INTERCESSION WITH THE DECEASED PT 1

قبر الشيخ مجير الدين العليمي

`Umar ibn Al-Khattab,[1] may Allah be pleased with him, narrated the hadith of Adam, peace be upon him, making intercession with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, before his coming into the world.[2]

The last part of the hadith has been related where Adam, peace be upon him, said, “Lord! By the rank of this child, have mercy on this father!” He was then told,

 “Adam, if you had made intercession to us with Muhammad for the skies and the earth, We would have granted it to you”. [3]

There is another historic incident in which the people were suffering a drought while `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, was the ruling successor.[4]

The Companion, Bilal ibn Al-Harith,[5] may Allah be pleased with him, who was one of the Companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, came to the very grave of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him.

He said while there, “Messenger of Allah! Pray for your Ummah to have rain or they will be destroyed with drought”.

Later, this Companion had a dream and the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, appeared to him and informed him that they would be given sustenance.[6]

Something important should be understood at this point. A dream or vision cannot in itself be used as evidence, even if it turns out to be true, or is true.

This is due to the fact that it is possible that something doubtful could be said to the one having the dream.

The only thing that can be used as evidence is the action of the Companion, in this case, Bilal ibn Al-Harith, may Allah be pleased with him.

This Companion came to the grave of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, called on him then asked him to pray for rain.

This is proof positive that such an act is permissible, and falls under the discussion on intercession.[7]

Not one of the Companions rejected or repudiated this act, which shows this to be one of the noblest acts of reward.

It has been narrated with an authentic chain of transmission from the Companion, Bilal, may Allah be pleased with him, who narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said,

 “Whoever leaves from his home on the way to prayer should say: ‘Allah! I ask You according to the right and rank of all of those who ask You’.”[8]

It has also been mentioned by the companion, Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri,[9] may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, instructed that one should say,

 “I ask You according to the right and rank of the one coming out into the world. I don’t seek to come out to cause evil, be arrogant or show off.

 “If You forgive my sins then no one can forgive sins except You”.[10]

He then said, “Allah will send down on him some 70,000 angels who will seek forgiveness for him”.[11]

The first three generations and those after them always made use of this supplication whenever they left their homes for prayer. This was done without anyone repudiating it. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, stated,

 “Allah! Have forgiveness on my mother, Fatimah bint Asad.[12]

 “Spread out for her the place of her going into the Paradise according to the rank and right of Your Prophet and the prophets who came before me”.[13]

The Companion, `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud,[14] may Allah be pleased with him, narrated from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, who said,

 “Whenever any one of you is on a journey and his riding beast runs away from him, he should say, ‘Slaves of Allah! Take hold of this animal!’ Indeed, Allah has slaves in the Earth present and they will take hold of it.”[15]

There are many other statements like these, in fact so many that it would be difficult to   fit any more in here, but these few statements should be enough for anyone seeking safety from the arrogant people and those who always want to debate.

When looking at the statements of the scholars of fiqh, there are many quotations that could easily be found and cited without extensive study. One such example comes from the scholars of fiqh from the Hanbalis.

We will mention the words of the learned scholar, the depended upon researcher, Shaikh Mansur Al-Buhuti,[16] may Allah have mercy on him. He is the commentator as well as the expounder on the texts The Uttermost Boundary[17] and The Satisfaction.[18] In his commentary on The Satisfaction, he said the following:

As-Samuri[19] and the author of At-Talkhis[20] mentioned, there is no harm in seeking intercession by the shaikhs and righteous scholars in the prayer of seeking rain.

Al-Hafiz Ibn Al-Jawzi,[21] may Allah have mercy on him, declared it permissible to use a righteous man for intercession to Allah the Exalted. It has also been called praiseworthy, and this is the depended upon position.[22]

Imam Ahmad in his Precinct,[23] which he wrote to Abu Bakr Al-Marrudhi,[24] mentioned that he made intercession to Allah the Exalted with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, in his supplication.

One of the students, the insightful Imam, Ibrahim Al-Harbi,[25] stated that making supplication at the grave of Ma`ruf Al-Karkhi[26] is time tested and proven to be answered.’ [27]

This was also considered to be permissible by Imam Burhan ud-Din ibn Muflih,[28] may Allah have mercy on him, in his Commentary on the Precincts from the text of The Sufficer [29] and other texts like Commentary on the Limit.[30]

Imam Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii said the following:

 “The Household of the Prophet is my means.

They are a means to him.

I hope through them I will be given another day.

