1 SHAWWAL 1441 AH: LESSONS LEARNED IN RAMADAN AND A SWEET `EID

Figure 1A: Resting place of the Imam, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani

This Ramadan was 29 days as the moon was sighted in Morocco. We went out to look for it but alas, the cloud cover told us we did not have the permission. As the nation of Morocco was the nearest portion of Dar ul-islam to us, we share the same sky with them.

And with that being stated, I reflected upon Ramadan. How great was this month?! How awesome was this time?! I learned a great deal about myself – whether it was weak points or strong points – along with what I learned about others.

The Muslims were faced with an influenza that was used to try to dominate their minds but neither the entire Ummah nor the whole of scholarship obeyed. This also brought to light the importance of fiqh with reference to Jumu’ah, saff organisation and distance, imam and saff location for jumu’ah and prayer in jama’ah.

Then came new issues surrounding `Eid, burial of corpses, distortion of the rules of janazah, `Eid along with other principles and fear of the kuffar that was itself frightening. In the midst of all of this, the Ummah still able to fast, pray, make tarawih (although in Dar ul-Kufr some people close to kufr called the authorities in order to have them arrested) and all matter of other laudable acts. This time has been trying but also rewarding.

We now eagerly look forward to `Eid ul-Fitr. Even now I and the children are excited about this, having glanced at the clock at 1:57am in anticipation. What shall we do? What sweets shall we have? What toys shall we play with?

All of this weighed on our mind and not fear. The last khutbah of the last jumu’ah of Ramadan I had the opportunity to mention that this Ramadan should not be bittersweet. It’s all sweet. It is not right for us to act gloomy or sad as the `Eid has arrived.

The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, witnessed the death of his uncle, 70 Companions and had to bury them and survey their mutilated bodies after the Battle of Uhud. `Eid came not long after and he had to celebrate. It would have been wrong not to as it was `Eid.

The invasion of Antioch and Jerusalem some more than 800 years ago in the early Crusades led to the death of 400,000 and 900,000 people respectively. Yet `Eid continued and the people celebrated. It was never cancelled or forgotten.

Then came the Great Catastrophe of 656 in Baghdad in which 2 million lives were lost, the Euphrates River ran black with the ink from the books tossed into it for six months while the Tigris River ran red with blood from the people tossed into it for six months. Yet `Eid carried on.

The same thing happened with the Great Inquisition in the time of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241), the invasion of foreign armies 400 years ago, 200 years ago, 100 years ago, 50 years ago, 30 years ago, 10 years ago. Even in all these tests, the Muslims do and must take time out to enjoy the `Eid, reflect on the month of fasting in Ramadan that was the celebration of the revelation of the Qur’an.

Then comes the Zakat ul-Fitr as the purification for the fasting and wealth. In all these times, `Eid ul-Fitr is the celebration of the breaking of the fast and also the continuance of the Revelation. We have so much to be thankful for even though there are things that temporarily come to us as misfortunes.

No matter what the situation, I want to congratulate all the Muslims in this month that showed bravery, strength, patience, determination and stubborn resistance to anything that might have distracted them from their 29 days of worship. And I hope that for these same Muslims the `Eid will be a welcome celebration of that endurance.

And who can say that this is not training and steeling the people for a much greater misfortune that they will have to pass and endure.

`Eid Mubarak and may the victory be with all the believers.

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

29 RAMADAN 1441 AH: PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF IMAM `ABDUL QADIR AL-JILANI

Imam Ibn Al-`Imad described the Shaikh:

كان شيخ الشيوخ الشيخ عبد القادر نحيف الجسم عريض الصدر عريض اللحية

أسمر مدور الحاجبين ذا صوت جهوري وسمت بهي

The Shaikh of Shaikhs, Shaikh `Abdul Qadir had a thin body, wide chest with luxurious beard and he was brown skinned. The Shaikh had arched eyebrows that were joined together in addition to having a loud voice and wide gait. [1]

Imam At-Tadhifi also give an account of the appearance of the Imam:

قال الشيخ موفق الدين ابن قدامة المقدسي رحمه الله تعالى

The Shaikh, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi – may Allah have mercy upon him, said,

كان شيخنا محيى الدين عبد القادر رضي الله عنه نحيف البدن ربع القامة

عريض الصدر واللحية طويلها أسمر

“Our Shaikh – `Abdul Qadir – had a thin body, wide chest with luxurious beard and he was brown skinned.

مقرون الحاجبين خفيًا ذا صوت جهوري وسمت قدر عليّ وعلم وفيّ رضي الله عنه

“The Shaikh had arched eyebrows that were joined together in addition to having a loud voice and wide gait.”[2]

[1] cf. Shadharat udh-Dhahab, vol.6, pp.331-332

[2] cf. At-Tadhifi’s Qala’id ul-Jawahir, pp. 5-6

28 RAMADAN 1441 AH: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM YAHYA AT-TADHIFI

يحيى بن سوسف بن عبد الرحمن الحلبي التاذفي القادري

He is Yahya ibn Yusuf ibn `Abdur-Rahman Al-Halabi At-Tadhifi Al-Qadiri,

قاضي القضاة نظام الدين أبو المكارم سبط الأثيرين الشحنة وهو عم ابن الحنبلي

شقيق والده

Chief Qadi, Nizam ud-Din, Abul-Mukarim, the grandson of Athiri  Ash-Shahnah clan, and he is also the uncle of Ibn Al-Hanbali, full brother of the father of Ibn Al-Hanbali.

ولد سنة 871 وتفقه على أبيه وأخيه وجماعة من المصريين منهم

At-Tadhifi was born in the year 871 and studied fiqh with his father and brother and a group of Egyptian scholars, which includes:

المحب بن الشحنة والقاضي زكريا والبرهان القلقشندي والديمي والخضيري وغيرهم

Al-Muhibb ibn Ash-Shahnah, Al-Qadi Zakariyyah, Al-Burhan Al-Qalqashandi, Ad-Dimi, Al-Khudairi, and others.

وقرأ بمصر على المحب بن الشحنة والجمال بن شاهين سبط ابن حجر جميع

مجالس البطاقة سنة 87.

He began reading to Al-Muhibb ibn Ash-Shahnah, Al-Jamal ibn Shahin – grandson to Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani – and this was in the year 887.

ثم لما عاد والده إلى حلب متوليًا قضاء الحنابلة ناب عنه فيه وسنه دون العشرين

When his father returned to Halab tro take dominion over the judgeship of the Hanbalis, At-Tadhifi acted as his assistant while he was under 20 years of age.

فلما توفي والده أوائل سنة 900 اشتغل بالقضاء بعده وبقي إلى أن انصرمت دولة

الجراكسة وكان آخر قاضٍ حنبلي بها

When his father died in the year 900, At-Tadhifi busied himself with giving judgement after him and remained until the collapse of the collapse of the rulership of the time and he was the last Hanbali judge of the time.

ثم ذهب إلى دمشق وبقي بها مده ثم استوطن مصر وولي بها نيابة قضاء الحنابلة

بالصالحية النجمية وغيرها

At-Tadhifi then headed to Damascus and stayed there for some time. He then took up residence in Egypt and became assistant to the Hanbali judges at As-Salihiyyah school there in Egypt called An-Najmiyyah as well as others.

وحج منها وجاوز ثم عاد إلى حكمه وكان لطيف المعاشرة حلو المللتقى حسن العبارة

He made Hajj from there later and then returned to his judgeship after completing Hajj. He was good in manners, sweet in disposition with good wording.

جميل المذاكرة يتلو القرآن بصوت حسن ونغم طيب توفي بالقاهرة سنة 959

قاله في الشذرات

He would be in good gatherings and times of reflection and he regularly recited the Qur’an with a good voice. He died in Cairo in the year 959 as was said by Ibn Al-`Imad.[1]

[1] cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 483-484.

27 RAMADAN 1441 AH: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM HASAN ASH-SHATTI

The Shatti family is originally from Baghdad, in today’s Iraq. The grandfather, `Umar ibn Ma`ruf Al-Baghdadi, was an accomplished scholar of his legal school and a great figure amongst the people in Baghdad.

Other notables include his brother, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ma`ruf, and his son, Shaikh `Abdullah Al-Baghdadi.[1] These great people were also contemporaries of scholars such as Shaikh Muhammad ibn Kamal ud-Din Al-Bakri As-Siddiqi[2] and his friend, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad, both of whom being students of the Grand Imam, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Abul Muwahib Ad-Dimashqi.[3]

As a child Shaikh `Umar was surrounded by people of knowledge. Such righteousness was brought to fruition when he married a noble daughter from the Az-Zubair section of the city of Al-Basrah, a stronghold of Hanbali fiqh and also female scholars.

The result of this union was a number of children, the most well known being a child by the name of Hasan. This young man was born in the year 1206 (AD 1791) in the city of Damascus in Sham,[4] while the married couple were visiting scholarly relatives and acquaintances.

The soon to be Shaikh Hasan proved himself capable when he memorised the Qur’an and some 18 books, one in each science of Islam, while still in his pre-teens. He studied with close relatives and others. He started by learning from his father, then subsequently gained knowledge from one of the seminal scholars of his time, Shaikh Mustafa ibn Sa`d Ar-Ruhaibani,[5] studying the science of hadith, commentary, fiqh, the principles of creed and fiqh, and also inheritance.

Shaikh Hasan Ash-Shatti quickly showed an aptitude for learning, delving into and mastering the sciences of Islam, including, of course, grammar, syntax and their subcategories. He visited numerous masjids and received legal authorisations[6] from his teachers in institutions such as Umayyah Family Central Masjid, Al-Badara’ii Seminary in Iraq and others. He was known to constantly be researching, and left his house when necessary.

He wrote numerous books, more than 50 in number, on various subjects. They include books on such topics as the Birth of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and celebrating it, and the Commentary of Bringing Things to Be, a book on Arabic grammar.

He also wrote Summation of the Pearl [7] a commentary on the theological work of Shaikh ul-Islam Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini,[8] the great Damascene and master of heresiography.

