MATH IS SO CRUCIAL…IT NEEDN’T BE BORING, SINCE IT IS ESSENTIAL

Figure 1A: Do you find mathematics intimidating?

I had a really interesting childhood (US ‘interesting’ not UK ‘interesting’). I watched the world around me and read early. My older sister was reading and typing on a typewriter (HEY! it was the ’70s, so lay off!) when she was two years old. I read early but was not typing. I loved books. My mother used to get annoyed when I would go down the page with a book mark while reading each line. So she took it away and said I had to learn to read without it. So I did. The reason that I had to use a bookmark was due in part to the letters and numbers in my mind looking like different colours (now there is a term for this…) and also looking like they were jumping off the page.

It took me a year to get it right. Numbers I thought were cool as they each had a different colour in my mind, some were dark colours and some were light. My fives tend to have a yellow hue. I wear glasses but the words and especially numbers are more defined when I don’t wear them.

I loved doing math work with my grandfather, grandmother and mother (we used a chalkboard and to be given permission to use the chalk was like being king for a day). I used to give my mother seemingly impossible computations to try to stump her and she would always give me the correct answer (I was 9 and under, so I put together numbers I thought were monstrous in size); without a calculator. I was berated often for using a calculator and in math class in schools when I went, I was not allowed to utilise them. At home, I was told to use scratch paper, my fingers, feet or any other item for counting; just not that DAMN calculator.

When I got over this, it was fun not using it. I had to think a little bit more but that part was fun. I always enjoyed math, even if it was theoretical and weird. Math was in everything and that’s what made it interesting.

When I read the Qur’an on inheritance, those pesky fractions were there; then we had hadith, tajwid rulings, theology; in baking, measuring cups were referenced and exact amounts had to be followed. Shampoo bottles, food packages, calorie listings and a galaxy of things all had mathematics involved.

I knew friends that were into all types of legal/illegal activity and they discussed money, its value, how to exponentially grow it, make it, divide it up, clear overheads, measuring amounts of stolen goods to be divided up, candy to be shared when children were grudgingly told to “love” their sisters and brothers and share.

I carried on in this way all throughout my life, enjoying numbers, using them, utilising them and seeing them in my mind. Sometimes I would imagine them with my eyes closed and the colours would jump up again.

Then I went to university and I had my math teacher Mr Stevens for MATH105. This guy was pumped UP about math. We’re talking about an old guy who used to sweat until he had patches under his arms, get teary eyed, yell, punch the board when a student got the point and go nuts about his favourite number: 6.

“That’s the number of man. This is the same number for the Anti-Christ. 6-6-6. Some people thought it was different people when you added up the numerical value of the names!” Bible discussion aside, I thought the number stuff was cool.

Mr Stevens got people so elated about math, there was a waiting list for his class…yes, a waiting list. Students would wait and stand if they had to just to get a glimpse of this genius. He loved math. He knew about all the different mathematicians of history.

It didn’t matter if they were Arabs (I tried to stump him and he gave me SEVEN names), ancient Egyptians (Amenhotep set down most of the principles the Greeks would take and say they invented), Greeks and so forth.

Mr Stevens was so sought after I saw people cry like babies when I came to visit after graduating in 1998 and was informed that he had died.

Math. Yes, this man with math had changed lives and people were transformed. I don’t understand why some people feel dislike, phobia or hate for math, since they use it all the time. They just didn’t have a Mr. Stevens to fire them up. I wanted to find someone in English like my grandparents or mother that had a fire for math and could get people excited.

Well, I think I have found that one. Eugenia Cheng. I see in her the same fire as Mr. Stevens and I hope that you benefit from her. It could change your attitude on mathematics and also maybe convince you to give it another chance. JUST ONE MORE.

Please take a look at Dr. Cheng and see if you aren’t captivated. Also try to take a look at the book I did a review on that will help with one portion of math.

Until next time,

 

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

E-CIGs being Promoted in place of Cigarettes

Figure 1A: E-Cigs and Cigarettes. Are they the same or is one worse?

In the article below is the new strategy being rolled out that we have been seeing for the past year, namely promoting e-cigs in place of cigarettes for those seeking to quit. This has shades of pushing methadone in place of heroin, alcohol instead of heroin and weed instead of freebase that characterised the 1980s in the United States. Only time will tell how serious this thing will really get.

