24] Ar. Tuhfat ul-Muhtaj

[25] Ar. Al-Minhaj

[26] What the marja` is saying is that even if Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haitami decided to rule that the wording is referring to the one required of Jumu`ah and not and the one whose presence validates the Jumu`ah, his own madhhab would have disagreed with him as the principles that they have do not support such a position. Imam `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran ad-Dumi is quoted this Imam, who is from another madhhab, as further evidence of the veracity of the ruling of Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti and agreement with it by other scholars. I would like to thank brother Mahdi Lock at for his assistance in presenting this passage from the Shafi`ii fiqh.

[27] d. 739 AH. He is `Abdul Mu’min ibn `Abdul Haqq ibn `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud Al-Qati`ii al-Baghdadi. Born in Baghdad to righteous parents, he studied hadith, comparative fiqh, usul ul-fiqh and numerous other sciences. The Imam wrote numerous works, such as Tahrir ul-Muqarrar fi Sharh il-Muharrar, the most authoritative text on the Muharrar by Imam Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 653 AH). He is one of the great teachers of Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali and a senior marja` of the latter day scholars.

[28] The Imam is referring to the end times in which the Muslims have to stay together and protect their ranks; one of the ways this can be done is by praying in congregation – which is compulsory for men – and also going to the gatherings to pious people. It is this point that the Imam is making.

[29] d. 1243 AH. He is Mustafa ibn Sa`d ibn `Abduh as-Suyuti ar-Ruhaibani. The marja` of his time and a direct student of the Shaikh of our Shaikhs, Hasan ash-Shatti (1274 AH), he became famous for his deep erudition and love of learning. If one looks at his commentary on the notes of Imam Al-Karmi’s Ghayat ul-Muntaha, his greatness can be realised.

[30] Matalib Uwl an-Nuha fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut (1430 AH), vol.2, pp. 52-53.

[31] Ar. Al-Iqna`.

[32] d. 1240 AH. He is Ghannam ibn Muhammad ibn Ghannam Az-Zubairi an-Najdi ad-Dimashqi. Born in Najd in Arabia but raised in Az-Zubair in Iraq, his main teacher was the great Imam, Marja` of his time, Muhammad ibn Fairuz al-Hanbali. After his learning and attending this teacher’s company for a number of years, he was declared marja` and began writing and giving rulings. He also opposed the wickedness of the movement of Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab, just like all of his teachers that had antedated him.

Lailat ul-Qadr: The Ummah’s Blessing

Surat ul-Qadr
Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayat 1-5

The Grand Marja`, Imam Mustafa as-Suyuti ar-Ruhaibani (d. 1243 AH), when mentioning Lailat ul-Qadr (the Night of Power), said the following:

The best of nights is the Night of Power. The Exalted One has said,

The Night of Power is better than one thousand months.[1]

The scholars of commentary stated, “The intent of the ayah is that standing in prayer and actions done on this night is better than one thousand months doing the same thing but devoid of this night.”

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, in an attributable hadith where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever stood in the Night of Power with faith and full focus shall have all his previous sins forgiven.” The narration of Imam Ahmad includes the statement, “And what shall come after.”

This night is specifically set aside for this Ummah out of nobility being shown to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, of this Ummah and this blessing will remain and not be lifted.

The fact that the blessing of the Night of Power remains and is not lifted is because there are narrations enjoining everyone to seek the Night of Power and to stand in prayer. This is the correct position as opposed to those holding the position that the blessing was lifted after his death, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

The Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah said, “The Night Journey in terms of the rank of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, is more virtuous than the Night of Power; but the Night of Power is better for the Ummah and this is the meaning of the statement of Abu Umamah and Al-Balqini.

Ibn ul-Qayyim further remarked, “If the intent of the Shaikh was that the Night Journey with all of its’ portents and its’ coming every year is more virtuous than the Night of Power and that standing in prayer and supplicating on the day of the Night Journey is better than the Night of Power, then this is false.

Such a statement was never made by any of the Muslims and it is also a statement that is well known to be corrupt as per the contradictions with other texts.

But if someone said that the Night Journey and its’ portents is better than the Night of Power and meant by that the specific day in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was taken up and that what was given to him was not given at any other time to anyone else – without saying that standing in prayer or worship is better than the Night of Power – such a statement would be correct.

