A QUESTION SENT TO ME

Someone sent me this question recently and due to the useful nature of it I decided to publish it:

Why would the Qur’an be sent down of all places Arabia which is isolated and in a language that is obscure like Arabic? Why not English, the language of business, or Mandarin, the world’s most widely spoken language today?

Answer: It should be remembered that the Qur’an is in one of the world’s oldest langauges: Arabic. Most languages are right to left and not left to right. As Arabic spread along with the Muslims using this as their language, so did other things. Math today is not done in Roman numerals or staff marks, as it had been in the past.

Math today is done from right to left using numerals (although some of them had their start in India) that were perfected and systematised in Baghdad and Gharnata and spread throughout the rest of the world. 48 countries in the world use some form of Arabic in their print, visual or spoken media and day to day use.

At the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, there was no English language. English is a West German dialect that came into formation as we know it some 500 or more years ago. In fact, 500 years ago there was no French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese but rather a more vulgar form of Latin. The Qur’an was revealed some 1400 years ago.

As for Mandarin, 500 years before the rise of this popular dialect in China, the Qur’an was revealed. This is why the Qur’an was not revealed in these languages. That being said, the Qur’an has been translated into numerous languages, including English and Mandarin.

Until next time,

brother in Islam,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

ETIQUETTE WITH THE QUR’AN

The Qur’an is to be respected.

The following question was asked of a marja`:

As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

Is it permitted to place the Noble Qur’an in the bedroom, i.e. on a table while the husband and wife are having sexual intercourse in that room? Does this not constitute lack of etiquette with the Book of Allah? May Allah reward you with good for answering this question.

 

The marja,` Imam `Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows:

Yes, what you have said is indeed true. To have sex in the same room where the Qur’an is on the table is lack of etiquette with the Qur’an. What you should do if possible is place the Qur’an in another room.

1 MUHARRAM 1442 AH: THE VALUE OF THE TAFSIR OF IBN `ABBAS

Figure 1A: Tanwir ul-Maqbas, the Tafsir of Ibn `Abbas

Tanwir ul-Maqbas as a source of tafsir literature

By Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

The tafsir made use of is that of Tanwir ul-Maqbas min Tafsir Ibn `Abbas. This is a one volume work by `Abdullah ibn Al-`Abbas, the son of Al-`Abbas ibn `Abdul Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

This makes `Abdullah ibn `Abbas the first cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in addition to his being one of his 124,000 Companions. In recent times, some doubt has been raised about this text so it deserves to be given treatment.

One of the sources of transmission

The chain quoted in the tafsir is: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah Ath-Thiqah ibn Al-Ma’mun Al-Harawi who narrated to us from my father. He said, It was narrated to us by Abu `Abdillah who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu `Ubaidullah Mahmud ibn Muhammad Ar-Razi who said: It was narrated to us by `Ammar ibn `Abdul Majid Al-Harawi who said:

It was narrated to us by `Ali ibn Ishaq As-Samarqandi from Muhammad ibn Marwan from Al-Kalbi from Abu Salih from Ibn `Abbas…

No dispute was raised about `Abdullah Ath-Thiqah ibn Al-Ma’mun Al-Harawi, Abu `Ubaidullah Mahmud ibn Muhammad Ar-Razi, `Ammar ibn `Abdul Majid Al-Harawi. This part of the chain is not argued at all by authorities.

Dispute around four personalities

The dispute then centres on `Ali ibn Ishaq As-Samarqandi, Muhammad ibn Marwan, Al-Kalbi and Abu Salih. So let us look at the points in perspective.

With regard to `Ali ibn Ishaq As-Samarqandi, it was said by Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani,

He is `Ali ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Muslim ibn Maimun ibn Nadhir ibn `Adi ibn Maahaan Al-Hanzali Abul Hasan As-Samarqandi. He narrated from `Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak, Isma`il ibn Ja`far, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Mu`awiyah, Abu Bakr ibn `Ayyash and others. [1]

Imam Ibn Hajar sums up,

Abu Hatim said, “He is sound”. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Mansur Al-Qari remarked, “As-Samarqandi died in the month of the Shawwal in the year 237”. I would like to further mention that Imam Ad-Daraqutni stated in his book Al-`Ilal of As-Samarqandi, “He is trustworthy”. [2]

Now that the trustworthiness of As-Samarqandi has been established, we turn our attention to Muhammad ibn Marwan.