He travelled to Baghdad in his twenties and met great scholars such as Shaikh Muhammad Al-Bukairi and Shaikh Dawud ibn Sulaiman Al-Khalidi.[9] Upon completion of his learning, he returned to Damascus and continued his teaching, at which time he reached the post of expounder,[10] then jurist[11] and not long thereafter, judge.[12] People from far and wide came to take all that could be learned from this towering figure of knowledge and gaze at him to see his wisdom.

In his life he also wrote documents and offered material and physical aid for the preparation and execution of continued resistance against the French led by the great Shaikh Amir `Abdul Qadir,[13] the great warrior of Algeria and hero to the Muslims. The Amir had travelled far and wide to Baghdad, Damascus and other areas seeking the help of the Muslims.

He found Shaikh Hasan Ash-Shatti willing to help. Shaikh Hasan was known for his easy smile, good manners and righteous demeanour towards all people, Muslim and unbeliever. He was also an accomplished scholar of theology, and witnessed many difficulties and tribulations that would affect his life and the life of so many other Muslims.

When the Salafi Call rose to prominence, it set itself out as the only true way of knowing the truth and made good on its word by killing those who would not accept its ideas.

A measure of his bravery was the fact that he resisted this subversive and violent influence, when he received a letter from Abdullah Ala Shaikh, the successor to the movement’s founder and messianic figure with prophetic pretensions, Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab.

Scholars were assassinated and threatened throughout the Muslim world in places as far afield as Baghdad, where his teacher, Shaikh Dawud ibn Sulaiman Al-Khalidi, had dodged the assassin’s sword, and in Najd and Makkah in Arabia, where towns and villages – beginning with teachers and high ranking figures – were put to the sword.

Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti had never met or known the founder of the movement as other scholars who preceded him (many of whom were murdered), but it was no less risky in his own time. While lying in bed and very ill, he received a letter from `Abdullah Ala Shaikh, inviting him to the organisation and to preach this particular doctrine to the people and allow their missionaries to have free rein in his jurisdiction.

Although dying and in great pain, he refuted them on the last page of the letter they had sent, with all the bravery that a scholar of his calibre would be expected to do in times of turmoil.[14]

His death came in the year 1274,[15] being buried in his city. A huge funeral procession followed immediately after. As with every great tree of knowledge, seeds were left behind.

His students include the shaikhs Sa`id Afandi Al-Hanbali,[16] `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi,[17] Muhammad Afandi Ash-Shafi`ii, not forgetting his two sons, Ahmad Ash-Shatti[18] and Muhammad Ash-Shatti,[19] who also became scholars.

These scholars continued the tradition of preaching and teaching but also warning people from these strange groups, which by now had gained somewhat of a foothold in Damascus, although tiny. Books were written, people were taught and numerous centres of knowledge were built. One such venture was a joint effort between all scholars of the four schools to better and reinvigorate the Orthodox faith as taught at the Dar Al-Hadith centre.

The Shattis worked intensely with Hanafi Imams and other scholars to hasten this process, as with each decade they were losing ground to theologically poisonous movements such as the Shi`ah[20] (particularly the Alawi),[21] Druze,[22] Salafi and others that were working diligently to uproot the Orthodox faith that had always been the majority faith of that area.

This constant effort produced shaikhs such as Muhammad ibn Humaid An-Najdi,[23] who had come from Makkah to learn, `Abdul Qadir Al-Badran Ad-Dumi,[24] Muhammad ibn `Uthman Ad-Dumi[25] and countless others.

[1] d. 1198 (AD 1783).

[2] d. 1162 (AD 1749). He is Muhammad ibn Kamal ud-Din Mustafa Al-Bakri As-Siddiqi. A specialist in creed, fiqh and hadith, he also gave lectures on sincerity and devotion. He left behind some five books that are extent in libraries in the United States and Europe. Please see Al-Muradi’s Salak ud-Darar fi A`yan il-Qarn ith-Thani `Ashara, vol.4, pp. 12-14.

[3] 1044-1126 (AD 1649-1731). He is Abul Muwahibi Muhammad ibn Taqi ud-Din `Abdul Baqi ibn `Abdul Baqi ibn Abdul Qadir ibn `Abdul Baqi Al-Hanbali Al-Ba`li, Ad-Dimishqi, Mufti of Hanbalis in Damascus, who died at 83 years old. He is the successor of his father, who wrote more than five books in comparative creed and was a notable scholar of Hadith. This noble scholar learned the sciences of Islam and he, as well as all students after him, was part of the Khalwati Way, which focused on memorising all the supplications that one was to learn individually, and implementing them in daily life. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 130-132

[4] This is the name that designates the modern day countries of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine.

[5] 1165-1243 (AD 1752-1828). He is Mustafa ibn Sa`d ibn `Abduh As-Suyuti Ar-Ruhaibani Al-Hanbali. Master of fiqh and hadith, he was fortunate to learn from the great scholar, Shaikh Ahmad Al-Bali and also was a contemporary with Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini. Shaikh Ar-Ruhaibani left behind many books but only one complete work, a commentary on fiqh. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 179-180; Rawd ul-Bashar, pp. 240-243 and Muntakhabat ut-Tawarikh Li-Dimashq, pp. 670-678.

[6] Ar. ijazah. Other words for it include idhn, sanad, mashaikhah, isnad and others. The only expression extensively used during the first three generations was sanad or isnad, while the others are of later import. That aside, the words were all a reference to when someone is trained by a scholar (in person), found to be competent in a particular field and then, upon completion of the necessary studies, is given legal qualification to teach others and also add his own findings and details to his lessons and classes. The closest modern equivalent to this practice in the United States, Canada and the UK would be the examinations and practices a doctor must go through before he is licensed. The rigorous level of checking, researching, testing and review ensures that someone is ready and capable to teach others and answer questions. If they do not know the answer to those questions then they will know how to find the answers. This method of isnad or transmission has been passed down since the early days of the Muslims. An important note must be made, however, as to the difference between teaching basic knowledge and teaching as a master or authority in the field. Rudimentary things such as belief in the testimony of faith, the angels, the books, the messengers, the Day of Resurrection and Destiny are all things that can be known by the layperson without this intermediary. Isnad enters into the equation when one wants to teach as a scholar and designate others as a scholar, or in areas where rulings need to be derived from the text for specific cases that have arisen. This requires special training. Please see Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi’s Kitab ul-Faqih wal-Mutafaqqih, vol.1, pp. 27-89.

[7] Ar. Mukhtasar ad-Durrat il-Mudiyyah

[8] 1114-1189 (AD 1702-1775). He is Abul `Awn Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini An-Nabulsi Al-Hanbali. Renewer of his era and one of the chief authorities of the Hanbali Legal School in his time, he learned from Grand Imams such as Muhamamd Hayat As-Sindi, `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi and others. He acted as judge and jurist for all of Sham. He wrote books in the field of comparative creed, fiqh, inheritance, manners, medicine and grammar. It was this noble scholar who received a letter of assistance from the scholars of Arabia against the Salafi Movement. He wrote five volumes of books against the group, the shorter and more famously known being, Questions and Answers Regarding Najd, which upon receipt by the scholars of Arabia became a rallying point for the Orthodox. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 140-143

[9] d. 1299 (AD 1882). He is Dawud ibn Sulaiman Jirjis Al-`Ani Al-Khalidi Al-`Iraqi An-Naqshabandi. A master of creed and Ihsan, he witnessed the murder of scores of laymen and scholars in Baghdad upon the arrival of the Salafi Call. He wrote some five books on comparative creed, two of them being heresiographical works against the organisation.  cf. Dawud ibn Sulaiman’s Ashaddul Jihad: Muqaddimah, pp. 1-9

[10] Ar. mufti. This is a scholar who is able to tell someone what the ruling is on a particular subject, but does not have the executive authority to implement the outcome and consequence of the ruling. There are different levels and divisions within this class of people, based upon experience and qualification. Please see Ibn Hamdan’s Adab ul-Mufti wal-Mustafti for a full treatment of the topic

[11] Ar. faqih. A scholar able to tell the ruling on a given subject in his or according to other schools, choose or differentiate between them and, in certain cases, derive new rulings in particular cases. There are different levels and divisions within this class of people, based upon experience and qualification. Please see Ibn Hamdan’s Adab ul-Mufti wal-Mustafti for a full treatment on the subject.

[12] Ar. qadi. This is a scholar who is able to tell someone what the ruling is on a particular subject and is able to bring about and oversee the outcome or consequence of the ruling, in the case of the qadi of the judiciary, or is able to exact the judgement himself, as in the case of a sentencing qadi. There are different levels and divisions within this class of people, based upon experience and qualification. Ibn Hamdan’s Adab ul-Mufti wal-Mustafti for a full treatment on the subject.

[13] 1223-1300 (1808-1883 AD). He is Muhy ud-Din `Abdul Qadir ibn Mustafa ibn Muhammad ibn Mukhtar ibn `Abdul Qadir Al-Jaza’iri. Scholar of Ihsan, creed and fiqh according to the Maliki School, he was one of the great Ash`ari theologians of the age and also a soldier against French occupation and encroachment into North Africa. Please see Nizar Abazah’s Al-Amir `Abdul Qadir Al-Jaza’iri: Al-Alim ul-Mujahid, pp. 9-16

[14] The direct quote from the Imam

[15] AD 1858.

[16] 1234-1288 (AD 1817-1871). He is Sa`id ibn Mustafa ibn As`ad ibn Ar-Ruhaibani As-Suyuti. Mufti of the Hanbalis in his time after his brother’s death, he was a student of the grand Imam, Hasan Ash-Shatti, Rida Afandi Al-Ghazzi and Sa`id Al-Halabi. He died on 18 Muharram 1288 and was buried by a large procession. Please see Rawd ul-Bashar fi A`yani Dimashq, vol.2, 132-133.