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Stoptober quit smoking campaign encourages taking up e-cigs for the first time

Yahoo News UK 

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Public Health England are encouraging people to try e-cigarettes in an attempt to stop smoking (Rex/posed by model)
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Adverts for the a quit smoking campaign is to encourage people to use e-cigarettes for the first time.

The Public Health England (PHE) ads for Stoptober will suggest trying out vaping if they are struggling to give up regular ones.

The adverts come despite the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (Nice) issuing new guidance that does not list e-cigarettes as an aid to stopping smoking.

Nice has also warned that patients should be told by doctors there is currently little evidence on the benefits or harms of e-cigarettes.

Instead, medics are told to strike up a conversation about e-cigarettes and their use.

They should “be aware that Public Health England and the Royal College of Physicians have stated that e-cigarettes are significantly less harmful to health than tobacco”.

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Stoptober encourages people to quit smoking in October (Public Health England)
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The PHE Stoptober campaign, which starts on October 1, will feature e-cigarettes in the TV ad and will do more to encourage smokers who are keen to try e-cigarettes to help them stop smoking.

Professor John Newton, director of health improvement at PHE, said: “E-cigarettes are now the most popular way to quit in the country with half of all those taking part in Stoptober last year using an e-cigarette.

“The evidence is clear – vaping is much less harmful than smoking – a fraction of the risk.

“So, if you’ve struggled with quitting before, an e-cigarette may be the best option for you.”

England’s deputy chief medical officer Professor Gina Radford said: “The battle against smoking is far from over – it is still the country’s biggest killer, causing 79,000 deaths a year.

“For every death, another 20 smokers are suffering from a smoking-related disease.

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Quitting success rates are now at their highest for at least a decade in England (Rex)
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“Far too many people are still dying as a result of smoking but there has never been a better time to quit – the culture has changed, strong legislation is in place and effective support is available.

“It’s never too late to give up – any smoker, no matter what their age, will feel the health benefits within months.

“Make the commitment to stop, join Stoptober and add healthier years to your life.”

New figures suggest more smokers successfully quit in the first six months of 2017 than ever before.

Quitting success rates are now at their highest for at least a decade in England, standing at 19.8% for the first six months of this year – up from the decade-long average of 15.7%.

Last year, more than half (53%) of all those taking part in Stoptober opted to use an e-cigarette as a quitting aid, according to PHE.

E-cigarettes are not available on prescription via the NHS.

SALAFIYYAH AND THE EARTHLY GOVERNMENTS ARE CLOSER THAN YOU THINK PT 5

Pope Francis (front 3rd R) poses with religious leaders during a meeting at the Pontifical Academy of Sciences at the Vatican December 2, 2014. REUTERS/Osservatore Romano

Please see the following article below that will give you a much clearer understanding of how cults and religious syncretism  are related, especially within the last 200 years at the behest of the Latin rite Catholics. Please take a look at the article and then consider what other possible things the Latin rite and Salafiyyah could possibly have in common except syncretism and earthly, fleshly desires.

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Pope Francis Welcomes Leader of Muslim World League to Vatican

Pope Francis met with the secretary general of the Muslim World League (MWL) in the Vatican Wednesday, a group that has been tied to Saudi financing of jihadist terrorism and the 9/11 attacks in 2001.

Dr. Muhammad bin Abdul Karim Al-Issa, who served for several years as Saudi minister of justice in Riyadh and is now secretary general of the MWL, expressed the appreciation of the Muslim world for the pope’s “fair positions” regarding “the false claims that link extremism and violence to Islam,” as well as for his insistence that extremism is not distinctive of Islam but is found among followers of all religions.

The Muslim World League is a Saudi Government-funded Islamic non-governmental organization, founded on May 18, 1962 in Mecca for the propagation of Islamic teachings. Despite the group’s official opposition to violence and terrorism and its pursuit of intercultural dialogue, it has been the subject of several ongoing counterterrorism investigations in the U.S. related to Hamas, al Qaeda and other terrorist groups.

Two months after the 9/11 jihadist attacks on U.S. soil, Newsweek writer Evan Thomas reported that the Muslim World League was one of “two interrelated global charities” directly funded by the Saudi government that were used by Osama bin Laden to finance his operations. The organizations were left off the list of groups sanctioned by the United States “in order to avoid embarrassing the Saudi government,” Thomas wrote.

