TAWAF AROUND GRAVES AND THE RULING

“Sufi dance” as well as tawaf and “religious music happening at a grave.”

The following question was asked of a marja`:

So what is the position of the respected scholars regarding making tawaf around the graves of the pious people at the time of visiting them, kissing the base of the graves and touching the walls?

Is this mandated in the Revealed Law or no? Is this from the actions of the first pious generation, the rightly guided successors and the Imams of ijtihad? Are these actions from the reprehensible innovations which are taken as service by those after them?

In the event that it is not permitted, then what is the position of the scholars regarding visitation? Is this upon the sunnah way or has it become forbidden?

What is the position of the respected scholars regarding the one who forbids people from making visitation to the graves in order to do the actions mentioned above?

The marja,` Imam `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d. 1346 AH), may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows:

I would like to say from the start that Allah did not give permission to make tawaf of anything except in the case of doing so around the Sacred House. He, Allah, did not give dispensation to His Prophet to kiss any inanimate solid objects except the Black Stone at the time of making the Tawaf exclusively.

As far as in the case of making tawaf round the graves, kissing their tombstones, touching or rubbing the walls, this is neither from the first three generations and nor has any scholar allowed such a matter with his statement.

This is from the action of the people of the Age of Ignorance who used to worship the idols. The origin of this was mentioned by Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi in his book The Deception of Iblis:

“The Amalek people -when times became difficult for them- had a group from among them leave from Makkah and each one of them took a stone from Makkah out of respect for the Haram sanctuary.

“When they would complete their rites and took off the ihram garments, each one of them would place that stone on the ground and make tawaf around it as one would with the Ka`bah. Then they started to worship the stones and idols, forgot what they had been upon from the Religion of Ibrahim, peace be upon him.

“The people in the Age of Ignorance used to build structures upon the idols out of respect for them. So the Thaqif people at At-Ta’if built a structure upon their idol – which was named Al-Lat – and this was in reference to a raised boulder.

“Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj had an idol named Manah and when they would make the Hajj in the Age of Ignorance, upon completion of it they would not shave their heads until they were in the presence of Manah. They believed that their Hajj would not be complete without this action.

“The people of Tayy’ also had an idol and the people of Makkah each had an idol. So when one of them went on a journey, he would touch it before the journey and upon return would do the same thing.

“In the event that such a one did not find an idol while he was on a journey, then he would gather some dirt, make it into some form and then make tawaf of it. The Imam, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah was asked how the Arabs worshipped stones and idolatrous forms and images. He responded, ‘The origin of their worship was the stones. They said that the House – meaning the Ka`bah – is of stone so how is it that our altars not be of stone. So they put this in place of the Sacred House.’ ”[1]

These were his words on the topic. Now look at the analogy the idol worshippers made. So it can thus be seen from there that the Revealed Law has forbidden tawaf around stones, dirt and wood, all of which is on the graves. It is likewise forbidden to make tawaf around these built up structures in the absolute sense. This is because this is from the acts of the worshippers of idolatrous images and stone idols.

Imam Ibn `Aqil Al-Baghdadi stated in his book The Plenary Sciences:

“One is not to kiss the graves, make tawaf around them, make intercession with their inhabitants to Allah, seek some sort of rank by that in which they might say that there is a secret between you and Allah or anything named a secret between Allah and His Creation.”

He went on to say:

“It is disliked to use torches, lanterns at the grave sites, incense burning done therein, writing notes to the dust and then fastening them to the outer fencing. This same individual would say at the time of doing it, ‘Help me or grant my wish.’ It is also the same as the one saying, ‘Be pleased with me as I have sought that,’ as if the visitors are conversing with someone living and calling on a mighty lord who does what he wills!” [2]

 

[1] Talbis Iblis, pp. 75-81, Al-Maktab ul-Islami

[2] Taken from Al-Mawahib ur-Rabbaniyyah fil-Ajwibati `An il-Ajwibat il-Qazaniyyah: Al-Ajwibatu `An As’ilati Ba`d il-Masriyyah, pp. 239-240

 

MEERAATH IS LIVE ONCE AGAIN…AND A STATEMENT

A Meeting of three great Marja` people

Dear readers,

Praise be to Allah for His Immense Help and Blessings and every good that only He can release. The Meeraath site is now live and back up. We are in the process of doing a read through. Indeed we are aware that there are a few of the links that need work.