By my right hand and the pages I write.” [31]

 

[1] 42 BH-24 (AD 581-644). He is Abu Hafs Al-Faruq `Umar ibn Al-Khattab Al-Qurshi Al-`Adawi. Merchant, Companion and ruler of the Muslim world, he was the second khalifah (13/4-24 (AD 634-644) and brought in such inventions as street lights, hanging lamps and four month campaigns and pensions for soldiers. He was assassinated by a lone man while leading the Muslims in the daybreak prayer in the masjid. cf. As-Suyuti’s Tarikh ul-Khulafa‘, pp. 208-259

[2] Collected from a number of chains of transmission by Imams Al-Baihaqi in Dala’il un-Nabuwwah, vol.5, pp.488-490; Al-Hakim in his Al-Mustadrak, vol.2, pp.612-615; At-Tabarani in Al-Mu`jam us-Saghir, vol.2, pp.80-82; Abu Nu`aim in Ad-Dala’il, pp.40-42; Ibn `Asakir, vol.3, pp.516-520; while most of it has been narrated in Al-Mawahib ul-Laduniyyah., vol.1, pp.27-44. The text of what the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said is presented here: “ ‘I am asking You by the right of Muhammad to forgive me’. Allah, Exalted be He, revealed to him, ‘Who is Muhammad?’ Adam, peace be upon him, replied, ‘Glory be to You! When You created me I looked at the Throne and saw inscribed on it the words: There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. When I saw that, I knew that there was no one more magnificent in Your sight than him whose name You placed next to Your Name’. Allah, Exalted be He, proclaimed: Adam, he is the last of the Prophets from your seed, and his Community are the last of all Communities from your seed. Adam, Were it not for him, I would not have created you”.

[3] ibid

[4] Please see Appendix V for more on this topic

[5] 20 BH-60 (AD 602-682). He is  Abu `Abdur-Rahman Bilal ibn Al-Harith ibn `Asim ibn Sa`id ibn Qurrah Al-Muzani Al-Madani. One of the Companions of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in Al-Madinah, he was also one of the standard bearers on the day of the Conquest of Makkah. He lived for 80 years. Please see Al-`Asqalani’s Al-Isti`ab, vol.1, pp. 183-184.

[6] Collected by Imam Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah in his Musannaf, vol.12, pp.30-32 and graded as with an authentic chain and sound narrators by Imams Ibn Kathir (d. 774 (AD 1396) in his Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah, vol.7, pp. 204-205 and Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani (d. 852 (AD 1504) in his Fath ul-Bari, vol.4, pp. 115-117. The full text of the hadith is as follows as per narrated by Malik ad-Dar: A man came to the grave of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and said, “Messenger of Allah! Ask for rain for your Ummah or they will be destroyed by drought.” After that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, appeared to them in a dream and told him, “Give `Umar my greeting and tell him that rain will come. Tell him to be wise”. The man (Bilal ibn Al-Harith) went and said this to the Khalifah and he wept. He said, “My Lord! I leave nothing undone except that which is out of my power”.

[7] Ar. Istighathah, tawassul and tashaffu`

[8] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the Musnad, vol.10, pp.67-68; Ibn as-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla, #s 83-84; Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol.1, pp.256-257 #778.

[9] 10BH-74 (AD 611-696). He is Abu Sa`id Sa`d ibn Malik ibn Sinan ibn Tha`labah ibn `Ubaid. One of the great Companions, he was present at battles such as Al-Khandaq and he was also at Bai`at ur-Ridwan. He would die and be buried in Al-Madinah. Please see Adh-Dhahabi’s Siyar, vol.3, pp. 168-169.

[10] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the Musnad, vol.10, pp.67-68; Ibn As-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla, #s 83-84 as well as Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol.1, pp.256-257 #778

[11] Collected by Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the Musnad, vol.10, pp.67-68; Ibn As-Sunni in ‘Amal al-Yawm wa al-Layla, #s 83-84 as well as Ibn Majah in his Sunan, vol.1, pp.256-257 #778

[12] 56 BH-5 (AD 575-627). She is Fatimah bint Asad ibn Hashim ibn `Abdu Manaf ibn Qusai Al-Hashimiyyah. The mother of the Companion, `Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, she accepted Islam after the death of her husband, Abu Talib. The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, addressed her in this respectful fashion out of love of her and the rank she held in his eyes. cf. Ibn Al-Jawzi’s Sifat us-Safwah, vol.2, pp. 53-54, Az-Zirkili’s Al-A`lam, vol.5, pp.129-130.

[13] This is actually a piece of a much longer hadith collected by Imams At-Tabarani in his Al-Mu`jam ul-Kabir, vol.24, pp.350-335 and Al-Mu`jam ul-Awsat, vol.1, pp.159 and 189; Ibn Hibban in his Sahih, vol.8, pp.243-244; Al-Hakim in his Al-Mustadrak; Abu Nu`aim Al-Asbahani in his Hilyat ul-Awliya’, vol.3, pp.120-121.