[17] 1246-1331 (AD 1829-1912). He is `Abdullah ibn `Awdah ibn `Abdullah Sufan ibn `Isa Al-Qaddumi An-Nabulsi. Reviver of the Religion in his time, originally coming from the Palestinian city of Nablus in the village of Kafr Qaddum, he studied with his father and then went to Damascus. He was a student not just of Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti but other major scholars as well. After living in Damascus, Al-Madinah, Makkah and Cairo for a number of years, he returned to his homeland and died not long after. He left behind a number of works on theology, fiqh, hadith and good character. Please see Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, 213-215.

[18] 1251-1310 (AD 1834-1893). He is Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti Ad-Dimashqi. Mufti of the Hanbalis of Damascus, scholar of fiqh and hadith, he is the son of the great reviver, Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti. After memorising the Qur’an in his youth, he studied with the premier scholars of his time in various subjects before reaching the level of mufti, followed by faqih and then finally qadi. He died suddenly after returning from a park on Monday 12 Safar 1310. Please see Rawd ul-Bashar fi A`yani Dimashq, vol.2, 377-379.

[19] 1248-1307 (AD 1831-1890). He is Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti Ad-Dimashqi. Fiqh scholar, mathematician, scholar of inheritance law and also specialist in Arabic grammar and language, he studied from this father, Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti and was a classmate of his brother, Shaikh Ahmad Ash-Shatti. He died Thursday after `Asr on 4 Ramadan 1307 and was buried the next day with throngs of people witnessing his funeral. Please see Rawd ul-Bashar fi A`yani Dimashq, vol.2, 377-379.

[20] An organisation founded possibly 300-400 years after the first three generations, there are as many as 300 million or more in the world. Shi`a beliefs include Allah never being seen in the Hereafter, the Qur’an is created, salvation by faith and deeds and also the infallibility of the 12 Imams as well as certain renewers of each century. The majority of Shi`a are the Ithna’ Ashari or Twelvers, which have control over Iran, sections of Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar and Arabia. Please see Ash-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol.1, 106-139.

[21] A Shi`ah offshoot founded by a man named Ibn Nusair, they proclaimed that the five pillars of Islam actually possessed metaphorical meetings. Thus those who practised the five pillars in reality were not Muslims, as they had misunderstood the metaphors. Their most famous beliefs include salvation by faith and deeds, continuing revelation after the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, as well as deification of the Companion, Ali, may Allah be pleased with him. Following the collapse of the Ottoman Government in Istanbul in AD 1919 and the Arabs siding with colonialists in nationalistic movements, the Alawi group was granted official status by the French authorities and put into the position to rule the country later created and named Syria. They are still the ruling party of Syria today, ruling over a country in which more than 75 per cent of the people are Orthodox. Please see Ash-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol.1, 106-139

[22] Founded 900 years ago, they proclaimed the Fatimid Ruler of Egypt, Al-Hakim bi Amrillah (AD 985–1021) to be ‘incarnate deity’ and directed worship to him. It is believed that he will return as the Mahdi at the end of time to save humanity. The first one to systematise their theology was a Nastakin Ad-Darazi, from where they derive their name, Druze. Much of their beliefs are secret, but they make annual pilgrimages to the grave of the prophet Jethro, peace be upon him, and have their own text, the Book of Wisdom, to which only special initiates are allowed access. They occupy many important roles in the Syrian and Israeli secret service agencies. Please see Ash-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol.1, 106-139

[23]1236-1295 (AD 1821-1878). He is Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn `Ali ibn `Uthman ibn `Ali ibn Humaid ibn Ghanim An-Najdi Al-Makki. Chief Judge in Makkah, he studied under some of its greatest scholars and in his travels gained knowledge from the Qaddumi and Shatti families. He suffered persecution, and directly witnessed atrocities and other trials under the Salafi movement, which was gaining more of a foothold in Makkah where he resided. He was the author of some ten books on various subjects. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 160-161

[24] d. 1346 (AD 1927). He is `Abdul Qadir ibn Ahmad ibn Mustafa ibn `Abdur-Rahim ibn Muhammad Badran Ad-Dumi. A senior scholar of fiqh, creed, history and poetry, he was classically trained by going from masjid to masjid and sitting with scholars. He was able to learn from Muhammad ibn `Uthman Ad-Dumi as well as from some of the great names in Syria, such as the Qaddumi and Shatti families. The Shaikh was also a great friend of the reciter and Qur’an verifier, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Sa`id Al-Hanbali. Shaikh Al-Badran wrote numerous commentaries and also gave some rulings on issues that were printed. Please see Al-Madkhal ila Madhhab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Muqaddimah, pp. 25-38; Az-Zirkali’s Al-A`lam, vol.4, pp. 160-161; Al-A`lam ush-Sharqiyyah, pp. 125-128, first printing.

[25] d. 1308 (AD 1891). He is Muhammad ibn `Uthman ibn `Abbas ibn Muhammad ibn `Uthman ibn Rajab Al-Mulaihi Ar-Ruhaibani Ad-Dumi. Friday preacher, commentator, hadith scholar, fiqh specialist and Usuli as well as astronomer, Ad-Dumi acted as a judge in Damascus and also the chief mufti of his hamlet in Duma. Please see Az-Zirkali’s Al-A`lam, vol.7, pp. 121-122; Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 201-202

26 RAMADAN 1441 AH: SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM ABU ISMA`IL AL-ANSARI

He is Abu Isma`il `Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Ja`far ibn Mansur ibn Matta Al-Ansari Al-Harawi.

He is also referred to as Shaikh ul-Islam, the Memoriser, the Commentator, the Preaching Sufi, the Imam of Muslim Orthodoxy in Herat. On account of his great and vast knowledge, he was called the ‘Preacher to the Non-Arabs.’

Imam Al-Harawi was born in the month of Sha`ban in the year 396 AH[1] in Herat,[2] Afghanistan to humble origins. On account of his being a direct descent of Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari on his father’s side, he bears the title, Al-Ansari. On his mother’s side, he was a Pushtun.

In his youth, Al-Harawi started his education with Yahya ibn `Ammar As-Sajazi in the field of hadith and also commentary on the Qur’an. This is the first subject covered after memorisation of the Qur’an. The Imam carried on in his pursuit of knowledge with Abul Fadl Al-Jarudi and Shu`aib Al-Bushanji, taking knowledge of hadith classification from them.

Moving to Naisabur not long after, he sat with Abu Sa`id As-Sirafi, Abu Nasr, Abul Hasan At-Tarrazi and also spend a brief spell with the Qadi, Abu Bakr Al-Hayari although he was only in the gathering and did not hear from him directly.

Not long after this, Imam Al-Harawi made his way to Tus and Bistam and took a great wealth of knowledge from the teachers there, narrating, dictating and listening to commentaries upon hadith and making notes upon what he heard.

Written legacy

Imam Abu Isma`il Al-Ansari Al-Harawi had a wide written legacy, penning texts in both Arabic and Farsi. A short list of these will follow:

  • Dhamm ul-Kalam. This represents a harsh critique of speculative theology and the inclusion of neo-Platonism into texts of theology. This work is both in Arabic and Farsi

 

  • Manaqib ul-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. A hagiographic account of the life and teachings of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal which includes inspirational utterances and aphorisms for the reader to use in his own life. This work is in Arabic and Farsi

 

  • Tabaqat us-Sufiyyah. This is in Farsi with Arabic footnotes and facing pages which details the lives of some of the great saints of Islam. Some of these are from Afghanistan, India, Southeast Asia while most biographies centre around the early generations.

 

  • Manazil us-Sa’irin. This is a text in Arabic that discusses the states of the heart, purification of the heart, tasawwuf, good character and perfecting one’s inner and outward state. It is this text that the reader will be reading shortly. This work is in Arabic.

   Scholarly legacy

The Qadi, the Imam Abul Hussain Al-Hanbali,[3] when speaking of the Imam, said the following, “He was known as Shaikh ul-Islam, the Imam of Muslim Orthodoxy in Herat.

He was also named the Preacher to the non-Arabs on account of his deep and profound knowledge, his sagacity and brilliance. Al-Harawi was stern in debate against the Ash`aris and there was much discussion and written debate between him and `Abdur-Rahman ibn Mandah.”[4]

Imam Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali[5] said of Imam Al-Harawi, “He was a great master, knowledgeable Imam, worshipper, avoider of earthly desires, possessor of high states, levels and ranks, saintly wonders and personal struggle.

He had a great deal of worship at night with very little sleep. The Imam was stern in standing by the Sunnah and its’ assistance, opposing those who contradicted it and he suffered a great many trials on account of that.

In addition to this, he also had a strong and emphatic desire to assist and show respect to the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.”[6]

In his own words

Imam Al-Harawi narrated the following incident about his life: “I set out to meet with the Shaikh, Abul Hasan Al-Jarkani As-Sufi and spent time with him. I determined to start making my way back home when there occurred to me in the idea of meeting Abu Hatim ibn Khamush at Rayy. He was based there and was the foremost of Muslim Orthodoxy in Rayy.

Now during that time, the Sultan, Mahmud ibn Sabaktakin had entered Ar-Rayy and had killed the Batiniyyah there and forbade any of the sects of speculative theology to preach from the niches except for Abu Hatim Al-Khanush.

Due to this point anyone that entered Ar-Rayy from the rest of the sects had to bring his theology to him. If he approved of the theology expounded, he gave permission for him to address the people and if the theology was not approved, he prevented the individual.

When I came close to the city, there was a man with me in the street from the people of the city. He asked me about my creed. I stated that I was Hanbali. The man replied that it was a creed that he had not heard of and that it was an innovation. He took me by my clothes and said he would not let go of me until he brought me to the Shaikh, Abu Hatim. I responded that this was fine by me as I was already planning on meeting him anyway.

So the man brought me to the house of the Shaikh and at that time there was a very large gathering present. The man said, ‘Shaikh, this stranger just came here. When I asked him about his creed he spoke of a creed that I have not heard before this time.’ Shaikh Abu Hatim asked, ‘What did he say?’ The man replied, ‘He said: I am a Hanbali.’