This is being remedied and taken care of as we speak. However all the original information (saving a few biographies and rulings) is back and we hope better than before. We praise Allah for every good.

I stated in the last article on Meeraath and the incident of attack launched against it that I and others that assist me would be doubling down on affairs and strengthening our resolve. And we indeed have and continue to do so. Just like with the rest of the cults, I want to reiterate:

  1. Salafiyyah is indeed a different religion to Islam and its essence and 15 masa’il in theology are kufr.
  2. In general Salafis are kuffar (but individually it must be case by case judgement)
  3. Their theologians are in general kuffar
  4. The government and leadership that they support calls to major kufr and
  5. the theology ultimately leads to the Fire where the Wrath of Allah shall abide.

Outside of this Consensus, we praise Allah for His numerous gifts and protection from death threats, magic, false religion and the like. We leave you with the words of Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti who said the following:

قد اطلعت على هذه الرسالة المشتملة على مسائل شرعية متعلقة بأمور ارتكبها بعض الناس

جهلاً لا توجب الكفر أصلاً وبعضها ربما يكون حسناً عند التأمل

“I have read this general message with regard to the matter of Revealed Law as it relates to some affairs committed by ignorant people – which do not necessitate kufr in principle – while some of this message’s points may be beneficial in consideration.

وقد اكفرهم بفعلها ابن عبد الوهاب محرر هذه الرسالة وحكم بحل دمائهم وأموالهم

“Ibn `Abdul Wahhab has declared ignorant people committing doubtful actions to be unbelievers as stated in this letter. In addition to this he declared their blood and wealth licit for spilling and seizure.

بمفاهيم تخيلها من ظواهر النصوص الشرعية مبنئة عن جهله وتوغله وسوء ظنه بالمؤمنين

فلعنة الله على من اعتقد هذا الإعتقاد فان من كفر مؤمناً فقد كفر

“This belief was arrived at by what appeared to him upon cursory observation of the explicit texts of the Revealed Law and he built this understanding upon his ignorance, hatred and bad opinion of the believers. May Allah curse whoever has this creed! Indeed whoever declares a believer to be an unbeliever has already commited kufr.” [1] 

Thanks to our readers again for their continued support.

Until next time,

 

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

 

[1] This is taken from the personal library of the author and was used in his notes for preparing the text you are reading; cf The Divine Texts, pp. 115-116.

 

INTERCESSION WITH THE DECEASED PT 1

قبر الشيخ مجير الدين العليمي

`Umar ibn Al-Khattab,[1] may Allah be pleased with him, narrated the hadith of Adam, peace be upon him, making intercession with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, before his coming into the world.[2]

The last part of the hadith has been related where Adam, peace be upon him, said, “Lord! By the rank of this child, have mercy on this father!” He was then told,

 “Adam, if you had made intercession to us with Muhammad for the skies and the earth, We would have granted it to you”. [3]

There is another historic incident in which the people were suffering a drought while `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruling successor.[4]

The Companion, Bilal ibn Al-Harith,[5] may Allah be pleased with him, who was one of the Companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, came to the very grave of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him.

He said while there, “Messenger of Allah! Pray for your Ummah to have rain or they will be destroyed with drought”.

Later, this Companion had a dream and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, appeared to him and informed him that they would be given sustenance.[6]

Something important should be understood at this point. A dream or vision cannot in itself be used as evidence, even if it turns out to be true, or is true.

This is due to the fact that it is possible that something doubtful could be said to the one having the dream.