[14] d. 32/3 (AD 652). He is Abu `Abdur-Rahman `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud ibn Ghafil ibn Habib Al-Hudhali. One of the closest Companions of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. He began his career as a shepherd, but upon embracing Islam went to live with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. Not only was he a great companion, but he shared the designation as being the sixth one to embrace Islam in Makkah during the times of persecution. He became one of the outstanding teachers of Islam, witnessing the revelations being given, angels coming, as well as being one of the 3,000 Companions depended upon as a source of fiqh for those who later came to be known as the Hanafi madhhab.  Please see Ibn Al-Jawzi’s Sifat us-Safwah, vol.1, pp. 395-422

[15] Ibn As-Sunni cf. Al-Haithami in Majma` uz-Zawaa’id, vol.10, p.132, At-Tabarani in his Al-Mu`jam ul-Kabir, hadith #10,518

[16] d. 1051 (AD 1656). He is Abus-Sa`adat Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Buhuti. Egyptian marja` and one of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School in the later age, he studied with premier scholars of Sham, such as Imams Yahya Al-Hajjawi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. The Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d. 1079 (AD 1674), when he learned that Al-Buhuti had penned his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, burned his own text and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 472-474

[17] Ar. Al-Muntaha al-Iradat

[18] Ar. Al-Iqna`

[19] d. 610 (AD 1213). He is Nusair ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Al-Hussain, known as Ibn Sunainah. Hailing the city of Rayy in today’s Iran, he was the author of books on inheritance, theology and poetry, his main accomplishment being gathering together some ten books within one for his amazing work, Al-Mustaw`ab, still considered a masterpiece. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 95-96.

[20] 542-622 (AD 1147-1225). He is Fakhr ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn Al-Khidr ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Abdullah ibn Taymiyyah Al-Harrani, who wrote a number of others books in fiqh, such as Al-Bulghah, Sharh ul-Hidayah, At-Targhib and others. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 119-127.

[21] 511-597 (AD 1116-1202). He is Abul Faraj Jamal ud-Din `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah. Theologian, astronomer, jurist, renewer of the faith, he wrote more books than any other author in history. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 336-363.

[22] Ar. mu`tamad. This refers to the final ruling and depended upon position in a School. This is arrived at by a number of steps (cf. Ibn Badran’s Al-Madkhal, pp.460-462):

  1. The scholars of the school have looked at the principles given by the companions on the subjects
  2. The scholars convene upon the issue and then give their ruling.
  3. The ruling is then written down in writing and subsequent commentaries or documentation are written on the issue.

[23] Ar. Mansak

[24] d. 275 (AD 888). He is Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hajjaj ibn `Abdul `Aziz Al-Marrudhi (sometimes his name is transcribed Al-Marwazi along with another scholar). A major hadith scholar and theologian, he washed his teacher, Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, when he died. cf. Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 57-63

[25] d. 285 (AD 995). He is Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Bishr ibn `Abdullah ibn Daisam Al-Harbi. One of the high ranking students of Imam Ahmad, he was a memoriser of 400,000 ahadith and was one of the teachers of Imam Muhammad Al-Khallal (d. 311 (AD 923) and also Imam Abul Qasim Al-Khiraqi (d. 334 (AD 946). cf. Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 83-88.

[26] d. 200 (AD 816). Abu Mahfuz Ma`ruf ibn Al-Faizan Al-Karkhi. Scholar, theologian and wandering teacher and friend of the orphans, homeless and unwanted, he was a friend of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah have mercy on him. He suffered persecution from the nascent Mu`tazilah, but remained resilient upon the faith of the Orthodox. cf. Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.340-346

[27] Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matn il-Iqna`, vol.1, pp.542-543; vol.2, pp.70-73; Daqa’iq Ul in-Nuha li-Sharh il-Muntaha, vol.1, pp.333-335. This same quote has also been mentioned in the texts al-Mubdi` Fi Sharh ul-Muqni`, vol.2, pp.202-204; al-Insaf, vol.2, pp.453-456.

[28] d. 884 (AD 1479).  He is Abu Ishaq Burhan ud-Din Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muflih ibn Mufarrij Al-Maqdisi. One of the premier scholars in Sham, he was born in Nablus, spent his learning career in Damascos and died in Salihiyyah. He spent his life surrounded by jurists and theologians. He wrote some six large books on fiqh and inheritance. cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 33-34

[29] Ar. Sharh al-Manasik al-Muqni`

[30] Ar. Sharh ul-Ghayah

[31] As-Sawa`iq al-Muhriqah fi Radd `ala Ahl il-Bid`ah waz-Zanadiqah, pp.250-252

One thought on “INTERCESSION WITH THE DECEASED PT 1”

  1. As salam alaykum Shaykh,
    What is the ruling on those who do istighatha in the following manner?
    “Ya Shaykh Abdul Qadir, give me such and such”

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s