Imam Muhammad ibn Hussain Adh-Dhahabi (d. 1397 AH) said of him,

He is Muhammad ibn Marwan As-Sudai Al-Kufi. This is As-Sudai the younger, who narrates from Hisham ibn `Urwah and Al-A`mash. They left him and one of them did accuse him of lying. As-Sudai the younger is also the student of Al-Kalbi.[3]

Imam Muhammad `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi says further:

Al-Bukhari said, ‘The people were silent about him’. He is the freed slave of the Khattabi people but hadith are not written from him. Yahya Ibn Ma`in mentioned, ‘It is clear that this man’s narrations are weak’.[4]

Looking at this, we can see that some people differ in As-Sudai the lesser. Someone accused him of lying, another said his narrations are weak and Al-Bukhari quoted that the people were silent about him.

Thus his narrations have not been ruled out although scrutinised. If it is him by himself, there is doubt, but in a chain, everyone is examined. Everyone up until him has been sound, so he is left in place.

As for Al-Kalbi, Imam Muhammad `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi (d. 748 AH) said of Al-Kalbi:

He is Muhammad ibn As-Sa’ib Al-Kalbi…Sufyan ibn `Uyainah said, “Al-Kalbi said, ‘Abu Salih told me: Look into everything that you narrate from me. Do not narrate it verbally’.”[5]

The Imam said further:

Ya`la ibn `Ubaid said, “Sufyan said, ‘Be careful what you take from Al-Kalbi’. Someone remarked, ‘But you take from him’. Sufyan responded, ‘I am aware of where the truth is from the lie’.” [6]

Thus Al-Kalbi is not altogether rejected. Rather, it must be checked what he has taken, when he took it and from where it came in the end. If everything else is sound, then there is no issue. Anything else has to be examined.

The fact that major Imams upon examination took from him shows that there is some dispute about him but not one great enough that disqualifies him from being used in the discussion of Ibn `Abbas’s tafsir at all.

Finally, there is Abu Salih. Let us go to the words of Imams Muhammad `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani (d. 852 AH) on the topic. Imam Adh-Dhahabi states:

He is `Abdullah ibn `Salih ibn Muhammad ibn Muslim Al-Juhni Al-Masri Abu Salih. He is the writer and scribe of Al-Laith ibn Sa`d regarding his wealth. Abu Salih is a man of abundant hadith and knowledge although he has some repudiation in that regard.

Abu Salih narrated from Mu`awiyah ibn Salih, Al-Laith ibn Sa`d, Musa ibn `Ula, Ibn Wahb, Ibn Ma`in, Ahmad ibn Al-Furat and others.[7]

Imam Ibn Hajar writes:

Abu Hatim also said, “I heard `Abdul Malik ibn Shu`aib say, ‘Abu Salih is trustworthy and reliable. He heard the hadith from my grandfather Al-Laith ibn Sa`d. My father used to sit in his company for hadith and he would also narrate hadith in the presence of my father’. ”[8]

The Imam further stated,

Ibn Abi Hatim stated, “I asked Abu Hatim Ar-Razi about Abu Salih and he replied, ‘He has not narrated anything in my sight that depended upon or was based upon lying or falsehood. He has good hadith’. ”[9]

Within these same texts, some other authorities question aspects of his narration or reliability. Keeping this in mind, the fact that no categorical statement was made about him being unreliable leaves him in the realms of acceptability as the basic principle in this field is reliable until proven otherwise without doubt.

Is Al-Fairuzabadi the author of the text?

It was claimed by one author that Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn Ya`qub Al-Fairuzabadi (d. 817 AH) gathered together the sources for the tafsir Ibn `Abbas and then attributed it to him. The problem with this position is that Al-Fairuzabadi’s supposed patchwork of Ibn `Abbas’s tafsir is four volumes while Tanwir ul-Maqbas is only one volume.[10]

In closing, we should also keep in mind that this is but one chain of transmission from which we recover the tafsir of Ibn `Abbas. There are numerous other chains, such as those of Mujahid, Tawoos and `Ali ibn Talhah as was alluded to by Imam Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani.[11]

When the content of these chains and aspects of commentary are compared with that in Tanwir ul-Maqbas, the statements are the same with the exception of the chains of transmission. The actual text being given over is virtually the same albeit a few words and two sentences are different.