The only thing that can be used as evidence is the action of the Companion, in this case, Bilal ibn Al-Harith, may Allah be pleased with him.

This Companion came to the grave of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, called on him then asked him to pray for rain.

This is proof positive that such an act is permissible, and falls under the discussion on intercession.[7]

Not one of the Companions rejected or repudiated this act, which shows this to be one of the noblest acts of reward.

It has been narrated with an authentic chain of transmission from the Companion, Bilal, may Allah be pleased with him, who narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said,

 “Whoever leaves from his home on the way to prayer should say: ‘Allah! I ask You according to the right and rank of all of those who ask You’.”[8]

It has also been mentioned by the companion, Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri,[9] may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, instructed that one should say,

 “I ask You according to the right and rank of the one coming out into the world. I don’t seek to come out to cause evil, be arrogant or show off.

 “If You forgive my sins then no one can forgive sins except You”.[10]

He then said, “Allah will send down on him some 70,000 angels who will seek forgiveness for him”.[11]

The first three generations and those after them always made use of this supplication whenever they left their homes for prayer. This was done without anyone repudiating it. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, stated,

 “Allah! Have forgiveness on my mother, Fatimah bint Asad.[12]

 “Spread out for her the place of her going into the Paradise according to the rank and right of Your Prophet and the prophets who came before me”.[13]

The Companion, `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud,[14] may Allah be pleased with him, narrated from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, who said,

 “Whenever any one of you is on a journey and his riding beast runs away from him, he should say, ‘Slaves of Allah! Take hold of this animal!’ Indeed, Allah has slaves in the Earth present and they will take hold of it.”[15]

There are many other statements like these, in fact so many that it would be difficult to   fit any more in here, but these few statements should be enough for anyone seeking safety from the arrogant people and those who always want to debate.

When looking at the statements of the scholars of fiqh, there are many quotations that could easily be found and cited without extensive study. One such example comes from the scholars of fiqh from the Hanbalis.

We will mention the words of the learned scholar, the depended upon researcher, Shaikh Mansur Al-Buhuti,[16] may Allah have mercy on him. He is the commentator as well as the expounder on the texts The Uttermost Boundary[17] and The Satisfaction.[18] In his commentary on The Satisfaction, he said the following:

As-Samuri[19] and the author of At-Talkhis[20] mentioned, there is no harm in seeking intercession by the shaikhs and righteous scholars in the prayer of seeking rain.

Al-Hafiz Ibn Al-Jawzi,[21] may Allah have mercy on him, declared it permissible to use a righteous man for intercession to Allah the Exalted. It has also been called praiseworthy, and this is the depended upon position.[22]

Imam Ahmad in his Precinct,[23] which he wrote to Abu Bakr Al-Marrudhi,[24] mentioned that he made intercession to Allah the Exalted with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in his supplication.

One of the students, the insightful Imam, Ibrahim Al-Harbi,[25] stated that making supplication at the grave of Ma`ruf Al-Karkhi[26] is time tested and proven to be answered.’ [27]

This was also considered to be permissible by Imam Burhan ud-Din ibn Muflih,[28] may Allah have mercy on him, in his Commentary on the Precincts from the text of The Sufficer [29] and other texts like Commentary on the Limit.[30]

Imam Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii said the following:

 “The Household of the Prophet is my means.

They are a means to him.

I hope through them I will be given another day.