Shaikh Abu Hatim said, ‘Leave him alone. Whoever is not Hanbali in his theology is not a Muslim.’ So I was set loose and I remained with the Shaikh a number of days and then set out.” [7]

`Abdul Qadir Ar-Rahawi said, “We were informed by Abu Sa`d As-Sayigh who said: I heard `Abdul Jabbar ibn Abul-Fadl As-Sirafi say: I heard a group of the students of Shaikh ul-Islam Al-Ansari saying: We heard our Shaikh, Shaikh ul-Islam Abu Isma`il Al-Ansari, recite sections of poetry in Farsi, which in translation read:

Our God shall be seen in the Hereafter, He is above the Throne, istiwa

His Speech is Eternal, His Messenger is Arab by the way.

Whoever should speak in other than the above is Ash`ari

While our Madhhab and way is indeed known as Hanbali

This was the statement of the Shaikh” [8]

It was further stated by the Imam in his own theology,

As long as I live, my theology is Hanbali

Indeed when I die, I advise the people before that to maintain creed that is Hanbali[9]

It can be seen from this that the Imam was very firm on the theology of the early generations and did not want people delving into speculative theology that can lead to ruination.

His Trials and Tribulations

Imam Abu Isma’il Al-Harawi said of his great tribulation, “There were five occasions I faced the sword. It was never said to me, ‘Leave your theology.’ Rather, it was said to me, ‘Stay silent regarding those who oppose you.’ I replied, ‘I cannot stay silent.’ “[10]

Ibn Tahir remarked, “The Sultan, Alap Arsalan came to Herat and with him was his minister Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn `Ali ibn Ishaq. A gathering was brought together in which there were Imams of the schools of Ash-Shafi`ii and Abu Hanifah that complained about Al-Ansari and sought to bring about a debate with him.

The minister summoned Imam Al-Ansari and when the Imam was present he said, ‘These people assembled here have gathered to debate with you. If the truth be with you, then they will commit to your theology. If the truth be with them, then you shall commit to their theology or remain silent about them from today.’

The Imam said, ‘I will debate what I have with me of my creed and the substance of it in my two hands.’ The minister asked, ‘What is the substance of what is with you?’ The Imam responded, ‘The Book of Allah,’ pointing to his right.

Then pointed to his left, he said, ‘Then there is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. The Two Authentic Collections have the Sunnah within them.’ He looked at the people so as to seek an answer from them but they hesitated as there was no possibility that anyone could debate with him using these criteria.” [11]

Later life and death

The Imam breathed his last on Friday afternoon after the `Asr prayer, 22 Dhul Hijjah, 481 AH[12] and buried on Saturday night in a graveyard named Ka-Ziyari-Ka near the city of Herat.[13]

[1] AD 1006

[2] It would be on account of his being born in Herat that the author would be referred to as ‘Al-Harawi.’

[3] d. 526 AH (AD)

[4] Please see Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 212-213

[5] d. 795 AH (AD)

[6] Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 42-43

[7] Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 43-44

[8] Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 43-44

[9] Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 43-44

[10] Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 44-45

[11] Please see Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 44-45

[12] AD 1089

[13] cf. Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 212-213; Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 42-60

25 RAMADAN 1441 AH: SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM ABU SA`D AL-MUKHARRIMI

المبارك بن علي بن الحسين بن بندار البغدادي المخرّمِي

He is Al-Mubarak ibn `Ali ibn Al-Hussain ibn Bindar Al-Baghdadi Al-Mukharrimi.

الفقيه القاضي، أبو سعد قاضي باب الأزج: ولد في رجب سنة ست

وأربعين وأربعمائة.

Al-Mukharrimi is also known as the Faqih, the Qadi, Abu Sa`d, the Qadi of Al-Azaj Gate. He was born in the month of Rajab in the year 446.

وسمع الحديث من القاضي أبي يعلى، وأبي الحسين بن المهتدي، وأبي جعفر بن المسلمة، وجابر بن ياسين، والصريفيني، وابن المأمون، وابن النقور.

He heard hadith from Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la, Abul-Hussain ibn Al-Muhtadi, Abu Ja`far ibn Al-Muslimah, Jabir ibn Yasin, As-Sarifini, Ibn Al-Ma’mun and Ibn An-Naqur.

وسمع من القاضي أبي يعلى شيئًا من الفقه، ثم تفقه على صاحبه الشريف أبي

جعفر، ثم القاضي يعقوب البَرْزَبِيني. وأفتى ودرّس وناظر،

Abu Sa`d Al-Mukharrimi heard a portion of fiqh from Al-Qadi Abu Yala, then studied with his student and successor Ash-Sharif Abu Ja`far, then after that Al-Qadi Ya`qub Al-Barzabini. Al-Mukharrimi then gave fatwa, gave lectures and debated points in fiqh.

وجمع كتبًا كثيرة لم يسبق إلى جمع مثلها. وشهد عند أبي الحسن الدامغاني في سنة

تسع وثمانين، ثم ناب في القضاء.

Al-Mukharrimi gathered together numbers books in a way they had not been gathered before that itme. He was in the presence of Abul-Hussain Ad-Damaghani in the year 489 and then started assisting in giving legal judgements and administering judgement.

وكان حسن السيرة، جميل الطريقة، سديد الأقضية، وبنى مدرسة بباب الأزج، ثم عزل عن القضاء في سنة إحدى عشرة، ووكل به في الديوان على حساب وقوف الترب، فأدى مالاً.

Abu Sa`d Al-Mukharrimi had a good lifestyle, beautiful behaviour and was quick to give rulings in very complex issues. He built a Madrasah at Al-Azaj Gate and then he stepped down from giving and administering rulings in the year 510. He was entrusted with teaching in his school passing rulings and also discharging wealth for the weak and needy.

ثم توفي في ثاني عشر المحرم سنة ثلاث عشرة وخمسمائة. ودُفن إلى جانب أبي بكر الخلال عند رجلي الإمام أحمد رضي الله عنه. ذكر هذا كله أبو الفرج في تاريخه.

He died on the 12th day of the month of Muharram in the year 513 and was burned next to Abu Bakr Al-Khallal at the feet of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him. This was mentioned byh Abul Faraj in total in his history text.

وقال أبو الحسين: تُوفي ليلة الجمعة ثاني عشر المحرم. ودُفن يوم الجمعة. قبل

الصلاة. وصُلي عليه في عدة مواضع.

Abul Hussain said, “He died on Jumu`ah night on the 12th day of the month of Muharram and was buried in the daytime of Jumu`ah before the prayer and a number of funeral prayers took place in several locales on account of him.”

قال: وكان مليح المناظرة، سيرته جميلة، وعشرته مليحة. وكان بيني وبينه امتراج،

Abul Hussain further said, “He was strong in debate, good in lifestyle, good in overall mannerism. There was a discussion between myself and him that was heated.

واجتمعنا في مجلس الشريف للدرس. غفر اللّه له. وفي تاريخ القضاة للميداني: أنه

توفي ليلة الأحد رابع عشر محرم. وهو وهم.

“We gathered in the lecture place of Ash-Sharif for a lesson, may Allah forgive him. It is mentioned in the book Al-Qudah by Al-Maidani that Al-Muharrimi died on the night of Sunday on 14 Muharram but this is doubtful.”

و”المخرّمي” بكسر الراء- منسوب إلى المخرّم: محلة ببغداد شرقيها. نزلها بعض ولد يزيد بن المخرم، فنسبت إليه. ذكره المنذري.

Al-Mukharrimi’s name was in reference to Al-Mukharrim, a hamlet in the east of Baghdad. One of the children of Yazid ibn Al-Mukharrim went there and the place was named after him. And this was mentioned by Al-Mundhiri.

والمدرسة المذكورة التي بناها: هي المنسوبة الآن إلى تلميذه الشيخ عبد القادر

الجيلي لأنه وسعها وسكن بها، فعُرفت به.

The Madrasah made reference to previously was given over to his student, the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadri Al-Jilani as he extended it and also lived there and made hostel housing. He is known more for the place than the founder.

وللمخرّمي ذرية فيهم شيوخ تصوف، ورؤساء ذوو ولايات، ورواة حديث.

Al-Mukharirimi has descendants that have among them shaikhs of Tasawwuf, leaders of high rank and capacity and many narrators of hadith.[1]

[1]  This biography was truncated from Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp. 137-141.

 

24 RAMADAN 1441 AH: SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM MAHFUZ AL-KALWADHANI

محفوظ بن أحمد بن الحسن بن أحمد الكلوذَاني، أبو الخطاب البغدادي

He is Mahfuz ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad Al-Kalwadhani, known as Abul Khattab Al-Baghdadi

الفقيه. أحد أئمة المذهب وأعيانه: وُلد في ثاني شوال سنة اثنتين وثلاثين وأربعمائة.
وسمع الحديث من الجوهري والعُشَاري، وأبي على الجازري، والمباركي، وأبي الفضل بن الكوفي، والقاضي أبي يعلى، وأبي جعفر بن المسلمة، وأبي الحسين بن المهتدي، وغيرهم.

He is known as the Faqih, one of the Imams of the Madhhab and its large personalities. He was born on 2 Shawwal in the year 432. He heard hadith from Al-Jawhari, Al-`Ushari, Abu `Ali Al-Jaziri, Al-Mubaraki, Abul Fadl ibn Al-Kufi, Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la, Abu Ja`far ibn Al-Muslimah, Abul Hussain ibn Al-Muhtadi and others.
وكتب بخطه كثيرًا من مسموعاته. ودرس الفقه على القاضي أبي يعلى، ولزمَهُ حتى برع في المذهب والخلاف. وقرأ عليه بعض مصنفاته. وقرأ الفرائض على أبي عبد الله الوني، وبرع فيها أيضًا. وصار إمام وقته، وفريد عصره في الفقه. ودرَّس وأفتى، وقَصَده الطلبة.