This therefore shows us that the commentary of Ibn `Abbas has come to us from numerous sources and they are reliable through all of them although individual narrators have required research to establish this point.

[1] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol.4, pp. 563-564 entry #5500, Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[2] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol.4, pp. 563-564 entry #5500, Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[3] Please see the Imams Muhammad Hussain Adh-Dhahabi in At-Tafsir wal-Mufassirin, vol.2, pp. 25-27; Muhammad ibn `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi in his  Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.4, pp. 31-33, Dar ul-Ma`rifah, Beirut, 1382 AH

[4] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.4, pp. 31-33

[5] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.3, pp. 556-559 entry #7575

[6] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.3, pp. 556-559 entry #7575

[7] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.3, pp. 440-445 entry #4383

[8] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol., pp. 513-517, vol.3, pp. , Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[9] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol., pp. 513-517, vol.3, pp. , Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[10] Please see Hajji Khalifah in his work, Kashf uz-Zunun, vol.1, pp. 501-502, Dar Ihya’ ut-Turath il-`Arabi, Beirut, 1360 AH

[11] Hadi us-Sari, vol.1, pp. 410-416

THE RANK, VIRTUE AND SALVATION OF THE FIRST THREE GENERATIONS

The Masjid dedicated to the Companion, `Amr ibn Al-`As in Egypt.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَيْثَمَةَ زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ ، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدَةَ الضَّبِّيُّ – وَاللَّفْظُ لِزُهَيْرٍ – قَالَا : حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ ، قَالَ : سَمِعَ عَمْرٌو جَابِرًا ، يُخْبِرُ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ:

It was collected by Abu Khaithamah Zuhair ibn Harb and Ahmad ibn `Abdah Ad-Dabiyy – while the wording belongs to Zuhair – and they both said: It was narrated to us by Sufyan ibn `Uyainah who said: `Amr and Jabir both heard a narrative from Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri who narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him who said,

يَأْتِي عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ يَغْزُو فِئَامٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ فِيكُمْ مَنْ رَأَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ نَعَمْ

“A time shall come upon the people in which a group of people shall go out for offensive campaign. Then it will be said to them, ‘Is there among you anyone who saw the Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – and they shall answer in the affirmative’.

 فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ ثُمَّ يَغْزُو فِئَامٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ فِيكُمْ مَنْ رَأَى مَنْ صَحِبَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ نَعَمْ 

“Then victory will be given over to that group. Then a group from the people shall go out for an offensive campaign. Then it will be said to them, ‘Is there among you anyone who saw someone who was a Companion to the Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – and they shall answer in the affirmative.’

فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ ، ثُمَّ يَغْزُو فِئَامٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ ، فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ : هَلْ فِيكُمْ مَنْ رَأَى مَنْ صَحِبَ مَنْ صَحِبَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ

نَعَمْ فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ

“Then victory shall be given over to that group. Then a group from the people shall go out for an offensive campaign. Then it will be said to them, ‘Is there among you anyone  saw someone who kept companionship with someone who kept companionship with the Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – and they shall answer in the affirmative.’ Then victory shall be given over to that group”.[1]

Imam An-Nawawi (d. 676) said of this hadith:

“This hadith has a portent in it that belongs to the miracles to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as well as the favour of the Companions, the Followers and the Followers of the Followers while that which is being sent forth for offensive campaign is the army”.[2]

Imam Salih Ash-Shami said of this hadith:

“This hadith refers to the fact that victory will be granted to the Companions due to their virtue and goodness as well as for the Followers and their Followers”.[3]

[1] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.4, Section 9: At-Tarikh, pp. 397-398

[2] Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh in-Nawawi, vol.15, pp. 83-84

[3] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.4, Section 9: At-Tarikh, pp. 397-398