This is authentic if he stood by such a statement, as this night is an evidence itself on that Allah gave manifest favours to His Prophet on the Night Journey that were greater than the favours given to him by the sending down of the Qur’an on the Night of Power.

It should be said that this distinction is only known by Revelation and it is not for anyone to speak on such matters without knowledge.

It is also not known that any of the Companions specified any worship commemorating the Night Journey.  Furthermore, it was not even agreed on which exact day the Night Journey occurred.[2]

Even if the Night Journey – in and of itself with the magnificent favours and blessings that it possesses – is better than the Night of Power, no standing in prayer, supplication or worship was ever ordained on that day.

The same can be said for the fact that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did not favour the Cave of Hira’ – where he received the first revelation and the Qur’an was sent down to him – over any other cave nor did he specify that the day in which the Revelation commenced had any specific standing in prayer or supplication attached to it.”

Imam Mansur al-Buhuti, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his commentary on the Satisfaction,[3] “It is necessary for someone to remember that the statement of Abu Umamah and Shaikh Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah and those who agree with them regarding the matter of comparing the Night Journey with the Night of Power in every year is excluding comparison between the Night Journey and that which was sent of the Qur’an.”

It is referred to as the Night of Power due to the fact that all of what is to be ordained for that year is revealed as the Exalted One has said,

In it is set apart every matter of wisdom.[4]

It has also been said that it is referred to as the Night of Power due to the nobility of its’ rank. The nobility of this night was already discussed above just moments ago.

This night is specifically in the last ten nights of Ramadan and we have been commanded to seek it out as per the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Seek out the Night of Power in the last ten nights of Ramadan.” This is collected by Imams al-Bukhari and Muslim in their collections.

Looking for the Night of Power in the odd nights is especially emphasised due to the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Seek them out in the last ten nights in the last three odd nights or in the remaining three, the remaining seven or nine.”

The last seven is the most well known position as explicitly mentioned by Imam Ahmad and it is also the statement of Ubai ibn Ka`b and he even swore that this was true and he did not make any exception and the same holds true for Ibn `Abbas and Zirr ibn Hubaish.

Ubai ibn Ka`b said, “By Allah, Ibn Mas`ud knew that it was in the month of Ramdan and it was the night of the 27th but he disliked informing you as you might abandon seeking it out in the last ten nights.” This is collected by Imam at-Tirmidhi in his Sunan and classed as authentic by him.

It is also narrated from Mu`awiyah that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The Night of Power is on the 27th night of Ramadan.” This is collected by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan.

The sign of the Night of Power having elapsed is that the day and night of it is neither hot nor cold. This is based on the hadith of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,

“The sign of the Night of Power having come is that the night of it is clear and the moon is splendid and tranquil without excessive light. The night will be neither cold nor hot nor will there be any shooting star until the coming of the daylight.

Another sign that it has come is that in the morning when the sun rises, it will be on the horizon and splendid but without rays around it just as the full moon would appear. Shaitan can not come out on that day or bring anything with it.”

Another sign mentioned is that when the sun rises, it is white and luminous but without rays around it. This is based on the hadith of Ubai ibn Ka`b where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The sun comes up in the morning and appears white without any rays around it.” In another narration, the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Like the full moon at night.”

It is sunnah to make consistent supplication on the Night of Power according to the hadith of `A’ishah where she said, “Messenger of Allah, If I should come to the Night of Power, what shall I say in supplication?” He replied, “Allah! You pardon and You love to pardon so pardon me!” This is collected by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad and others.

Taken from Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 325-327

[1] Surat ul-Qadr (97), ayah 3

[2] Tr. note: This was further mentioned by Imam Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, “It was narrated that in the month of Rajab, there were numerous wondrous incidents that happened but none of that is authentic. It was also narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was born in the first night of the month of Rajab and that he was sent to the world on the 27th of Rajab or on the 25th of Rajab according to one account. Nothing authentic has been established from such accounts. It has been narrated with a chain that is inauthentic from Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad that the Night Journey of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was on the 27th of Rajab. This was further repudiated by Ibrahim al-Harbi and others besides him.” Taken from Lata’if ul-Ma`arif Fima Li-Mawasim il-`Ami Min al-Waza’if, pp. 134-135.

[3] Ar. Al-Iqna`

[4] Surah Fussilat (41), ayah 4