In 2004, Harper’s Magazine declared that the Muslim World League had been “long known to have funneled money to Al Qaeda” and is financed directly by the Saudi government. “MWL is an evangelical organization that was created to help spread Wahhabism, the Saudi brand of Islamic fundamentalism,” the article stated.

According to the New York Times, an internal, top-secret report from the Treasury Department obtained through the Freedom of Information Act stated that the International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO), “an offshoot of the Muslim World League,” supported terrorist organizations beginning in the early 1990s “through to at least the first half of 2006.”

The MWL has also come under fire for its alleged anti-Semitism and the Anti-Defamation League claims that the MWL has frequently been a platform for anti-Israeli rhetoric. It has also been accused of using its English-language “Journal” to spread anti-Semitic conspiracy theories.

At their first International Islamic Conference on Dialogue in Mecca in 2008, the MWL invited Yusuf al-Qaradawi to speak. During his speech, he said he would “never sit with Jews on one platform and never hold dialogue with those Jews who have committed injustice against us and support Israel.”

On Tuesday, Al-Issa spoke at an international conference in Rome on “Tolerance in Islam” along with Joseph Levi, the former chief rabbi in Florence, and Bishop Miguel Ángel Ayuso Guixot, secretary of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue.

For his audience with the Pope, Al-Issa was accompanied by a delegation of seven people. The Vatican released a series of photographs of the encounter, during which the two men reportedly exchanged views on a number of “issues of common interest” including peace and global harmony, and discussed cooperation on issues of peaceful coexistence and the spread of love.

At the end of the meeting, Pope Francis and Al-Issa exchanged commemorative gifts. Al-Issa offered the Pope a symbolic gift representing Islamic civilization and its interaction with other civilizations, while Francis gave his guest a commemorative pen for the 500th anniversary of the construction of St. Peter’s Basilica and a medal commemorating the Pope’s fifth year in the chair of Peter.

Back to the ’80s…Again?! An Introduction

Figure 1A: This is the world I grew up in, when there was the U.S.S.R and the United States.

I consider myself a little bit of a weirdo. I am one of those strange creatures that straddles 5+ decades, two of them before the ubiquity of computers. I lived in the last of the era of rotary telephones, was ecstatic and laughing when speaker phone and call waiting first came out.

Figure 2A: Reading lesson in an African American elementary school in Washington, D.C., 1942.

The attempted desegregation of schools and neighbourhoods was painful for me. I hated going on the bus and I hated integrating with whites. I knew nothing about them but as police, prostitutes, drug dealers, serial killers and gun toting John Wayne types from the television.

They killed people in my family, killed my friends and also attempted to kill me. I still remember as a 12year old receiving the news that American white men had kidnapped Chris Dooley, tortured him, cut-off-his-scrotum (both the police and the coroner’s report read that according to test results he was most likely conscious when it happened) and then almost cut his head off in the process of slitting his throat. And this is what he got for being a Jew.

Then there were the police who practiced target practice on 12year olds walking home with their schoolbags. It was perfectly normal in black, Mexican and Arab neighbourhoods that all the police for the area were white and just happened to be recruited from the southeast.

I hated living on the West Coast and the problems that it had/has along with the situations. Another thing I remember from that era was the two party polarisations. It was both idiotic and harmful.

Figure 3A: American children saluting the flag. Sometimes they also genuflect.

Twice a day in school-after enforced genuflecting to the flag in the morning after breakfast, then again after lunch and sometimes during the weekly pep rallies to show “American spirit”-we had nuclear drills that we had to prepare for as students. A red button would light up outside and that siren would sound.

That was the warning for the nuclear drill. If you were indoors, you get your ass under a desk. If you were outside, you hauled ass to the pre-determined shelter or a classroom set aside for the purpose. If you did not, people laughed while you were locked out and “died” in the dreamed up nuclear holocaust that was guaranteed and would lead to the end of the Soviet and American empires.

Figure 1B: An example of the duck and cover drill during “the Cold War.” Ronald Reagan continued this abhorent custom.

Mutually Assured Destruction was the statement that I was forced to learn as a child when it was ruled illegal for me to continue homeschooling with my family. In addition to that, I had to learn these cities first: Los Angeles, New York, Seattle, Cape Canaveral, Dallas, Washington DC, Anapolis, Pittsburgh, Dallas and Phoenix.