By my right hand and the pages I write.” [31]

 

[1] 42 BH-24 (AD 581-644). He is Abu Hafs Al-Faruq `Umar ibn Al-Khattab Al-Qurshi Al-`Adawi. Merchant, Companion and ruler of the Muslim world, he was the second khalifah (13/4-24 (AD 634-644) and brought in such inventions as street lights, hanging lamps and four month campaigns and pensions for soldiers. He was assassinated by a lone man while leading the Muslims in the daybreak prayer in the masjid. cf. As-Suyuti’s Tarikh ul-Khulafa‘, pp. 208-259

[2] Collected from a number of chains of transmission by Imams Al-Baihaqi in Dala’il un-Nabuwwah, vol.5, pp.488-490; Al-Hakim in his Al-Mustadrak, vol.2, pp.612-615; At-Tabarani in Al-Mu`jam us-Saghir, vol.2, pp.80-82; Abu Nu`aim in Ad-Dala’il, pp.40-42; Ibn `Asakir, vol.3, pp.516-520; while most of it has been narrated in Al-Mawahib ul-Laduniyyah., vol.1, pp.27-44. The text of what the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said is presented here: “ ‘I am asking You by the right of Muhammad to forgive me’. Allah, Exalted be He, revealed to him, ‘Who is Muhammad?’ Adam, peace be upon him, replied, ‘Glory be to You! When You created me I looked at the Throne and saw inscribed on it the words: There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. When I saw that, I knew that there was no one more magnificent in Your sight than him whose name You placed next to Your Name’. Allah, Exalted be He, proclaimed: Adam, he is the last of the Prophets from your seed, and his Community are the last of all Communities from your seed. Adam, Were it not for him, I would not have created you”.

[3] ibid

[4] Please see Appendix V for more on this topic

[5] 20 BH-60 (AD 602-682). He is  Abu `Abdur-Rahman Bilal ibn Al-Harith ibn `Asim ibn Sa`id ibn Qurrah Al-Muzani Al-Madani. One of the Companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in Al-Madinah, he was also one of the standard bearers on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. He lived for 80 years. Please see Al-`Asqalani’s Al-Isti`ab, vol.1, pp. 183-184.

[6] Collected by Imam Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah in his Musannaf, vol.12, pp.30-32 and graded as with an authentic chain and sound narrators by Imams Ibn Kathir (d. 774 (AD 1396) in his Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, vol.7, pp. 204-205 and Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani (d. 852 (AD 1504) in his Fath ul-Bari, vol.4, pp. 115-117. The full text of the hadith is as follows as per narrated by Malik ad-Dar: A man came to the grave of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and said, “Messenger of Allah! Ask for rain for your Ummah or they will be destroyed by drought.” After that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, appeared to them in a dream and told him, “Give `Umar my greeting and tell him that rain will come. Tell him to be wise”. The man (Bilal ibn Al-Harith) went and said this to the Khalifah and he wept. He said, “My Lord! I leave nothing undone except that which is out of my power”.

[7] Ar. Istighathah, tawassul and tashaffu`

[8] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the Musnad, vol.10, pp.67-68; Ibn as-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla, #s 83-84; Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol.1, pp.256-257 #778.

[9] 10BH-74 (AD 611-696). He is Abu Sa`id Sa`d ibn Malik ibn Sinan ibn Tha`labah ibn `Ubaid. One of the great Companions, he was present at battles such as Al-Khandaq and he was also at Bai`at ur-Ridwan. He would die and be buried in Al-Madinah. Please see Adh-Dhahabi’s Siyar, vol.3, pp. 168-169.

[10] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the Musnad, vol.10, pp.67-68; Ibn As-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla, #s 83-84 as well as Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol.1, pp.256-257 #778

[11] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the Musnad, vol.10, pp.67-68; Ibn As-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla, #s 83-84 as well as Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol.1, pp.256-257 #778

[12] 56 BH-5 (AD 575-627). She is Fatimah bint Asad ibn Hashim ibn `Abdu Manaf ibn Qusai Al-Hashimiyyah. The mother of the Companion, `Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, she accepted Islam after the death of her husband, Abu Talib. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, addressed her in this respectful fashion out of love of her and the rank she held in his eyes. cf. Ibn Al-Jawzi’s Sifat us-Safwah, vol.2, pp. 53-54, Az-Zirkili’s Al-A`lam, vol.5, pp.129-130.