He wrote with his hand so many texts of sama` and he learned fiqh from Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la and kept his company until he obtained a strong hadn in the Madhhab and difference of opinion. He also recited to Al-Qadi some of his works. In terms of inheritance and math, he read to Abu `Abdullah Al-Wani and gained a strong hand with mastery in the topic. He became an Imam of his time, a rarity in his time in fiqh, taught and gave rulings and was also an intended destination for visitation by students.

وصنف كتبًا حسانًا في المذهب والأصول والخلاف. وانتُفع بها بحسن قصده.

فمن تصانيفه: “الهداية” في الفقه، “والخلاف الكبير” المسمى “بالانتصار في

المسائل الكبار”، و “الخلاف الصغير” المسمى ب “رؤوس المسائل”.

He authored some good works in the Madhhab and also in Usul, difference of opinon and he was benefited from by the students that journeyed to be in his presence. Some of his works include: Al-Hidayah in fiqh; Al-Khilaf ul-Kabir, also known as Al-Intisar and it covers many large matters; Al-Khilaf us-Saghir which is also known as Ru’us ul-Masa’il.

ونقل عن صاحب المحرر أبي البركات بن تيمية: أنه كان يشير إلى أن ما ذكره

أبو الخطَّاب في رؤوس المسائل هو ظاهر المذهب.

It was narrated from Abul Bakarat Ibn Taymiyyah – author of Al-Muharrar – that he was making reference to a statement of Abul Khattab in Ru’us ul-Masa’il and it is the dominant statement of the Madhhab.

وله أيضًا كتاب “التهذيب” في الفرائض، و “التمهيد” في أصول الفقه، وكتاب “العبادات الخمس”، و “مناسك الحج”.وكانت له يَدُ حسنة في الأدب. ويَقُول

الشعر اللطيف. وله قصيدة دالية في السنة معروفة، ومقطعات عديدة من الشعر.

There is also another book he wrote called At-Tahdhib and this covers inheritance; At-Tamhid which discusses Usul ul-Fiqh, Al-`Ibadat ul-Khams and Manasik ul-Hajj. He also had a good amount of knowledge on the topic of etiquettes and he made nice poetry. He wrote a poetic meter regarding the Creed and has many other meters of poetry on diverse topics.

وكان حسن الأخلاق، ظريفًا، مليح النادرة، سريع الجواب، حادّ الخاطر. وكان مع ذلك كامل الدين، غزير العقل، جميل السيرة، مرضي الفعال، محمود الطريقة. شهد عند قاضي القضاة أبي عبد الله بن الدامغاني. وَحَدَّث بالكثير من مسموعاته على صدق واستقامة.

He had good morals and was firm in resolve. He was n unknown gem in his time and answered questions quickly while he was very thoughtful. And with all of that said, he was complete in Religion, strong in intellect, beautiful in his lifestyle, praiseworthy in actions and manner. He witnessed the classes of the chief Qadi Abu `Abdullah Ad-Damaghani and narrated from many sama` classes with truthfulness and firm resolve.

روى عنه ابن ناصر وأبو النعم الأنصاري، وأبو طالب بن خضير، وسعد الله بن الدجاجي، ووفاء بن الأسعد التركي، وأبو الفتح بن شاتيل، وغيرهم.
وروى عند ابن كليب بالإجازة.

Those who narrated from him include: Ibn Nasir, Abun-Na`am Al-Ansari, Abu Talib ibn Khudair, Sa`dullah ibn Ad-Dajaji, Wafa’ ibn Al-As`ad At-Turki, Abul Fath ibn Shatil and others. He narrated with transmission in the presence of Ibn Kulaib.

وقرأ عليه الفقه جماعة من أئمة المذهب منهم عبد الوهاب بن حمزة، وأبو بكر الدينوري، والشيخ عبد القادر الجيلي الزاهد، وغيرهم. قال أبو بكر بن النقور: كان الكيا الهراسي إذا رأى الشيخ أبا الخطاب مقبلاً قال: قد جاء الفقْه.

Those who recited fiqh to him include a body of the very Imams of the Madhhab, which include: `Abdul Wahhab ibn Hamzah, Abu Bakr Ad-Dinuri, the Shaikh, the Zahid, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jili and others. Abu Bakr ibn An-Nuqur said, “Al-Kaya Al-Harrasi when he used to see the Shaikh Abul Khattab come into a place would say: Here comes the Fiqh!”

قال السلفي: أبو الخطاب من أئمة أصحاب أحمد، يُفتي على مذهبه

ويناظر.وكان عدلاً رضيًا ثقة.

As-Silafi said, “Abul Khattab was one of the Imams of the companions of the School of Imam Ahmad. He gave rulings on his school and debated the points. He was just, pleasurable in teaching and trustworthy.

عنده كتاب “الجليس والأنيس” للقاضي أبي الفرج الجريري عن الجازري عنه. وكان

ينفرد به ولم يتفق لي سماعه. وندمت بعد خروجي من بغداد على فواته.

“He used to keep the book, Al-Jalis wal-Unis by Al-Qadi Abul Faraj Al-Jariri in his presence with the narrative of Al-Jaziri. He was set apart for his mastery in it and I did not have the success of hearing it from him. I felt sadness upon my leaving from Baghdad on the fact that I could not hear it from him.”

وكذلك أثنى ابن ناصر على أبي الخطاب ثناءً كثيرًا.

The same praise was given to Abul Khattab by Ibn Nasir in many words.

توفي رحمه اللّه في آخر يوم الأربعاء ثالث عشرين جُمادى الآخرة سنة عشر وخمسمائة، وتُرك يوم الخميس، وصُلي عليه يوم الجمعة في جامع القصر.

He died, may Allah have mercy upon him, at the end of Wednesday on 23 Jumada Al-Akhirah in the year 510. He was left in state until Thursday and prayed upon on Friday in Al-Qasr Central Masjid.

ودُفن إلى جانب قبر الإمام أحمد رضي اللّه عنه. كذلك حرَّر وفاتَه القاضي أبو بكر بن عبد الباقي.

Imam Abul Khattab was buried next to the grave of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him. And this was around the same time as the death of Al-Qadi Abu Bakr ibn `Abdul Baqi.[1]

[1]This biography was truncated from Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp. 147-148.

 

23 RAMADAN 1441 AH: SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM ABUL-HUSSAIN AL-BAGHDADI

محمد بن محمد بن الحسين بن محمد بن الفراء، القاضي الشهيد، أبو الحسين ابن شيخ المذهب، القاضي أبي يَعْلى:

He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Farra’, the Martyred Qadi, Abul Hussain, son of the Shaikh of the Madhhab, Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la.

وُلد ليلة نصف شعبان سنة إحدى وخمسين وأربعمائة.

He was born on the 15th night of the month of Sha`ban in the year 451.وقرأ ببعض الروايات على أبي بكر الخيَّاط. وسمع الحديث من أبيه، وعبد الصمد بن المأمون، وأبوي الحسين بن المهتدي. وابن النقور، وأبي بكر الخطيب، والعاصمي، وطبقتهم.

He recited some of the narrations to Abu Bakr Al-Khayyat and he heard hadith from his father, Abdus-Samad ibn Al-Ma’mun, Abul Hussaid ibn Al-Muhtadi, Ibn An-Naqur, Abu Bakr Al-Khatib, Al-`Asimi and their rank.

وتوفي والده وهو صغير، فتفقه على الشريف أبي جعفر، وبرع في الفقه، وأفتى وناظر.

The father of Abul Hussain died while he was young so he studied fiqh with the Sharif Abu Ja`far. Abul Hussain gained mastery in the fiqh, gave rulings and debated matters of fiqh.وكان عارفًا بالمذهب، متشددًا في السُنة.

And he was well knowledgeable of the madhhab and stringent in the Sunnah.وله تصانيف كثيرة في الفروع والأصول، وغير ذلك، منها: “المجموع في الفروع”، “رؤوس المسائل”، “المفردات في الفقه”، “التمام لكتاب الروايتين والوجهين” الذي لأبيه، “المفردات في أصول الفقه”، “طبقات الأصحاب”،

Abul Hussain wront many books in branch and foundational matters and others besides. These books include: (1) The Gathered Rulings on the Branch Issues, (2) Chief Areas of Matters of Fiqh, (3) Elementary Introductory Notes to Fiqh, (4) Commentary on the Fiqh of the Two Narratives – and this was written by his father -, (5) Elementary Introductory Notes in the Foundations of Fiqh, (6) Biographies of the Companions of the School.

“إيضاح الأدلة في الردّ على الفرق الضالة المضلة”، “الرد على زائغي الاعتقادات في منعهم من سماع الآيات”، “شرف الاتباع وسرف الابتداع”، “تنزيه معاوية بن أبي سفيان المقنع في النيات”، “المفتاح في الفقه”.

He also wrote: (7) Clarification of the Evidences in Refutation of the Astray Sects, (8) Refugation of the Evil Doctrines that Forbid One from Listening to Qur’an from Someone, (9) The Honour of Following Early Generations and Wasteful State of Innovation, (10) Clearing Mu`awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan in the matter of Intentions and (11) The Key to Fiqh.وقرأ عليه جماعة، منهم: الشيخ عبد المغيث الحربي، وغيره.
وحَدّث، وسمع منه خلق كثير من الأصحاب وغيرهم، منهم: ابن ناصر، ومعمر بن الفاخر، وابن الخشاب، وأبو الحسين البراندسي الفقيه، والجنيد بن يعقوب الجيلي الفقيه،

A body of people recited texts to him: The Shaikh, Abdul Mughith Al-Harbi and others. Those who harrated from him and heard hadith were an abundant body of companions and those other than them. This includes people such as Ibn Nasir, Ma`mar ibn Al-Fakhir, Ibn Al-Khash-shab, the Faqih, Abul Hussain Al-Barandisi and the Faqih, Al-Junaid ibn Ya`qub Al-Jili.

وحَدَّثا عنه، وعبد الغني بن الحافظ أبي العلاء الهمداني، وأبو نجيح محمود بن أبي المرجا الأصبهاني الحنبلي، وعبد الوهاب بن أبي حبسة، ويحيى بن بوش.