Figure 2B: An alternative map of possible US targets during the “Cold War” era.

Then I had to learn Kiev, Moscow, Volgograd, Pyongyang and Beijing. The former were the ten cities that the USSR (United Soviet Socialist Republics for all you babies out there) had their nuclear weapons pointed at while the latter were cities that the Almighty United States had its warheads pointed out for destruction.

We learned from one of the speeches of Ronald Reagan that the United States had 14,500 warheads that were ready to go and had the capability of blowing up the world 15 times. Hopefully that would be a deterrent to “the Russians.”

You had to pick one side. You were either a lefty (or righty) and thus a socialist or thought to be nursing sympathies towards “the enemy” that sought to bring a socialist hell to the world. Anything could be done to stop it, even nukes if necessary. “Nuke ’em till they glow, then shoot ’em in the dark,” I was so lovingly tutored by classmates.

Then the other option was “the right.” You had to be either left or right. If you were to the right, you believed in the narrative about the United States, white IQ being higher than everyone else, America being special and white people being special.

Figure 3B: The Watts Riots, sometimes referred to by others as the Watts Uprising.

Then there were the riots of that time period. Most people had no time for that American exceptionalism garbage and were starving and looking for some relief from that pain. Neither the left nor the right wanted integration in the real sense. They wanted conformity.

The left did not want true integration but pushed for the bussing programmes that had me criss-crossing the damn state to go to school with people I had nothing in common with at all.

And for the record, we self-segregated once we arrived at school (which is one of the reasons why I have always advanced the notion that one can be friends with whomever and whatever race once likes, but races should stay separate. There are continents, tribes and DNA for a reason).

The left wanted us to integrate in the schools and at lunch tables but not in the neighbourhoods. One of my friends, Kristopher Flavours, died after a seizure (suffered from life-long epilepsy and was the wrong skin colour) in one of these progressive neighbourhoods when no one would call the paramedics to help him.

My friend Michael Collins (melanin enriched) died in my arms in the hospital when no one would offer him medical treatment at the hospital in one of these progressive neighbourhoods.

“The right” is no different. They really did not want to have the schools together with children, but now that they could not prevent it, they removed their children whenever possible and/or sent down the second hand books and withheld funding when possible.

I still remember the books that had written messages from children at the all-white schools addressed to us: “fuck you, ” “sand niggers die,” “spics go to hell,” “the only good nigger is a dead nigger,” “spics, indians, niggers, cops keep their hands on the triggers,” along with other heart-warming expressions.

This was reality. I say all this to say that that was the era of the 1980s. People would try to force you to accept one way of thinking and to polarise. When the Russians beat the tar out of the United States in the Olympics and some Soviet athletes came for a meet and greet, I went to meet them. They seemed nice and a few knew Arabic.

I would pay for thinking out of the box. I was beat up more than normal for a few days. I read any and everything I wanted to as long as it was not pornography or out and out Satanism (hey, I have to draw a line somewhere).

We had the ’70s. And that legacy was passed to the ’80s. Yes, that was the ’80s. How weird it is for me to say this but we’re back at the ’80s again!

Figure 4B: The left-right divide is an exercise in mass distraction.

We have this left (liberal/progressive) and right (alt-right/alt-lite/conservative) polarisation yet again. We now have to hear, “The Russians are coming! The Russians are coming!” from every Paul Revere type that likens himself to a public servant.

People are being told to choose up sides, pick a place. If you don’t, you’re confused. Words are being thrown around that only the initiated understand: red pill, blue pill, cuck, gas lighting and so many others that it does not deserve mention.

I am not going back to the ’80s. I’ve done it once. I am not living through it again. Since I am someone who has been through the ’80s once, I have a unique mind-set and contribution. Since I know how this works, to speak on it and accurately predict outcomes is like I have travelled back from “the future.”

Figure 4B: The above graph is not even correct, but this is often the frame of mind that many two way people think.

So I will do this act. I will go back through time and bring forward reasons why right thinking people – and especially Muslims – should have nothing to do with this trash. Stay away from these polarising elements. Read everything and come to a judgement.

Look at the blogroll on the right side of this article. It has liberals, whether on the far end or close to the middle, centrists and then right and far right. Why? So you can examine all the date, gather it together and then come to a conclusion on the matter.