[13] This is actually a piece of a much longer hadith collected by Imams At-Tabarani in his Al-Mu`jam ul-Kabir, vol.24, pp.350-335 and Al-Mu`jam ul-Awsat, vol.1, pp.159 and 189; Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, vol.8, pp.243-244; Al-Hakim in his Al-Mustadrak; Abu Nu`aim Al-Asbahani in his Hilyat ul-Awliya’, vol.3, pp.120-121.

[14] d. 32/3 (AD 652). He is Abu `Abdur-Rahman `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud ibn Ghafil ibn Habib Al-Hudhali. One of the closest Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. He began his career as a shepherd, but upon embracing Islam went to live with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. Not only was he a great companion, but he shared the designation as being the sixth one to embrace Islam in Makkah during the times of persecution. He became one of the outstanding teachers of Islam, witnessing the revelations being given, angels coming, as well as being one of the 3,000 Companions depended upon as a source of fiqh for those who later came to be known as the Hanafi madhhab.  Please see Ibn Al-Jawzi’s Sifat us-Safwah, vol.1, pp. 395-422

[15] Ibn As-Sunni cf. Al-Haithami in Majma` uz-Zawaa’id, vol.10, p.132, At-Tabarani in his Al-Mu`jam ul-Kabir, hadith #10,518

[16] d. 1051 (AD 1656). He is Abus-Sa`adat Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Buhuti. Egyptian marja` and one of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School in the later age, he studied with premier scholars of Sham, such as Imams Yahya Al-Hajjawi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. The Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d. 1079 (AD 1674), when he learned that Al-Buhuti had penned his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, burned his own text and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 472-474

[17] Ar. Al-Muntaha al-Iradat

[18] Ar. Al-Iqna`

[19] d. 610 (AD 1213). He is Nusair ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Al-Hussain, known as Ibn Sunainah. Hailing the city of Rayy in today’s Iran, he was the author of books on inheritance, theology and poetry, his main accomplishment being gathering together some ten books within one for his amazing work, Al-Mustaw`ab, still considered a masterpiece. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 95-96.

[20] 542-622 (AD 1147-1225). He is Fakhr ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn Al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Abdullah ibn Taymiyyah Al-Harrani, who wrote a number of others books in fiqh, such as Al-Bulghah, Sharh ul-Hidayah, At-Targhib and others. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 119-127.

[21] 511-597 (AD 1116-1202). He is Abul Faraj Jamal ud-Din `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah. Theologian, astronomer, jurist, renewer of the faith, he wrote more books than any other author in history. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 336-363.

[22] Ar. mu`tamad. This refers to the final ruling and depended upon position in a School. This is arrived at by a number of steps (cf. Ibn Badran’s Al-Madkhal, pp.460-462):

  1. The scholars of the school have looked at the principles given by the companions on the subjects
  2. The scholars convene upon the issue and then give their ruling.
  3. The ruling is then written down in writing and subsequent commentaries or documentation are written on the issue.

[23] Ar. Mansak

[24] d. 275 (AD 888). He is Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj ibn `Abdul `Aziz Al-Marrudhi (sometimes his name is transcribed Al-Marwazi along with another scholar). A major hadith scholar and theologian, he washed his teacher, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, when he died. cf. Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 57-63

[25] d. 285 (AD 995). He is Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Bishr ibn `Abdullah ibn Daisam Al-Harbi. One of the high ranking students of Imam Ahmad, he was a memoriser of 400,000 ahadith and was one of the teachers of Imam Muhammad Al-Khallal (d. 311 (AD 923) and also Imam Abul Qasim Al-Khiraqi (d. 334 (AD 946). cf. Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 83-88.