THE FIRST THREE GENERATIONS: AN EXPOSITION

الإمام محمد السيد الأزهري

حَدَّثَنَا وَاصِلُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الأَعْلَى قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ فُضَيْلٍ ، عَنْ الأَعْمَشِ ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُدْرِكٍ ، عَنْ هِلَالِ بْنِ يَسَافٍ ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ ، قَالَ : سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ :

It was narrated to us by Wasil ibn `Abdul A`la who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Fudail from Al-A`mash from `Ali ibn Mudrik from Hilal ibn Yasaf from `Imran ibn Husain who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saying:”

 خَيْرُ النَّاسِ قَرْنِي ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ ، ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ ثَلَاثًا ، ثُمَّ يَجِيءُ قَوْمٌ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَتَسَمَّنُونَ وَيُحِبُّونَ السِّمَنَ يُعْطُونَ الشَّهَادَةَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوهَا :

‘The best of people is my generation, then those who come next, then those who come next. Then there shall come a people after them in which there shall appear fatness and they shall love fatness. They will give the testimony before they are asked to do so’.[1]

وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ حَدِيثِ الأَعْمَشِ ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُدْرِكٍ وَأَصْحَابُ الأَعْمَشِ إِنَّمَا رَوَوْا عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ ، عَنْ هِلَالِ بْنِ يَسَافٍ ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ ،

Imam At-Tirmidhi said, “This is a strange hadith from the narrated hadith of Al-A`mash from `Ali ibn Mudrik and the Companions of Al-A`mash only narrated from Al-A`mash from Hilal ibn Yasaf from `Imran ibn Husain”.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَمَّارٍ الحُسَيْنُ بْنُ حُرَيْثٍ قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا وَكِيعٌ ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ قَالَ : حَدَّثَنَا هِلَالُ بْنُ يَسَافٍ ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ حُصَيْنٍ ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَحْوَهُ ، وَهَذَا أَصَحُّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ فُضَيْلٍ . وَمَعْنَى هَذَا الحَدِيثِ عِنْدَ بَعْضِ أَهْلِ العِلْمِ يُعْطُونَ الشَّهَادَةَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُسْأَلُوهَا إِنَّمَا يَعْنِي شَهَادَةَ الزُّورِ يَقُولُ : يَشْهَدُ أَحَدُهُمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يُسْتَشْهَدَ ، وَبَيَانُ هَذَا فِي

It was narrated to us by Hilal ibn Yasaf from `Imran ibn Husain from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and this is more authentic than the hadith of Muhammad ibn Fudail. The meaning of this hadith is according to some of the People of Knowledge that they shall give testimony before they are asked to give it. This means the false testimony. So this means that one of them will bear testimony without it being sought from him and the explanation of this in another place.

قال النووي: الصحيح أن قرنه صلى الله عليه وسلم والصحابة الثاني التابعون والثالث تابعوهم.

Imam Yahya An-Nawawi said, “The truth is that the best generation refers to that of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and the Companions. Those who come next are the Followers of the Companions and those that come next are the Followers of the Followers.”[2]

قَالَ السُّيُوطِيُّ وَالْأَصَحُّ أَنَّهُ لَا يَنْضَبِطُ بِمُدَّةٍ فَقَرْنُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ هُمُ الصَّحَابَةُ

Imam As-Suyuti says of this hadith: “The most correct statement is that the intent of the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in this hadith is the Companions. The description of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, has already been discussed.

وَكَانَتْ مُدَّتُهُمْ مِنَ الْمَبْعَثِ إِلَى آخِرِ مَنْ مَاتَ مِنَ الصَّحَابَةِ مِائَةً وَعِشْرِينَ سَنَةً وَقَرْنُ التَّابِعِينَ مِنْ مِائَةِ سَنَةٍ إِلَى نَحْوِ سَبْعِينَ

“The amount of time that elapsed between the sending of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and the last one to have died from the Companions is 120 years or a little bit less or more than that. This is based upon the dispute about the death of Abut-Tufail. So when this is kept in mind it could be that the 100 years is a little bit less, perhaps 99 or 97 years plus the 20 years. As for the age of the Followers, this runs from the year 100 onwards and lasted 70 or eight years.