Other students include `Abdul Ghani, the son of Al-Hafiz Abul-`Ula Al-Hamadhani, Abu Nujaih Mahmud ibn Abil-Marja Al-Asbahani Al-Hanbali, `Abdul Wahhab ibn Abi Habasah and Yahya ibn Bawsh.

وحَدَث عنه أيضًا: علي بن المرحب البطائحي، والمبارك بن الطباخ، وابن الحريف، وابن عساكر الحافظ. وبالإجازة أبو موسى المديني، وابن كليب.

Other students include `Ali ibn Al-Marhab Al-Bata’ihi, Al-Mubarak ibn At-Tabbakh, Ibn Al-Harif, Al-Hafiz Ibn `Asakir and authorisations were given to Abu Musa Al-Madini and Ibn Kullaib.وكان للقاضي أبي الحسين بيت في داره بباب المراتب يبيت فيه وحده، فعلم بعض من كان يخدمه ويترددُ إليه بأن له مالاً، فدخلوا عليه ليلاً،

Al-Qadi Hussain had a habitation in his abode with a door that lead to another portion of the house where he was by himself in the corridor. One of those that used to serve him knew his whereabouts and it was mentioned that he had wealth. So these people entered into his presence in the night.

وأخذوا المال وقتلوه، ليلة الجمعة- ليلة عاشوراء- سنة ست وعشرين وخمسمائة.

They took the wealth and then killed Abul Hussain on the night of Jumu`ah on the 10th day of the month of Muharram in the year 526.

وصلى عليه يوم السبت حادي عشر المحرم. ودُفِن عند أبيه بمقبرة باب حرب.

وكان يومًا مشهوداً. وقدر الله ظهور قاتليه، فقتلوا كلهم.

His funeral prayer was Sunday on the 11th day of Muharram, the next day. He was buried with his father at the graveyeard of the Harb Gate. It was a day well known for the people. The people that killed him were revealed by Allah and all of them were killed.[1]

[1]  This biography was truncated from Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp. 147-148.

 

22 RAMADAN 1441 AH: SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM ABU IDRIS AL-BA`QUBI

هو الشيخ علي بن أبي بكر بن محمد بن عبد الله بن إدريس البعقوبي

He is the Shaikh, `Ali ibn Abi Bakr Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Idris Al-Ba`qubi.

الزاهد صاحب الشيخ عبد القادر الكيلانين، سيد زاهد، عابد ربّانيّ متأله بعيد

الصيت توفي في ذي القعدة 619 .

He was the well known Zahid, companion of the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani. Al-Ba`qubi was a Zahid, worshipper, wise, high minded, far from extravagance.

صحبه الشيخ يحيى الصرصريّ ثم روى عنه هو والكمال عليّ بن وضّاح والبدر

سنقرشاه الناصري والشيخ عليّ الخبّاز الزاهد والواعظ أبو الفضل محمد بن أبي

الفرج ابن الدبّاب وآخرون.

Those who were students of Al-Ba`qubi include the Shaikh, Yahya As-Sarsari and then those who narrated from  him include Al-Kamal `Ali ibn Al-Waddah, Al-Badr Sunqirshah An-Nasiri, the Shaikh, the Zahid, `Ali ibn Al-Khabbaz, the preacher Abul Fadl Muhamamd ibn Abul Faraj ibn Ad-Dabbab and others.

وذكر أبو إسحاق الصريفينيّ أنه سمع منه قدم دمشق وزار القدس وكان الشيخ

يحيى يبالغ في وصفه وتبجيله وأنه ما رأى مثله.

Abu Ishaq As-Sarifini mentioned that he took took knowledfe from As-Sarasri and he came to Damascus and visited Jerusalem. The Shaikh Yahya [As-Sarsari] mentioned Al-Ba`qubi in great detail, extolled his goodness and that he had not seen anyone like him.

وذكره ابن نقطة وكنّاه أبا محمد وقال: كان شيخ وقته صاحب دين وأدب

وفضل وإيثار. سمعت منه وسماعه صحيح. ثم درج موته

Ibn Nuqtah mentioned that Al-Ba`qubi was known as Abu Muhammad and said further, “He was the Shaikh of his time, possessor of religion, morals, virtue and goodness. I heard knowledge from him and his gatherings were sound with hadith. Then his death came afterwards.”

توفي في سلخ ذي القعدة بالروحاء ودفن برباطه وقبره يزار.

Al-Ba`qubi died in the month of Dhul Qa`dah in the year 619[1] at Ar-Rawha’ and buried at his chamber and his grave is still visited today.

والروحاء: قرية بقرب بعقوبًا على يوم من بغداد. كنيته أبو محمد وأبو الحسن

Ar-Rawha’ is a village near to the locale of Ba`qubah, which is a day’s journey from Baghdad. Al-Ba`qubi was also known as Abu Muhammad or Abul- Hasan.[2]

[1] AD 1222

[2] Please see the citation in Ibn Al-`Imad’s Shadharat udh-Dhahab, vol.7, pp. 149-150; Adh-Dhahabi’s Tarikh ul-Islam, vol.44, pp. 455-456.

 

21 RAMADAN 1441 AH: SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM ABU `UMAR AL-MAQDISI

سنة ثمان وعشرين وخمسمائة بجماعيل، شاهدته بخط والده أحمد رحمه الله.

He was born in the year 528[1] in the town of Jamma`il as attested to in the handwriting of his father, Ahmad [ibn Qudamah], may Allah have mercy upon him.

سمع الحديث الكثير بدمشق، ومصر، فسمع بدمشق والده، وأبا المكارم عبد الواحد بن محمد بن المسلم بن هلال الأزدي، وأبا تميم سلمان بن علي بن عبد الرحمن الرحبي ثم الدمشقي،

He listened to hadith a great deal while in both Damascus and Egypt. In Damascus, he learned from (1) his father Ahmad ibn Qudamah, (2) Abul Mukarim `Abdul Wahid ibn Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Hilal Al-Azdi, [2]  (3) Abu Tamim Salman ibn `Ali ibn `Abdur-Rahman Ar-Ruhbi Ad-Dimishqi.

وأبا الفهم عبد الرحمن بن عبد العزيز الأزدي، وأبا نصر عبد الرحيم بن عبد الخالق بن أحمد بن عبد القادر بن يوسف البغدادي، وخلقاً يطول ذكرهم.

In addition to this, he also learned from (4) Abul Fahm `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Abdul `Aziz Al-Azdi,[3] (5) Abu Nasr `Abdur-Rahim ibn `Abdul Khaliq ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul Qadir ibn Yusuf Al-Baghdadi.[4] There were many others that he heard from but it would be long indeed to list them.

وبمصر الإمام أبا محمد عبد الله بن بري بن عبد الجبار المقدسي اللغوي، وأبا

الطاهر إسماعيل بن قاسم الزيات وغيرهما.

When he went to Egypt, he learned from the grammarian Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Bari ibn `Abdul Jabbar Al-Maqdisi,[5] Abu Tahir Isma`il ibn Qasim Az-Zayyat[6] and others.

وكان يقرأ في كل ليلة سبعاً من القرآن، مرتلاً في الصلاة،

The Imam used to recite a seventh of the Qur’an every night,[7] slowly and deliberately in the prayer.

ويقرأ في النهار سبعاً بين الظهر والعصر،

He would also recite a seventh of the Qur’an in the daytime between Zuhr and `Asr prayers.[8]

وكان إذا صلى الفجر وفرغ من الدعاء والتهليل والتسبيح

He also did additional things when he had prayed Fajr and finished supplication, tahlil [9]and tasbih.[10]

قرأ آيات الحرز، ويس، والواقعة، و{تبارك الذي بيده الملك} و{قل هو الله أحد}، والمعوذات، وكان قد كتب ذلك في كراسة وهي معلقة في المحراب،.

He would do things like recite Ayat ul-Hirz, surahs Yasin,[11] Al-Waqi`ah,[12] Al-Mulk,[13] Al-Ikhlas[14] as well as Al-Falaq[15] and An-Nas.[16] Imam Abu `Umar Al-Maqdisi wrote all of that in a small tract and hung it up in the mihrab.[17]

ربما قرأ فيها خوفاً من النعاس، ثم يقرئ القرآن ويلقن الناس إلى وقت ارتفاع النهار،

It could be that he also took some of it and read out due to fear of falling asleep. Then he would recite more Qur’an and advise people up until the day had worn on.

ثم يقوم فيصلي الضحى صلاة طويلة بتمام ركوع وسجود

Then he stood and prayed the Duha prayer and lengthened it greatly by making long ruku` and sujud.

-11- وسمعت ولده الإمام أبا محمد عبد الله يقول: كان يسجد سجدتين طويلتين، إحداهما في الليل، والأخرى في النهار، يطيل فيها السجود، ولم نعلم ما كان يقول في سجوده.

-11-

I heard his son – the Imam Abu Muhammad `Abdullah[18] – saying, “Abu `Umar used to make two very long prostrations. One of them was in the night while another was during the daytime. He would make that long prostration and we don’t know what he used to say while in that state.

ويصلي بعد أذان الظهر قبل سنتها في كل يوم ركعتين،

“He would pray two raka`ah extra after the Adhan of Zuhr before making the ratibah every day.

يقرأ في الركعة الأولى أول المؤمنون،

“In the first rak`ah, he would recite the beginning of Al-Mu’minun.[19]

 

وفي الثانية بآخر الفرقان من قوله {تبارك الذي جعل في السماء بروجاً}،

In the second rak`ah would recite the end of Al-Furqan[20] started from, Blessed is the One who placed constellations in the sky.[21]

وكان يصلي بين المغرب والعشاء أربع ركعات، يقرأ فيهن السجدة، وتبارك،

ويس، والدخان،

“[Imam Abu `Umar Al-Maqdisi] used to pray four raka`at between the Maghrib and `Isha’ prayers.[22] He would recite in the first two raka`h As-Sajdah[23] and Al-Mulk[24] while in the next two raka`ah he would recite Yasin[25] and Ad-Dukhan[26] in the third and fourth raka`at respectively.

