What is Sirah?
The Arabic word سِيرَةٌ, refers to:
وَالسِّيرَةُ: اَلطَّرِيقَةُ يُقَالُ سَارَ بِهِمْ سِيرَةً حَسَنَةً وَالسِّيرَةُ: اَلْهَيْئَةُ. وَفِي التَّنْزِيلِ الْعَزِيزِ (سَنَعِيدُهَا سِيرَتَهَا الاُوْلَى) وَسَيَّرَ سِيرَةً: حَدَّثَ أَحَادِيثَ الأَوَائِلِ.
The meaning of this statement is, “So the word sirah means the way. It is said in conversation, ‘He travelled a good way with them.’ Sirah also means the form of something. He has mentioned in the Mighty Revelation, We will surely return it to its previous form. And one can also say, ‘He travelled a way,’ which means that he narrated news and events of times before”. 
But in the language of the scholars of the Revealed Law, the word sirah signifies writing down, detailed biographical accounts of people. These biographical accounts serve as sound, historical and chronological works that give the reader a full knowledge of the subject within its pages. This will often include family histories, poetry, birth and death records (when present), genealogies and accounts of major or noteworthy events.
When Did Sirah Begin?
Sirah was not invented at any one point in time. Rather, importance began to be placed upon systematising it after the death of the Prophet.
Allah has told us that the Prophet was a noble person in the first order, as everything about him was inspired and noble. He has revealed,
)لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلْيَوْمَ ٱلآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيراً(
You have in the Messenger of Allah a noble example. 
And as Allah has called him the noble example in the Qur’an, then it behoves us to follow him in every way which includes the revelation and how he acted this out in his historical life. We also see in the Sunnah, the second revelation, the importance of dates, history and times. The Prophet Muhammad said,
((اَلْخِلاَفَةُ بَعْدِي فِي أُمَّتِي ثَلاَثُونَ سَنَةً ثُمَّ مُلْكٌ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ)).
“The khilafah after me in my Ummah will be thirty years, then a kingdom will come after that.” 
In this statement is the indication that history and dates are important, as the fulfilment of that hadith hinges on us being familiar with what shall happen when the thirty years passes. History is thus paramount for us to know.
The Companions, may Allah be pleased with all of them, also understood this well and preserved information about people, places and things germane to the revelation and its understanding at the time of revelation. The battles of Badr, Uhud, Hunain, the treaties of Al-Hudaibiyyah and others mentioned in the Qur’an directly or alluded to frequently lead us to understanding that we should know about these matters.
Shortly after the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr (also known as As-Siddiq) was chosen by the Companions to be the first successor, followed by `Umar ibn Al-Khattab (also known as Al-Faruq). The 124,000 and more companions emptied out of Arabia in droves, some being dispatched by `Umar al-Faruq to some of the 4,000 or more newly built cities he had designed. Companions taught, lectured, trained students and scholars in established cities such as Madinah and Makkah, but also in newly built cities, the most significant in the latter stages of sirah being Al-Basrah in today’s Iraq.
Al-Basrah was built in fulfilment of a prophecy of the Messenger of Allah when he said,
((يَنْزِلُ النَّاسُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي بِغَائِطٍ يُسَمُّونَهُ الْبَصْرَةَ)).
“The people from my Ummah will come down to a low lying area and name it Al-Basrah.” 
Commissioned, designed and excavated by `Umar al-Faruq, the second khalifah gave specific instructions that this city must be built in a place that was never a permanent home to idols. After digging deep and in all directions, it was found that the land fit the edict and construction began in 15 and ended 16/7. Shortly after the order to populate it was delivered and people flocked to the new location. Teachers, soldiers and other people of merit and standing were sent with the sole purpose of passing on knowledge, including senior Companions such as Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, `Utbah ibn Ghazwan and others. These were in turn succeeded by students like Jabir ibn Zaid, Muhammad ibn Sirin and his sister Hafsah, al-Hasan al-Basri, Rabi`a Al-`Adawiyyah, Qatadah ibn Da’imah, Abu Ayyub As-Sakhtiyani, `Amr ibn Abd al-Qais, Muslim ibn Yasir among others, who focused on creed and fiqh.