وَقَرْنُ أَتْبَاعِ التَّابِعِينَ مِنْ ثَمَّ إِلَى نَحْوِ الْعِشْرِينَ وَمِائَتَيْنِ وَفِي هَذَا الْوَقْتِ ظَهَرَتِ الْبِدَعُ ظُهُورًا فَاشِيًّا وَأَطْلَقَتِ الْمُعْتَزِلَةُ أَلْسِنَتَهَا وَرَفَعَتِ الفلاسفة رؤوسها وَامْتُحِنَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ لِيَقُولُوا بِخَلْقِ الْقُرْآنِ وَتَغَيَّرَتِ الْأَحْوَالُ تَغَيُّرًا شَدِيدًا وَلَمْ يَزَلِ الْأَمْرُ فِي نَقْصٍ إِلَى الْآنَ وَظَهَرَ مِصْدَاقُ قَوْلِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثُمَّ يَفْشُو الْكَذِبُ

“As for those that came after of the Followers of the Followers, this lasted some fifty years  and reached up to the year 220 and during this time there appeared innovations[3] that spread out and the Mu`tazilah wagged their tongues, the philosophers raised their heads the People of Knowledge were tested so that they might declare the Qur’an created. The states of the people and places became difficult and the matter has continued without abating until now. And this is the fulfilment of the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him that lies would be let loose and spread out.”[4]

[1] This is collected by Imams Muslim, Al-Bukhari and At-Tirmidhi. This particular wording is in that of At-Tirmidhi.

[2] cf Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh in-Nawawi, vol.16, pp. 86-89, Samaluti’s Al-Azhar edition.

[3] This is the era of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, who was in the third age, is thus one of the tabi` Tabi`in. He is the last of these people as the boundary was 220. By the time of his death in 241, he was the last of the third age. Those born in this boundary of time include the grand Imams of the Ummah, Ash-Shafi`ii (d. 205) and Malik ibn Anas (d. 179).

[4] Tuhfah, vol.6, pp. 469-470, hadith #2320

Preventative Violence as a Necessity to Protect Muslim Artifacts

Figure 1A: The new gravesite of Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi after hoodlums damaged it.

I was sat here reflecting one day over the great Imam, Ibn Al-Jawzi (d. 597), when an article popped back up. In the aftermath of American invasions, the emboldening of the Twelvers and the rise of the Khawarij (read Salafiyyah) yet again, the grave suffered damage and was destroyed by explosives. There was an enormous outcry that led to the re-dedication of the grave and a marker places so that the people never forget.

This article on the Imam just provoked me to thinking about the situation more deeply and how Muslims have to protect our intellectual and cultural artifacts.

I often stared bug eyed at different libraries in NYC, New York, Ann Arbor, MI UW, Washington, UO, OR, St. Pancras in England and Chester Beatty in Ireland and the cache of manuscripts they stole and looted from the Muslim world. I copied and took as much as I could to share with the world. Had it been up to me, I would have brought 50 people in there and day after day taken the manuscripts back surreptitiously.

And it’s not enough that the wicked attack our intellectual repository. They even go for the physical artifacts. I often see some Muslims on the topic shrug their shoulders when the matter should be greater than that. Thus, preventative violence is a necessity to protect Muslim artifacts. Without this, there is no deterrent to people who would otherwise ravage them.

Masjid Ibn Qudamah in the town of Jamma`il, not far from the birthplace of Shaikh ul-Islam, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah.

Attempted threats came regarding the house of the Imam, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620) and violence followed. The threat subsided.

The resting place and masjid of the grand-shaikh, the Hanbali theologian, Imam `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani

Attempts were made on the masjid of the Shaikh, `Abdul-Qadir Al-Jilani (d. 561) and yet violence made the disrespect cease.

The same thing came to the graves of countless other saints and violence was the marker that stopped it. And we ask Allah that more people will step up and use preventative measures to stop any further disrespect.

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

PLURAL MARRIAGE: IS JUST ONE WIFE THE ONLY OPTION? part 2

The following question was asked of a marja`:

 

As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

Does polygamy have conditions? What is it that we are to do when the first wife categorically rejects polygamy and explicitly states that she will seek a divorce if the husband should engage in the act during their marriage?