So let us go back to the ’80s while staying in this current age. Let’s look at the main players that would have us do so, the flaws inherent in both sides and then the harms that come from this thinking and what type of people this will give birth to in the long run.

The Western Wall, Al-Masjid ul-Aqsa and the Religious Overtones of the Palestine/Israel Conflict

Figure 1A: The grand marja`, Imam Yusuf Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d. 1351 AH)

fatwawailingwall

Fatwa Regarding the Necessity of Preventing the Jews from Prayer at the Halting Place of Al-Buraq

By the Shaikh, the High Ranking Scholar, the Faqih and one of the Authorities of the Hanbalis: Yusuf ibn `Abdullah ibn Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d. 1351 AH),[1] may Allah have mercy upon him

This ruling was read and accepted in Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa, may Allah ennoble the place

The text is as follows:

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

The following question was put to the Marja`:

What is your statement regarding when the Jews intend to gather and manifest the peculiar aspects of their religion – in matters such as prayer, raising the voice while reading books – at the halting place of the Noble Buraq[2] that is one of the sections of the Al-Masjid ul-Aqsa along with the shrines of the Muslims?

In addition to this, what is your statement regarding their intent on erecting a temple on the site?

Is this action of the Jews something that can be accepted according to the judgements of the Pure Revealed Law although it annoys or causes harm to the Muslims?

Is it compulsory to prevent them from that area? What are the explicit texts of the scholars of fiqh and what have they specifically said on the topic?

And further to this, what clarification do we have from a scholar of fiqh that is authentic to narrate from and what is the proof? Please benefit us with a detailed answer.

Imam Yusuf Al-Qaddumi (d. 1351 AH) tendered the following reply:

Praise be to Allah Alone.  Dear reader, you should know that this subject is wide indeed in terms of the scope and its means of research are also the same. The origin of this matter returns to the conditions that were set by `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, for the people of covenant after the conquest of Sham and his men in the conquering army followed the same pathway.

`Umar kept them on that path and this was passed down to the Imams of the Religion and the virtuous ones of the Muslims. They noted down these conditions in their books and they are popularly known and well documented with evidence and the speech of the scholars of fiqh – may Allah have mercy upon them – in connection to a decisive word which all judgements are based upon as they are the bearers of the knowledge and narrators of the Religion.

So with this being established, we come to you with some of what was explicitly narrated from the Imams of our Madhhab but at the same time adhering to a very truncated reply as per necessary.

 

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Research on the Words Temple and Prayer Place

Al-Qamus narrates that the Arabic word kanisah meant:

The kanisah is a place taken for worship by the Jews.[3]

In the same work, the word Al-Bi`ah is:

Al-Bi`ah is a place in which Christians have taken it for worship. [4]

The lexicon Al-Misbah mentions:

Al-Bi`ah is for Christians[5] while Al-Kanisah is a temple for the Jews.[6]

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Research on the Judgement in Question

Our first source of authority shall be the Imam, the Faqih, Shaikh of the Sunnah, Mufti of the Ummah, Master of the High Ranking Scholars, Imam of the Hadith Scholars, Muwaffaq ud-Din `Abdullah ibn Ahmad Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi As-Salihi Al-Hanbali.

He is a saintly man who avoided the earthly life, author of the works Al-Mughni, Al-Muqni` and was gentle, benevolent and humble. Whoever saw this man, it was as if he saw one of the Companions.

The king of the era, Al-`Aziz ibn Al-`Adil, used to visit this Imam frequently to take benefit and advice. The Imam died on Saturday, 1 Shawwal – corresponding to `Eid ul-Fitr – in the year 620 AH in Damascus. He was buried at the base of Mount Qasiyun, may Allah have mercy upon him.[7]

The Imam mentioned in his book Al-Muqni` under chapter of the judgements of the people of covenant on p. 240:

They should be prevented from publicly preaching their book, manifesting their wrong and building new temples and synagogues. [8]

Our next authority is the Chief Qadi, one of the High Ranking Imams, Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Muflih ibn Mufarraj Al-Maqdisi As-Salihi Ad-Dimashqi. He died in the year 763 AH and was buried at the base of Mount Qasiyun. May Allah – Exalted be He – have mercy upon him.[9]

He wrote the text Al-Furu`. This book is from the most noble, beneficial put together that has manifest blessings and it is in a large and noble print. In the said text under the chapter of the Judgements of the People of Covenant:

They are to be prevented in a compulsory fashion from raising voices with reading their books in public. Our Shaikh – meaning Shaikh ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah – has also said, ‘It is not for the Jews to manifest any of their religion in Dar ul-Islam at all at any time.’