[26] d. 200 (AD 816). Abu Mahfuz Ma`ruf ibn Al-Faizan Al-Karkhi. Scholar, theologian and wandering teacher and friend of the orphans, homeless and unwanted, he was a friend of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah have mercy on him. He suffered persecution from the nascent Mu`tazilah, but remained resilient upon the faith of the Orthodox. cf. Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.340-346

[27] Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matn il-Iqna`, vol.1, pp.542-543; vol.2, pp.70-73; Daqa’iq Ul in-Nuha li-Sharh il-Muntaha, vol.1, pp.333-335. This same quote has also been mentioned in the texts al-Mubdi` Fi Sharh ul-Muqni`, vol.2, pp.202-204; al-Insaf, vol.2, pp.453-456.

[28] d. 884 (AD 1479).  He is Abu Ishaq Burhan ud-Din Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muflih ibn Mufarrij Al-Maqdisi. One of the premier scholars in Sham, he was born in Nablus, spent his learning career in Damascos and died in Salihiyyah. He spent his life surrounded by jurists and theologians. He wrote some six large books on fiqh and inheritance. cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 33-34

[29] Ar. Sharh al-Manasik al-Muqni`

[30] Ar. Sharh ul-Ghayah

[31] As-Sawa`iq al-Muhriqah fi Radd `ala Ahl il-Bid`ah waz-Zanadiqah, pp.250-252

Intercession with the Deceased pt 2

ضريح الشيخ ابن القيم

There are further quotes from the Hanbali sages that confirm intercession, from Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, his sons and up to the present time. The author has already given us some examples of Imam Ahmad and others, but more could be said:

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620 (AD 1223), may Allah have mercy on him, renewer of the faith and depended upon source for fiqh and creed, mentioned the hadith of the making intercession with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, in his last will and testament, and advised its use. He also stated that the first three generations used to ask the dead for their needs in similar supplications.[1]

He also made a supplication, part of which was speaking in the second person, and advised its use on hajj when believers are in front of the grave of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him:

I have come to you seeking forgiveness of my sins by seeking your intercession with my Lord. So I ask you, Lord! I ask that you grant forgiveness based upon this intercession just as you granted it for the one who came to him during his lifetime. [2]

Imam Yahya ibn Yusuf As-Sarsari (d. 656 (AD 1258), renewer of the faith in his life and grand teacher, may Allah have mercy on him, wrote in one of his works:

And the illuminating dust of his grave is a source of repose, help and goodness for the saint who fears Allah.

He mentioned in another part of his text speaking to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in the second person:

The Peace and Wholeness of Allah be upon you, be they wealthy or poor, for you are the most effective and strong means to go to the Most Merciful within whatever speech. [3]

Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi (d. 1033 (AD 1624), renewer of the faith and high ranking judge, may Allah have mercy upon him, prayed:

And I ask that I might be saved from being led far astray by the one who emigrated for the sake of Allah (i.e. the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). [4]

Imam Muhammad ibn Badr ud-Din Al-Balbani (d. 1083 (AD 1672), a renewer of the faith and high ranking theologian, stated near the end of one of his books:

And we ask Allah that He suffice us with the blessings of the Imams and that he benefit us and the Muslims with this book. We also ask that he make this work purely for the sake of seeing the Generous One, the Bestower, that He forgives me whatever mistakes I have made in this endeavour, as no one is infallible besides an angel, a messenger or prophet. [5]

The Imam said further:

We ask the Glorified and Exalted One that he keeps us established on the Orthodox Creed by the blessings of our Prophet, the master of all creation. [6]

Imam Muhammad As-Saffarini (d. 1188 (AD 1774), depended-upon source for comparative creed, renewer of the faith and heresiographer, supplicated at the end of one of his works:

I make intercession to Allah with the noble rank and sacred essence of the Chosen One, his pure family, his chosen noble and choice companions, his champions of righteousness from the rest of the emigrants and helpers. I make intercession with the rank and sacred essence of all the prophets, messengers, noble and high ranking angels, the scholars always doing righteousness, the people who know Allah intimately and the pious ones.

I make intercession with the sacred essence of all whom this commentary might be sincerely done, for the sake of seeing the face of the Most Generous, that it be a cause of being saved in front of Him and being given immediate admittance to the gardens of delight, that He should look to me and those who wrote it, read it and studied it with pure intention.