The marja,` Imam `Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows:

 

There are no conditions set for polygamy when the practice in its’ essence is permitted. And when someone has made a covenant of marriage with a second or third wife and the pillars and conditions of the marriage are completed, then the contract is sound.

The main issue is that that the polygamy in its’ essence must be adhered to according to what affairs are permitted, disliked and impermissible. Polygamy is permitted when there is a benefit for the husband such as in the case when his first wife has not been faithful to him or the first wife is barren and he wants more children.

Polygamy would be disliked when there the husband has no need. It was said by Imam Mustafa Ar-Ruhaibani: “He does not marry more than one wife and this is praiseworthy as long as she has been faithful and submissive to him and there is not seeking towards that which is impermissible.” The scholars of the Sunan collections have narrated with a sound chain of transmission the following hadith, ‘Whoever had two wives and inclined to one of them over the other, then he will come on the Day of Resurrection with one side leaning.’

Polygamy would be impermissible for the husband when he reasonably knows or is certain that he would not be able to be just in that situation and this has basis according to what has been narrated by Imams Malik ibn Anas and Ibn Majah in a hadith where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “There is no harm or reciprocating harm.” This hadith is indeed authentic.

When the first wife rejects being in a polygamous marriage and explicitly states that she will seek a divorce if this is done in marriage, then in the event that he is just and it is not necessary for him but he insists on it, then he may divorce her. If he chooses not to, that is his choice. If she is patience and does not want it or she wants a khula` then this is permitted. Allah knows best in that regard.

Taken from the website of the maraji`

PLURAL MARRIAGE: IS JUST ONE WIFE THE ONLY OPTION?

Is marrying only one wife what is best?

Is it praiseworthy to only marry one wife and not engage in polygamy?

 

Imam Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti,[1] may Allah be pleased with him, said the following:

Yahya ibn Ja`adah narrated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “The best benefit that a man could be shown after his Islam is a beautiful wife that makes him happy when he looks at her, obeys him when he commands her and preserves his hidden matters when he is away regarding his wealth and his honour.” This is collected by Sa`id ibn Mansur.

It is praiseworthy that she be an intelligent and foreign woman to him. This will mean that the child will be intelligent and that if he is not there is no safeguard from Talaq and his going to near relatives and going towards cutting family ties when the command is to keep them.

And as marriage is for the intent of living together in harmony and maintainance, this is not realised with stupid or small minded women and this will not lead to a good life. It may be that this same stupidity is passed on to the child. It has been said, “Avoid the stupid women for her child will be a waste of time and her health will be a trial”.

And it is praiseworthy that he should not marry more than one as long as his his sexual needs and chastity are being preserved through being with her on account of the fact that the avoidance of the impermissible has already been achieved.

The Exalted One has said,

And you will never be able to do justice between the women, even if you should strive to do so.[2]

And the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Whoever has two wives and includes towards one other the other shall come on the Day of Resurrection with one side inclining.” This is collected by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, An-Nasa’ii and Ad-Darimi.

Imam Ahmad once wanted to get married to both a free woman and a slave woman and said, “My desire is that they should both have a little bit of heft.” It has been said by some that one should seek out what type of hair the woman has as this will indicate whether her build is hefty or not.

Imam Al-Buhuti said further:

Thus marrying more than one wife is permitted as explicitly stated in Al-Hidayah and Al-Madhhab,[3] Al-Mustaw`ib,[4] Al-Khulasah,[5] Al-Kafi,[6] Ar-Ri`ayah – both the large and small editions[7]Al-Hawi As-Saghir,[8] Al-Fa’iq [9]and other texts.

This ruling is given precedence by the author[10] of Al-Furu` and the author[11] of Tajrid ul-`Inayah. The author[12] of Al-Insaf  said, “And this is the ruling of the School.”