He also mentioned at another point in the text under the chapter of the Judgements of Temples, Churches and Fire Temples of the Parsis:

They are to be forbidden from erecting new temples/synagogues, churches as was mentioned by our shaikh, who also said, ‘This ruling is Consensus.’ [10]

The Imam continued on in another place:

Destroying synagogues in the lands which were conquered like in the case of Egypt, Sham is permitted when there is no open harm that will come.[11] The same ruling holds for when they are forbidden from building these structures after they have fallen into ruin and the remains that they possess are no longer their property.

Rather the remains of these structures are property for us. When the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, conquered Khaibar the remains of the buildings were still in the hands of the people present there at the time.

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said to them, ‘We leave to your disposal what we so choose to do.’ Then when `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, was declared khalifah he expelled them from Khaibar.

The people of covenant are also forbidden from entrance into the masjids that are occupied and in use. This is the statement of `Umar and `Ali, may Allah be pleased with both of them. The reason for this is that the Muslim is forbidden from remaining in the masjid when he or she is in a state of major hadath – like in the case of the monthly cycle or junub.

Now then, rejecting faith in Allah, Exalted be He, is a better reason to be prevented from entrance into the masjid. Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi, may Allah be pleased with him, said in his commentary: ‘It is compulsory to forbid them from entrance into the masjid.’ [12]

Our next authority is the Shaikh of the Madhhab, `Ala’ ud-Din `Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Ahmad As-Sa`di As-Salihi – who is popularly known as Al-Mardawi – and he is the Imam.

He is also the high ranking scholar of many sciences – both of religion and plenary – one of the wonders of the time, the expounder of the sciences, author of many superior and splendid works. This includes books such as Al-Insaf, At-Tanqih, At-Tahrir fil-Usul.

The senior scholars and outstanding jurists would set out to visit and take benefit from the Imam, who died in the year 885 of the Hijrah in the Salihiyyah district of Damascus. He was buried at the foot of Mount Qasiyoun, may Allah have mercy upon him.[13]

In one of his works, Tashih ul-Furu`, he has mentioned their being prohibited from the masjid in use:

That is indeed the correct position. So in the case of the Muslim being prevented from remaining in the masjid due to his state, then to prevent the people of covenant from entrance into the masjid is more abstentious and more befitting. It is also allowed in cases of dire necessity for them to enter when it poses a clear benefit and rectification. [14]

We now want to source a quote from the Imam, Possessor of the Clear and Forbearing Religion, the well-grounded in knowledge, Sharaf ud-Din Abun-Naja Musa ibn Ahmad ibn Musa Al-Maqdisi As-Salihi Ad-Dimishqi – popularly known as Al-Hajjawi – and he is the high ranking and zealous scholar, the Mufti of the Hanbalis in Damascus.

The said Imam is depended upon in fiqh, the author of many works that the people have come to meet with acceptance due to his good effort and pure intention. One of these works is Al-Iqna`.

The Imam died in the year 968 and was buried at the foot of Mount Qasiyoun, may Allah have mercy upon him.[15]

In the text Al-Iqna` on pp. 716-717 under the chapter of the People of the Covenant, the Imam remarks:

They are prevented from manifesting their religion publicly and it is also forbidden for them to use or transact with Muslims with wealth they would use for synagogues.  [16]

Imam Al-Hajjawi goes on to say on page 719 in the said work above:

They are prevented from building a new church or synagogue in Dar ul-Islam. They are also to be prevented from building monk cloisters, widening them or building extensions as this has the same meaning as renewing, consecrating or building.

They are also to be prevented from renewing, rebuilding what was destroyed as it is like building a synagogue in Dar ul-Islam so they are forbidden from that just the same as they would be prevented from beginning to build a new synagogue.