ويصلي كل ليلة جمعة بين العشاءين صلاة التسابيح أربع ركعات،

ويطيل فيها،

“Every Jumu`ah night he would pray the four raka`at of Salat ut-Tasbih between Maghrib and `Isha’ prayers and he would lengthen this prayer.

وكان يصلي يوم الجمعة قبل صلاة الجمعة ركعتين،

“On the day of Friday before the Jumu`ah prayer, he used to pray two rak`ah.

كل ركعة يقرأ فيها قل هو الله أحد خمسين مرة.

“He would recite in each rak`ah Surat ul-Ikhlas[27] 50 times.”[28]

-12- وحكى ولده -بارك الله في عمره- عن أهله أنه كان يصلي في كل

يوم وليلة اثنتين وسبعين ركعة.

-12-

The son of Imam Abu `Umar – may Allah bless him with long life – narrate from his family that the Imam used to pray every day and night 72 extra rak`ah.[29]

-13- ومما حكي عن أهله -أم عبد الرحمن- أنه كان يقرأ كل يوم -{قل هو الله أحد} ألف مرة، ويقول سبحان الله وبحمده ألف مرة، وسبحان الله العظيم ألف مرة،

-13-

Some of what was narrated from his wife – whose name is Umm `Abdur-Rahman – is that Imam Abu `Umar used to recite every day Surat ul-Ikhlas 1,000 times,[30] Subhanallahi wa Bi-Hamdihi[31] 1,000 times, Subhanallahil `Azim[32] 1,000 times.[33]

ويقول سبحان الله، والحمد لله، ولا إله إلا الله، والله أكبر ألف مرة، ولا إله

إلا الله الملك الحق المبين ألف مرة،

Then he would say: Subhaanallaah,[34] Al-Hamdu lillaah,[35] La ilaaha illallaah,[36] Allaahu Akbar[37] together 1,000 times,[38] La ilaaha illallaahul Malikul Haqqul Mubin[39] 1,000 times.[40]

 

وكان إذا دخل منزله قرأ {قل هو الله أحدٌ} خمس مرات،

When he would enter his home, he would recite Surat ul-Ikhlas[41] five times.

ولا يجلس حتى يركع ركعات، إلا أن يكون مريضاً فيصلي جالساً.

He would not sit down with his family until he had prayed some raka`at except in the case of his being ill. In that situation, he would pray them sitting rather than standing.[42]

قلت: وكان يزور المقابر كل جمعة بعد العصر،

I would also like to mention that he would visit the graves every Friday after `Asr.[43]

ولا يكاد يأتي إلا ومعه شيء من الشيح في مئزره، أو شيء

من نبات الأرض.

Seldom did he go to the graveyard and not return with dust or plants from the graveyard in his izar[44] or on his other clothes.

وكان يقرأ كل ليلة بعد عشاء الآخرة آيات الحرز، لا يكاد يتركها،

Every night after `Isha’ prayer he would recite Ayat ul-Hirz and he seldom left it.

وسمعت بعض أصحابنا يقول وقت قراءة الشيخ آيات الحرز: قد

وجدناه بقراءة هذه الآيات خيراً كثيراً،

I heard some of our companions of the school used to say, “The time that the Shaikh used to recite Ayat ul-Hirz we would find him reciting these ayat and much good indeed.”

فإن الناس ينهبون ويسرقون ونحن لا نرى إلا خيراً،

They said further, “The people at this time were looting and stealing but from him we saw nothing but good.[45]

وذلك زمان قتال السلاطين بعضهم بعضاً، وكان النهب كثيراً.

“This was the very time when the sultans were fighting one another and looting was nearly an everyday occurrence.”

وسمعت أنه كان إذا دخل منزله قرأ آية الكرسي، وأعوذ بكلمات،

I heard that when he entered his home that he would recite Ayat ul-Kursi[46] and the supplication, “I seek refuge in the perfect words…[47]

وأشار بيده إلى ما حوله من الدور والجبل، يحوطها بذلك،

And he would point with his hand to what is around him of his house and the mountain.

ولا ينام إلا على طهارة،

He would not sleep without being in a state of purity.[48]

وإن أحدث قبل النوم بجنابة أو غيرها لم ينم حتى يتوضأ،

If he broke his state of purity before sleep due to being junub[49] or other than that, he would not sleep until he made the wudu.’

وإذاآوى إلى فراشه قرأ الحمد، وآية الكرسي، والواقعة، وتبارك،

وقل يا أيها الكافرون، وربما قرأ يس،

When he headed to his bed to lie down, he would recite Al-Fatihah,[50] Ayat ul-Kursi,[51] Al-Waqi`ah,[52] Al-Mulk,[53] Al-Kafirun[54] and he would also be known to recite Yasin.

ويسبح لله ثلاثاً وثلاثين، ويحمد الله ثلاثاً وثلاثين، ويكبره أربعاً وثلاثين،

Then he would make dhikr by saying Subhanallah 33 times, Al-Hamdu lillah 33 times and Allahu Akbar 34 times.

ويقول: اللَّهُمَّ أَسْلَمْتُ نَفْسِي إِلَيْكَ ، وَوَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِي إِلَيْكَ وَفَوَّضْتُ أَمْرِي إِلَيْكَ ، وَأَلْجَأْتُ ظَهْرِي إِلَيْكَ ،

He would say at the time of lying down: Allah! I submit myself to You, attribute my affairs to You and put my back in refuge to You.

رَغْبَةً وَرَهْبَةً إِلَيْكَ ، لا مَلْجَأَ وَلا مَنْجَا مِنْكَ إِلا إِلَيْكَ

I do this in fear and longing of You. There is neither escape nor salvation from You except to You.

آمَنْتُ بِكِتَابِكَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلْتَ وَبِنَبِيِّكَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلْتَ ، رَبِّ قِنيِ عَذَابَكَ يَوْمَ

 تَبْعَثُ عِبَادَكَ.

I believe in Your Book which you sent down, Your Prophet which you sent forth. Lord! Save me from Your Wrath on the day in which You resurrect Your Slaves.[55] 

وكان يقول بين صلاة سنة الفجر والفرض أربعين مرة يَا حَيُّ يَا قَيُّومُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ،

Between the ratibah of Fajr and the compulsory prayer of Fajr, he used to say the following forty times: The Ever Living! The Self Sufficient! There is no god but You![56]

وكان يستفتح الوضوء ببسم الله الرحمن الرحيم،

The Imam would commence his wudu’ with the basmalah[57] and then he would say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْأَلُكَ الْأَمْنَ وَالْبَرَكَةُ، وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الشُّؤْمِ وَالْهَلَكَةِ،

Allah! Indeed I ask You for safety and blessing! I seek refuge in You from harm and destruction.

وَقُل رَّبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَن يَحْضُرُونِ   

Lord! I seek refuge in You from the schemes of the demons. Lord! I seek refuge in You from the demons being present in our gathering.[58]

-14- وسمعت أم عبد الله آسية بنت محمد -بنت ابنته- تقول: كان سيدي لا

يترك الغسل يوم الجمعة،

-14-

I heard Umm `Abdullah Aasiyah bint Muhammad – granddaughter of Imam Abu `Umar – saying, “My noble master never left making ghusl on the Friday.

وكان لا يكاد يخرج إلا ومعه شيء يتصدق به. -تعني يوم الجمعة-.

“He seldom left the house without something to give in charity.”[59] She was referring to on the day of Friday on the way to the Jumu`ah prayer.

-15- وسمعت ولده الإمام الورع أبا محمد عبد الله بن محمد يقول: كان والدي إذا عبر في الدير يقف على باب بيت فلان وباب بيت فلان -يعني الذين ماتوا من مدة- فيسترجع.

-15-

I heard his son – the pious Imam  Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Muhammad –[60] saying: “My father used to go out and go to the door of the house of one individual and then the door of another – meaning those that had died not long ago – so he would turn back.”

قلت: وإنما يفعل ذلك للحديث المأثور عن النبي  :

He used to do this based upon the narrative from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him:

ما من مسلم يصاب بمصيبة، فيذكر مصيبته وإن قدم عهدها فيحدث عندها استرجاعاً إلا أعطاه الله عز وجل مثل أجر مصيبته يوم أصيب بها.

“Any Muslim who suffers a trial and at the time of his trial – even if it came suddenly – said at the time of it, ‘To Allah we belong and to Him we return,’ then Allah, Mighty and Majestic, will give him a reward in comparison to the severity of the size of the trial that befell him.” [61]

ووفاته عشية يوم الاثنين، الثامن والعشرين من شهر ربيع الأول، سنة سبع

وستمائة، بجبل قاسيون ظاهر دمشق، وبهذا الجبل دفن.

The Imam died on Monday night, 28th of Rabi` ul-Awwal in the year 607[62] at the base of Mount Qasiyun and was buried at the mountain.[63]

[1] AD 1134

[2] d. 565 AH (AD 1170). He is Abul Mukarim `Abdul Wahid ibn Abi Tahir Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Al-Hasan ibn Hilal Al-Azdi. Major scholar, grammarian and theologian, he is also known for his knowledge of hadith. Please see Shadharat udh-Dhahab fi Akhbar man Dhahab, vol.6, pp. 356-357

[3] d. 575 AH (AD 1180). He is `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Abil `Aja’iz. He is from a family of hadith scholars and narrators. Please see Shadharat udh-Dhahab fi Akhbar man Dhahab, vol.6, pp. 356-357

[4] d. 574 AH (AD 1179). Pious scholar of many disciplines and tailor, he was known for his knowledge of hadith. An Iraqi by birth, he died in Makkah at the age of 75 years. Please see Siyar A`lam in-Nubala’, vol.21, pp. 48-50

[5] 499-582 AH (AD 1104-1187). Pious worshipper, Shafi`ii scholar of many disciplines and Imam, this Palestinian grammarian later made his way to Egypt, where he would live the rest of his days. Please see Siyar A`lam in-Nubala’, vol.21, pp. 135-137.