[1] d. 1051 (AD 1656). He is Abus-Sa`adat Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Buhuti. Egyptian marja` and one of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School in the later age, he studied with premier scholars of Sham, such as Imams Yahya Al-Hajjawi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. The Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d. 1079 (AD 1674), when he learned that Al-Buhuti had penned his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, burned his own text and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 472-474

[2] Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 129

[3] 432-510 (AD 1041-1116). He is Abul Khattab Mahfuz ibn Ahmad Al-Kalwadhani. The Imam was perhaps the greatest teacher of `Abdul Qadir ibn Musa Al-Jilani and stood shoulder to shoulder with the greatest scholars of the madhhab in his time. The khalifa of his time made him the chief Qadi for the Islamic world and often when scholars saw him, they would comment, ‘Here comes the law,’ referring to his penchant for enforcing justice. Imam Al-Kalwadhani saw no difference between prosecution for the rich or the poor.  But he was even handed, believing no one to be above the law. He left behind some 10 or more books in various sciences. Please see Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp. 97-106

[4] d. 610 (AD 1213). He is Nusair ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Al-Hussain, known as Ibn Sunainah. Hailing the city of Rayy in today’s Iran, he was the author of books on inheritance, theology and poetry, his main accomplishment being gathering together some ten books within one for his amazing work, Al-Mustaw`ab, still considered a masterpiece. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 95-96.

[5] 519-606 (AD 1124-1207). He is Wajih ud-Din Abul-Mu`ali As`ad ibn Al-Munajja ibn ibn Barakat At-Tanukhi. One of the Shaikhs of the Hanbalis in his time, he narrated from Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah and left behind a considerable written legacy. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 49-50.

[6] 541-620 (AD 1146-1223). He is Muwaffaq ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Qudamah An-Nabulsi Al-Jamma`ili Al-Maqdisi. Renewer of his age, scholar, judge, jurist and expounder, he wrote some 200 or more books, touching on every subject in Islam. He learned from scholars of Iraq and Sham, combining both traditions successfully to bring about one of the greatest scholars the world had seen. cf. Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 52-54

[7] d. 695 (AD 1296). He is Najm ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hamdan ibn Shabib ibn Hamdan ibn Shabib ibn Hamdan Al-Harrani. Specialist in fiqh, Usul, he is author of some five works and later taught in Cairo. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 271-272.

[8] 624-684 (AD 1227-1287). He is Abu Talib Nur ud-Din `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Umar  ibn Abil Qasim ibn `Ali ibn `Uthman Al-Basri Al-`Abdaliyari. High ranking scholar of his time, he was a student of Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 652), memorised Al-Hidayah and other fiqh works. cf. Ibn Rajab’s  Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 312-313.

[9] 693-771 (AD 1294-1370). Known as Qadi Ibn Al-Jabal, he is Abul `Abbas Ahmad ibn Al-Hasan ibn `Abdullah ibn Abi `Umar Al-Maqdisi As-Salihi. Scholar of many disciplines, he authored a work on fiqh that summarized the rulings of the Hanbali School in bullet points as well as some six other books. He taught and lived his life on the famed Mount Qasiyun. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Al Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 372-373.

[10] 712-762 AH (AD 1311-1362). He is Muhammad ibn Muflih ibn Muhammad ibn Mufarraj Al-Maqdisi Ar-Ramini As-Salihi. Marja` of his time, scholar of many disciplines, he is the author of books on fiqh, theology, medicine and more in addition to be one of the authorised commentator’s on Al-Muqni`. He would later die and be buried at the foot of Mount Qasiyun. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah `ala Dara’ih il-Hanabilah, pp. 452-454.

[11] 750-803 (AD 1353-1406). He is `Ala’ ud-Din `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Abbas ibn Fityan Al-Ba`li Ad-Dimashqi. Known as Ibn ul-Liham (or Laham), he became leader of the School in Sham along with Imam Ibn Muflih. He is the author of some five texts and summarised a number of tomes for easier application for students of knowledge. cf. Imam Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 309-310.

[12] 820-885 (AD 1417-1480). He is `Ala’ ud-Din Abul Hasan `Ali ibn Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad Al-Mardawi As-Sa`di As-Salihi. Judge, jurist, historian and grammarian, he was known for writing books on the narrations and debates within the Hanbali School. He organised the arguments under chapter headings, then acted as chief judge for most of his later life until his death. He wrote more than 20 books and was a mujtahid murajjih. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 76-81