Historians such as Muhammad ibn Sa`d and Khalifah Ibn Khayyat Al-Laithi paved the way for codifying the sirah by streamlining the subjects and giving them chapter headings to make for easy reading.
But none of this would have been possible without the Companions of the Messenger of Allah. Whether they were sent on a permanent basis or merely just to visit and teach, the number of teaching Companions assigned to Basrah was between 3-10,000, including no less than `A’ishah, Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, `Ali ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with all of them, and a galaxy of other greats.
The life that the Prophet Muhammad spent with his wives gave us snapshots of his personal life, domestic mannerisms and things that could only be known by women. The other Companions that focused on the things done in public recorded matters diligently and put them into practice. Whether it was the way he spoke, his eating manners or even instructions about use of the toilet, all was recorded. Prophecies, important dates in history, including the reset of the lunar calendar, were all things taken seriously. Therefore the passing on of incidents, as eyewitnesses to the revelation, makes their witness all that more compelling and reputable.
The step of actually writing down sirah alone, not for the purpose of deriving rulings-but for the merit of historicity-was begun by Abban,  the son of `Uthman ibn `Affan, Az-Zubair ibn Al-`Awwam and his son `Urwah, Abu Hurairah, Ibn `Abbas and Anas ibn Malik, to name a few. Other Companions often recounted specific episodes, such as war, end time prophecy, theology, but the aforementioned took the holistic approach, which made them more sought after by later authorities such as Ibn Ishaq, who shall be mentioned later.
The followers of the companions wrote down the words with great care, checking dates, crucial events, second opinions from other eyewitnesses not to mention the etymology of certain words that were fast losing usage as the Arabic language became diffused among non-native speakers. So in the students of the students, commentaries on sirah began to appear. Ibn Hisham, Az-Zuhri, Wahb ibn Munabbih and his brother Hammam, Ka`b ibn Al-Ahbar and legions more sought to preserve the meaning of the Arabic words and their application through recording the actual language of the sirah. Points of erudition, poetry, rare words used were not seen to them as slight. These were included in the rich tapestry while at the same time preserving the primal integrity of the sirah text, that of history.
The Different Types of Sirah
Sirah scholars broadly fall into the following types when covering the subject, although there may be slight overlap:
- Historicist. This is history in its simpler form, referring to people, events and places and without heavy coverage of other circumstances. This is especially the case in war literature or details regarding Makkah at the birth of the Prophet Muhammad as expressed in works such as Kitab ul-Maghazi by Imam Ibn Ishaq.
- Phenomenal. This gives some of the life story of the Prophet Muhammad but focuses more exclusively on his miracles, relation to other prophets, prophecies, parables and things based around his miraculous nature. Although historical, these forms of sirah do not always give the date for these occurrences, which leaves the reader to research. This would include Ash-Shifa’ bi Ahwal il-Mustafaby Al-Qadi `Iyad and its commentaries, Al-Mawahib ul-Laduniyyah wal-Minah ul-Muhammadiyyah by Imam Al-Qastallani.
- Descriptive/Proscriptive. Imam Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi, in his Ash-Shama’il ul-Muhammadiyyah wal-Khasa’il ul-Mustafawiyyah, is the best example of this, by giving a complete description of the physical characteristics, gestures, clothing, complexion and day to day habits of the Prophet.
- Inclusionist. This form of sirah is the most complete and often the most gratifying of the methods used by the scholars, for it combines all the above. Works such as these are not usually small and are long reading, but for a patient reader a wealth of knowledge. This includes As-Sirat un-Nabawiyyah  by Ibn Hisham, Al-Fiqh us-Sirah by Muhammad ibn Sa`id Ramadan Al-Buti.
This is what makes us able to understand revelation, the meanings of words, how it is understood and that our Lord speaks in history.
Why is Sirah Important?
Let us take for example the statement of Allah when He revealed,
)لَقَدْ صَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ ٱلرُّءْيَا بِٱلْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ ٱلْمَسْجِدَ ٱلْحَرَامَ إِن شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لاَ تَخَافُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُواْ فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَتْحاً قَرِيباً. (
Allah has fulfilled the vision for His Messenger in truth indeed. You will enter Al-Masjid ul-Haram, if Allah has willed, secure, having your hair shaved and cut, without fear. But He knows what you do not know. And He has given a near victory to you besides that.
