The grandson of the marja`, Imam `Abdul Ghani Al-Lubadi (d. 1319)

So who are the Mujassimah/Mushabbihah/Hashawiyyah?

The greatest theologian of the Ummah and the Imam of Ahl us-Sunnah, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241) has said the following:

وأما الجهمية: فإنهم يسمون أهل السنة: المشبهة وكذبت الجهمية أعداء الله بل هم أولى بالتشبيه والتكذيب، افتروا على الله عز وجل الكذب، وقالوا الإفك والزور، وكفروا بقولهم.

“In terms of the Jahmiyyah, they name Muslim Orthodoxy to be Mushabbihah. The Jahmiyyah lie as they are Enemies of Allah. In fact they are the ones closest to likening Allah with the creation and lying. They lie upon Allah, Mighty and Majestic. They speak with falsehood and bear false witness and reject faith by their very words”.[1]

Hmmm. Let’s look further.

The Imam went on to say further,

وأما أصحاب الرأي: فإنهم يسمون أصحاب السنة: نابتة، وحشوية. وكذب أصحاب الرأي أعداء الله بل هم النابتة والحشوية، تركوا آثار الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم وحديثه، وقالوا بالرأي، وقاسوا الدين بالإستحسان، وحكموا بخلاف الكتاب والسنة وهم أصحاب بدعة، جهلة ضلال، وطلاب دنيا بالكذب والبهتان.

“The People of Speculative Opinion have named the People of the Sunnah as Nabitah and Hashawiyyah. The People of Speculative Opinion lie and are Enemies of Allah. Indeed they are Nabitah and Hashawiyyah. They have left the narratives of the Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and his hadith and they speak with their speculative opinion. They make analogy in the Religion with what seems fear to them. They have made judgement to what contradicts the Book and the Sunnah and they are people of innovation, ignorant, astray, seekers of earthly favours by lies and false attribution”.[2]

Right. Well this tell us a great deal.

The philosopher and Shafi`ii Maturidi, Abul Fath Muhammad ibn `Abdul Karim Ash-Shahrastani (d. 548) said the following:

القاعدة الأولى : الصفات والتوحيد فيها وهي تشتمل على مسائل :

“The sects of Islam are built upon a number of major rules. There are four rules and in particular the great foundations:

الصفات الأزلية : إثباتاعند جماعة ونفياعند جماعة وبيان صفات الذاتوصفات الفعل وما يجب الله تعالى وما يجوزعليه وما يستحيل وفيها الخلاف بين الأشعرية والكرامية واجملسمة والمعتزلة

“Foundation 1: the Attributes and the Tawhid on the matter. This is in general to do with the Eternal Attributes that were affirmed by one group and then denied by another, as well as making a clear explanation of the Attributes of the Essence and the Attributes of the Actions and what is compulsory for Allah, Exalted be He, what is possible for Him and what is impossible for Him. There is dispute about this topic between the Ash`aris, the Kurramiyyah, the Mujassimah and the Mu`tazilah”.[3]

Hmmm. This is highly informative.

Ash-Shahrastani goes on to say:

وثار من الشبهة الثانية مذاهب : القدرية والجبرية والمجسمة حيث قصروا فيوصفه تعالى حتىوصفوه بصفات المخلوقي

“So the ambiguous and doubtful matter in the second place gave rise to the following groups: (1) the Qadariyyah, (2) the Jabariyyah, (3) the Mujassimah to the point that they fell short in the description of the Exalted One to the degree that they described Him with the attributes of creation”.[4]

Ash-Shahrastani continues:

فالمعتزلة : غلوا في التوحيد بزعمهم حتى وصلوا إلى التعطيل بنفي الصفات والمشبهة : قصروا حتىوصفوا الخالق بصفات الأجسام والروافض : غلوا في النبوة والإمامة حتى وصلوا إلى الحلول والخوارج : قصروا حتى نفوا تحكيم الرجال

“So the Mu`tazilah exaggerated in the matter of Tawhid with their claim until they reached the level of denial by repudiating the Attributes of Allah. The Mushabbihah fell short until they described the Creator with the Attributes of bodily form. The Rafidah exaggerated in prophethood and imamhood until they reached the level that some of them believed in incarnation. Then you have the Khawarij that have fallen short to the degree until they denied the judgement of men in cases of arbitration”.[5]

This should give you a good understanding of things when people go to question whether or not the First Three Generations and their successors had this understanding at all.

Historical accounts tell us that this is not the case with the First Three Generations nor those who came after Imam Ahmad that safeguarded the theology.

[1] Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 36-37

[2] Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp. 36-37

[3] Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol. 1, pp. 10-11

[4] Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol. 1, pp. 14-15

[5] Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol. 1, pp. 14-15

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