Furthermore, they are prevented from raising voices with the recitation of their books as this was mentioned in the conditions set by Ibn Ghanam when he said: ‘…and we do solemnly pledge not to raise our voices in the prayer in the synagogue, nor reading hymns in our churches in places where Muslim neighbours are present. We will neither display in public any cross nor book among the Muslims in public.’ [17]

There is another quote from the said Imam on p. 726 on the topic:

It is not for them to be given entrance into a masjid in use even if by permission of a Muslim. [18]

This ruling is clear and explicit in that it is forbidden to sell to them or trade with them in what would be used for a synagogue. This means further that it is forbidden for the man to sell them land that they would use for a synagogue. They are likewise forbidden from building a synagogue on land which is set aside as an endowment for the generality of the Muslims and this is even more emphasised.

The reason for this is that a Muslim possesses a right to seek prevention of this happening and in the same respect these people are to be prevented from erecting a new synagogue. So in the same respect we are forbidden from selling them land for the purpose and they are forbidden from building synagogues on what lands they possess.

We also have the words of the high ranking scholar of fundamental principles, the Faqih, the Shaikh, known as Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti. He was one of the mountains of knowledge in his time.

This scholar has numerous commentaries that are beneficial indeed. One of them is the commentary on Al-Iqna`. The Shaikh died in Egypt in the mid-morning of Friday 10 Rabi` ul-Awwal in the year 1051 and was buried near his native people, may Allah have mercy upon him.[19]

The Imam gave a ruling similar to what we have heard above when he said:

The reason for this ruling of prohibition is that the great conqueror, `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ghanam made a number of conditions upon the people of the Palestinian territory and his letter to the people was explicit and had the following: ‘If we should renege, break the condition we made against ourselves and the agreement of security, then there is no covenant for us. When this happens, it then becomes valid for you to do with us what is permitted with the people of opposition and enmity.’ `Umar then commanded him to make sure they marked the covenant for them and they accept it.  [20]

And the disputation and contradiction taking place today in Palestine at the hands of the Jews is the very essence of stubbornness, dissension and they are both violations of what they agreed in the beginning with the Muslims.

The judgement made at the time was one and unified and the condition is one. This specific ruling is compulsory on the land and whoever should have the authority, namely that any ruler should not affirm or allow them their rebellion and sectarianism.

Any ruler or judge in this case should take firm hold of the truth and keep the right of the trust established.

Imam Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih Al-Maqdisi said in Al-Furu` under the chapter of What Nullifies the Covenant:

The covenant would be nullified by manifesting what they had agreed as a condition to keep hidden of their religion. Ibn Shihab and others besides him mentioned: ‘The people of covenant are obligated to adhere to what was mentioned in the conditions laid out by `Umar.’ This was also discussed by Ibn Rizin but Ibn Shihab also made the following inquiry: ‘If some of the people of covenant are resident in the cities of Sham in general, should they be made to adhere to these conditions or not?’[21]

Consider also the statement of the Imam, high ranking scholar, the Shaikh of the Madhhab, Shihab ud-Din, the Faqih of the fundamental principles, Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul `Aziz Al-Futuhi Al-Masri.

This high ranking scholar was given leadership of the madhhab of Imam Ahmad and then died around the year 980 in Egypt, may Allah be pleased with him.[22]

The Imam mentioned in his work, Al-Muntaha:

They are to be prevented from erecting new synagogues, temples and places where they would gather for prayer in any portion of the lands of the Muslims. This ruling holds whether it is an urban development of the Muslims – like Baghdad, Al-Basrah and Wasit – or what has been conquered – like in the case of Egypt and Sham – and it is not permitted to make a treaty with them on the condition of their erecting a synagogue or temple in the land of the Muslims. [23]

Then he went on to say:

It is not permitted to build in these lands gathering places for kufr and likewise erecting new cloisters as per the statement of `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ghanam regarding the people of treaty: ‘…We will not erect a midrash school nor a cloister for a monk…’ And they are to be prevented from manifesting any evil and from reciting the book publicly among the Muslims. [24]

The Imam then summed up by saying the following:

It is not for an unbeliever to enter a masjid even if it is with the permission of a Muslim who is inside. This is based upon the hadith of Abu Musa when he came to `Umar and he had with him a letter bearing his judgement. `Umar said to Abu Musa, ‘Call the one who wrote it to read the decree out to the people and part of it is that one of them is not to enter the masjid.’