[6] d. 579 AH (AD 1184). Grammarian, hadith scholar and man of many sciences, he was teacher to scores of students before dying in the land of Egypt. Please see Siyar A`lam in-Nubala’, vol.21, pp. 90-92.

[7] This is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Complete the Qur’an every seven days and do not increase upon that.” Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain: Muslim, vol.1, Section 2: Al-`Ilm , pp. 262-263.

[8] This means he would be completing the Qur’an twice in one week.

[9] lit. to say, La ilaha illallah (There is no god but Allah).

[10] lit. to say, Subhanallah (Glory be to Allah).

[11] This is the 36th surah of the Qur’an. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever recites Yasin in a night shall bring in the morning being forgiven. Whoever recites Ha Mim Ad-Dukhan in the night shall bring in the morning being forgiven.” Collected by At-Tirmidhi, Abu Nu`aim, Al-Baihaqi and An-Nasa’ii with the Abu Hurairah narrative being a sound chain; cf As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 633-634

[12] This is the 56th surah of the Qur’an. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever recited Surat ul-Waqi`ah every night shall not be stricken with penury.” Collected by Al-Baihaqi in Shu`b ul-Iman from `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud as cf As-Suyuti in Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 633-634

[13] This is the 67th surah of the Qur’an. Anas ibn Malik narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “There is a surah in the Qur’an composed of 30 ayat that shall dispute on behalf of the reciter until he is entered into the Paradise. And this is Blessed be the One who has the dominion in His Hand.” Collected by Al-Hafiz Ad-Diya’ Al-Maqdisi and Al-Baihaqi cf. As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp.55-56

[14] This is the 112th surah of the Qur’an. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever recited seven times: Say: He Allah is One, Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn and Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of men on Friday after the imam has made taslim from the Jumu`ah prayer before moving his legs shall have forgiven him what came before and after of sins.” Collected by Al-Qushairi in Al-Arba`in cf. As-Suyuti in Al-Jami`us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 635-636.

[15] This is the 113th surah of the Qur’an

[16] This is the 114th surah of the Qur’an

[17] This is the place where the imam of the masjid stands to lead the prayer.

[18] His biography was covered in Unit 3.

[19] This is the 23rd surah of the Qur’an. The Companion `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “There has been sent to me ten ayat in which the one who establishes them shall enter the Paradise. These ayat are: The believers have been successful.” Collected by Imams Ahmad in his Musnad; Al-Hakim in his Al-Mustadrak cf. As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 410-411.

[20] This is the 25th surah of the Qur’an

[21] Surat ul-Furqan (25), ayah 61

[22] This is in addition to the two rak`ah ratibah he would make, thus making six raka`at. This is based upon the narration of Abu Hurairah in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever prayed six raka`at after Maghrib without speaking an evil word between them shall have written for him twelve years of worship.” Collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi in his Jami` us-Sunan cf As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 616-617.

[23] This is the 32nd surah of the Qur’an. The Companion, Jabir ibn `Abdullah narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, would not go to sleep until he had recited Alif Lam Mim Sajdah and Tabarak. Collected by Imams Ahmad in Musnad; At-Tirmidhi in Jami` us-Sunan; An-Nasa’ii in As-Sunan and Al-Hakim in his Al-Mustadrak cf As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 363-364

[24] This is the 67th surah of the Qur’an. Please see the previous note.

[25] This is the 36th surah of the Qur’an. The evidence for this was already cited previously.

[26] This is the 44th surah of the Qur’an. The evidence for this was already cited previously.

[27] This is the 112th surah of the Qur’an

[28] Anas ibn Malik narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever recited: Say: He Allah is One fifty times shall have Allah forgive him for fifty years of sins.” Collected by Ibn Nasr cf. As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 634-635.

[29] This is based upon the narrative of the Companion Abu Hurairah in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “By Allah, I turn to Allah and seek forgiveness from Him more than seventy times a day.” Collected by Al-Bukhari in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih cf. As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 713-714

[30] This is based upon what was narrated by the Companion Hudhaifah from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said, “Whoever recited: Say: He Allah is One some one thousand times in a day shall have purchased himself from Allah. Collected by Al-Khiyari cf. As-Suyuti’s Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 635-636.

[31] Eng. Glory be to Allah and Praise be to Him.

[32] Eng. Glory be to Allah, the Most Grand.

[33] This action is taken from the general understanding of the hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “There are two statements that are beloved to the Most Merciful. They are light on the tongue, yet heavy on the scales: Subhanallahi wa bi-Hamdi, Subhanallahil `Azim.” Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.2, Section 3: Maqsad ul-`Ibadat, pp. 486-487. As these are general statements, there is no stated limit as to how many times the worshipper may say them.

[34] Eng. Glory be to Allah

[35] Eng. Praise be to Allah

[36] Eng. There is no god but Allah

[37] Eng. Allah is the Greatest

[38] This goes hand in hand with the hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, in which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “I say that Subhanallah, Al-Hamdulillah, La ilaha illallah, Allahu Akkbar are more beloved to me than all of what the sun rises upon.” Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.2, Section 3: Maqsad ul-`Ibadat, pp. 486-487. As these are general statements, there is no stated limit as to how many times the worshipper may say them.

[39] Eng. There is no god but Allah, the King, the Truth, the Manifest.

[40] This action is coming from a hadith that although it has some weakness is allowed by some authorities: `Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him,  narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever said: La ilaaha illallaahil Malikul Haqqul Mubin 100 times every day shall have protection from destitution, the Punishment of the Grave, independence from others in the creation and be ushered to the gate of the Paradise.” Collected by Abu Nu`aim Al-Asbahani in Hilyat ul-Awliya’, vol.8, pp. 278-280

[41] This is the 112th surah in the Qur’an

[42] Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated a hadith in which the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “When you leave from your home, pray two rak`ah and this will stop you from having a bad exit. When you enter your home, pray two rak`ah and this will stop you from having a bad entrance.” Collected by Al-Bazzar and Al-Baihaqi in Shu`b ul-Iman via As-Suyuti in Al-Jami` us-Saghir fi Ahadith il-Bashir, vol.1, pp. 88-89

[43] Abu Hurairah narrated a hadith in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever visited the grave of his parents or one of them every night of Friday, Allah will forgive him and shall be written down as being cleared of sin.” Collected by Imams At-Tabarani in his Al-Mu`jam ul-Kabir hadith #6114, Al-Mu`jam us-Saghir, vol.2, pp. 68-69 and Al-Baihaqi in Shu`b ul-Iman, hadith#7901. Although there is some weakness, it is classed as marfu` and At-Tabarani stated, “This narration from Abu Hurairah has only come through this transmission.” Please also see the appendices about use of weak hadith.

[44] This is a sunnah waistwrap worn by prophets, peace be upon them down to this age. It is referred to in various languages as a tannur, tinnur, futah, sarong and mundu.

[45] This was during the instability of the Abbasid rulers of the time and also the Crusader invasions 497-585 (AD 1099-1187).

[46] Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 255

[47] Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari, vol.3, pp. 238-239: Ibn `Abbas narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to seek refuge in Allah for Al-Hasan and Al-Husain and say:

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَةِ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْطَانٍ وَهَامَّةٍ وَمِنْ كُلِّ عَيْنٍ لَامَّةٍ

“I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah from every evil demon watcher and every evil and probing eye.”

[48]Al-Bara’ ibn `Azib narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “When you come to the place where you will sleep, make wudu’ as you would for prayer…” Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.2, Section 3: Maqsad ul-`Ibadat, pp. 493-494.

[49] Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, gives his verdict, “When discussing the permissible ghusl, this is pouring water all over the body in the ghusl and he is intending both the wudu’ and the ghusl at the time, while washing the mouth and the nose. This is what has been commanded in the ayah by the Word of the Exalted, And if you are junub, then purify yourselves. Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 5. And there are also the Words of the Exalted, Until they have made ghusl… Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 43.” Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp. 57-58.

[50] This is the 1st surah of the Qur’an

[51] This is ayah 255 of the 2nd surah of the Qur’an

[52] This is the 56th surah of the Qur’an

[53] This is the 67th surah of the Qur’an

[54] This is the 109th surah of the Qur’an

[55] Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain, Al-Bukhari and Muslim, Section 3: Maqsad ul-`Ibadat,  vol.2, pp. 494-495

[56] This is a du`a that is a coalescing of two Ahadith, both in Al-Jami` ul-Usul it-Tasi`, Section 3: Maqsad Al-`Aqidah, vol.10,  pp. 34-35

[57] An abbreviation for the Arabic words, ‘Bismillaah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem,’ which means, ‘In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate.’ “There is no wudu’ for the one who did not mention the name of Allah upon commencing it.” Al-Jami` ul-Usul it-Tasi`, Section 3: Maqsad Al-`Ibadat, vol.3, pp.223-224. Although each hadith on the subject has some dispute (in transmission, not text), nonetheless together they are counted as authentic and their meaning remains established. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said, “The hadith of Abu Sa`id is the best one on the subject.” Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imami Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol. 1, pp. 47-48.

[58] Surat ul-Muminun (23), ayat 87-98

[59] This is a narrative mentioned by Ibn `Abbas from Abu Hurairah and Ka`b as collected in Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaibah’s Al-Musannaf  cf. Ibn ul-Qayyim in his Zad ul-Ma`ad fi Hadyi Khair il-`Ibad, vol1., pp. 395-396

[60] This biography has already been given in Unit 3.

[61] Please see Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Muslim, vol.2, Section 3: Al-`Ibadat pp. 139-140; Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Musnad, vol.6, pp. 308-309; Malik ibn Anas in Al-Muwatta,’ pp. 176-177

[62] AD. 1210

[63] Please see our published work The Life and Times of Abu `Umar Al-Maqdisi by Imam Diya’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi in which a much more thorough biography is given. This is designed to be truncated and to give the reader a taste of each scholar.