I ask further with this intercession that Allah preserve me, my household, my brothers and everyone from every astray action, that whoever wrote this text, read it, understood and considered it be given favour. Indeed, He is Noble, Generous, Benevolent and Compassionate.

Peace and blessings be upon our master, Muhammad, master of the messengers, his family, his companions, his illuminated Ummah and all those who pray that we might be given good. Lord of all Creation! Let it be! [7]

Imam Sulaiman ibn `Abdul Wahhab (d. 1210 (AD 1796), may Allah have mercy on him, chief Qadi of Najd and renewer of the faith for his time, affirmed intercession with those who were absent, living or dead, prophets or saints, and accused those who rejected it of ignorance of the basic fundamentals of the faith. [8]

Imam Muhammad ibn Humaid An-Najdi (d. 1295 (AD 1878), may Allah have mercy upon him, former Mufti of Arabia and chief Qadi of the Hanbalis in his time, begged in prayer at the end of his work:

The author has completed his work, may Allah have mercy upon him, with the mercy of the righteous and give him a place in the highest ranks of the Paradise and keep him away from the Great Fire.

Let all this be done by the sacred essence of the Prophet, the Chosen One, his family and his pure companions. Make it so! The peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his family and righteous Companions. [9]

Imam Dawud ibn Sulaiman Al-Khalidi (d. 1299 (AD 1881), may Allah have mercy upon him, grand theologian of Baghdad, preached:

Peace and blessings be upon the one who is the greatest means in the pleasure of the King, the Judge, peace and blessings be upon him, his family, his Companions, his saints and people who bring about wonders and truly know Allah. [10]

Imam `Abdullah ibn Sufan Al-Qaddumi d. 1331 (AD 1913), may Allah have mercy upon him, renewer of the faith, proclaimed:

I make intercession to Allah using the sacred essence of the Prophet, the Chosen One, his righteous and pure family, that this message will be purely done for the sake of seeing the Most Generous.

I further make intercession that it be a cause for salvation in front of Him, and quick admittance into the gardens of delight. He has power of all that He wills. Peace and blessings be upon our master, Muhammad, the family of Muhammad, the companions, their followers and their followers, and those who came after up to the Day of Judgement. Praise be to Allah, Lord of all creation. [11]

Imam Musa Al-Qaddumi (d. 1336 (AD 1918), may Allah have mercy upon him, Chief Qadi and Mufti of Nablus in his time, begged Allah at the end of his book:

Perfect praises upon Allah, then peace and blessings be upon the best of creation, his family and his Companions. May we be sufficed with their sacred essences in the best way to a noble end! Amin (make it so)! [12]

 

[1] A Word of Advice, pp.78-79.

[2] Al-Mughni, vol.3, pp.600-601

[3] Please see al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqib il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.152-154.

[4] As-Suhub ul-Wabilah fi Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.1121-1123

[5] Mukhtasir ul-Ifadat fi Rub` il-`Ibadati wal-Adabi wa Ziyadat, pp.524-525

[6] Mukhtasir ul-Ifadat fi Rub` il-`Ibadati wal-Adabi wa Ziyadat, pp.492-493

[7] Lawami` ul-Anwar ul-Bahiyyah wa Sawati` ul-Asrar ul-Athariyyah, vol.2, pp.468-469.

[8] As-Sawa’iq ul-Ilahiyyah, pp.76-82

[9]As-Suhub ul-Wabilah fi Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.1241-1242

[10] Ashadd ul-Jihad fi Ibtal Da`wal Ijtihad, pp.89-90

[11] Rihlat ul-Hijaziyyah war-Riyad ul-Unsiyyah fil Hawadith wal-Masa’il il-`Ilmiyyah, pp.221-222

[12] Al-Ajwibat ul-Jaliyyah fil Ahkam il-Hanbaliyyah, pp.52-53