Abu Musa asked, ‘Why is he refused entry?’ `Umar replied, ‘He is a Christian man.’ This is explicit proof of their agreement on that the unbeliever is not to enter the masjid.  [25]

These are the explicit texts of the scholars of fiqh, may Allah – Exalted be He –  have mercy upon them, that are clear in calling to the prevention of the Jews from having a presence at the Noble Halting Place of Al-Buraq which follows the wall going around Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa.

They are likewise to be prevented from gathering there, manifesting the particulars of their religion or erecting a synagogue for themselves there. In fact, it is not permitted for a Muslim to sell his land to them for that purpose. And even if the said Muslim is selling the land in terms of trade, then this is still impermissible.

How could it be allowed to erect a synagogue on a land set aside as an endowment for all the Muslims? When this is known, it is even more important to prevent them and a greater level of impermissibility in this subject in the purest and most explicit sense.

This is said as every individual from among the Muslims has a right to repel and prevent and seek to stop the Jews from doing these actions in the land set aside as an endowment for them.

The Imam, Muhammad ibn Jarir At-Tabari narrated with his chain of transmission all the way to Abu `Ubaidah ibn Al-Jarrah, may Allah – Exalted be He – be pleased with him, who was the esteemed leader in the march of the conquest of Sham.

One of the general directives to Abu `Ubaidah from the Leader of the Believers, `Umar regarding the Christians of Jerusalem was that: “No Jew should live among them in their neighbourhoods but separate.”[26]

Whoever should declare such a thing permitted while knowing of the prohibition discussed above and what is transpiring in the land, then such an individual has committed kufr as he is assisting in giving life to the particular and special attributes of kufr, strengthening it and showing opposition to the True Religion and the vast swathes of Muslims.

So it is due to these causes that it is specifically necessary for the leader of affairs for the Muslims that he not make it possible for them to have entrance into this holy place and that he prevent them from gathering there as it is a blameworthy and wrong action.

It is also specifically necessary for the Muslims in their general numbers wherever they are found to fight against this series of events, oppose them as long as it is present and to fight it. This is required as doing this is giving life to the peculiar and particular outcomes of the Religion.

And with that being said, the honour and might belongs to Allah, His Messenger and the believers in whole. And Allah, Glorified and Exalted be He, knows best.

This was written by the destitute servant of the knowledge of Revealed Law in Nablus,

Yusuf Sufan Al-Hanbali

And may Allah pardon him

 

[1] AD 1932

[2] Trans note: the Jews refer to this and the adjoining section of the wall as the Ha-Kotel or the “Western Wall.” English speakers refer to this as “The Wailing Wall.” Orthodox Jews believe this wall represents the last portion of their temple that once stood until destruction in the year AD 70 by Roman troops who conquered and devastated Jerusalem.  Cf. Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion by Louis Jacobs, pp. 294-295

[3] Al-Qamus ul-Muhit by Al-Fairuzabadi, pp. 570-571

[4] Al-Qamus ul-Muhit by Al-Fairuzabadi, pp. 703-705

[5] Al-Misbah by Al-Fayyumi, vol.1, pp. 66-69

[6] Al-Misbah by Al-Fayyumi, vol.2, pp. 540-542

[7] cf. Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 105-118

[8] cf. Imam Ibn Muflih’s Al-Mubdi`: Sharh ul-Muqni`, vol.3, pp. 378-379

[9] cf. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’il il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 1089-1094

[10] Al-Furu`, vol.10, pp. 336-338

[11] Trans. note: this refers to when they are not in use. This point is cited two pages after the relevant quote.

[12] Al-Furu`, vol.10, pp. 336-338

[13] cf. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 739-743

[14] Tashih ul-Furu`, vol.10, pp. 342-343

[15] cf. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 1134-1136

[16] Al-Iqna`, vol.2, pp. 48-49

[17] Al-Iqna`, vol.2, pp. 49-51; Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matn il-Iqna`, vol.3, pp. 132-133

[18] Al-Iqna`, vol.1, pp. 322-323

[19] cf. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 1131-1133

[20] Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matn il-Iqna`, vol.3, pp. 142-143

[21] Al-Furu`, vol.10, pp. 353-354

[22] cf. As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 854-858

[23] Sharh Muntaha al-Iradat, vol.1, pp. 665-667

[24] Sharh Muntaha al-Iradat, vol.1, pp. 665-667

[25] Sharh Muntaha al-Iradat, vol.1, pp. 665-667

[26] At-Tarikh ul-Kabir, vol.3, pp. 608-609