When someone reads this ayah in its context, a question comes to mind: has this prophecy been fulfilled yet? If so, when was it fulfilled? And how was it fulfilled? It is only the study of revelation and the example of the sirah that will answer these and other questions.
This author is Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar ibn Jabbar, born in the year 85 in the city of Madinah from freed slaves brought by Khalid bin al-Walid. Ibn Ishaq began striving hard to collect sirah, historical reports, war history and all narrations related to the life of the Prophet.
As a student of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with him, Ibn Ishaq was blessed with the company of Anas ibn Malik, Sa`id ibn Al-Musayyib, Al-Qasim, Abban, Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Baqir, Abu Salamah, `Abdur-Rahman ibn Hurmuz, Nafi`, Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri, `Urwah ibn Az-Zubair and so many others that a separate research could be written on his scholarly lineage alone.
Imam Ibn Ishaq left us four books as a treasury of Islamic history, one of which is the Siratu Rasulillah, his second most well known work. There is no preserved text of this work except in Imam Ibn Hisham’s As-Sirat un-Nabawiyyah. Thus although the autographas are no longer with us, they have been preserved by Ibn Hisham, who was a student of one of the students of Ibn Ishaq. His most sought after work was Kitab ul-Maghazi, a detailed account of all the battles and military engagements made by or witnessed by the Prophet Muhammad.
There is another text, Kitab ul-Mabda’i wa Qasas il-Anbiya’, a historical account of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, from the Beginning of Creation and terminating at the time of the Migration of the Prophet.
Ibn Ishaq’s final work, Kitab ul-Khulafa’, is a history of the first khalifah after the Messenger of Allah up until the rulers contemporary to himself. It is a well known work, but only in manuscript form.
The students of Ibn Ishaq are no less than one hundred, including names like Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Ibn Juraij, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Yunus ibn Bukair, Ziyad ibn `Abdullah Al-Bakka’ii and a multiplicity of other highranking judges, historians, theologians, and the like.
This great personality finally died in the year 151 in the city of Baghdad and was buried next to Imam Abu Hanifah, may Allah be pleased with both of them.
He is the author of the work under study, namely `Abdul Malik ibn Hisham ibn Ayyub Al-Humairi Al-Ma`afiri Al-Basri.
He was born in the great city of Basrah in today’s Iraq, but we have no details of his exact day, month or year of birth. At a young age, he set out to Egypt to learn knowledge and to teach. He had already by this time been known as a scholar of genealogy, sirah, grammar and even authored works on these subjects that are still in manuscript form.
He narrated from teachers such as Ziyad ibn `Abdullah Al-Bakka’ii, Wahb ibn Munabbih and many others. He died in Fustat in the year 213.
 Surah TaHa (20), ayah 21
 Please see Imam Ibn al-Mandhur in Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.4, pp. 450-451
 Surat ul-Ahzab (33), ayah 21
 Collected by Imam Jalal ud-Din As-Suyuti in his Al-Jami` us-Saghir waz-Ziyadah, hadith #3341
 51 BH-13 (AD573-634). Scholar, teacher, preacher and the first ruler of the Muslim world after the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he was the khalifah (11-13 (AD632-634) for only two years before his succumbing to poisoning by a Jew.
 42BH-24 (AD581-644). Merchant, companion and ruler of the Muslim world, he was the second khalifah (13/4-24 (AD634-644) and brought in such inventions as street lights, hanging lamps and four month campaigns and pensions for soldiers. He was assassinated by a lone man while leading the Muslims in the daybreak prayer in the masjid.
 Collected by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan, Book of Tribulations under the chapter of the Mentioning of Basrah.
 AD 637
 AD 638/9
 d.63 (AD672). One of the great companions, he settled in Basrah and taught full time, many comparing him in knowledge to his most beloved contemporary Ibn `Abbas.
 23BH-55 (AD584-664). One of the ten promised the Paradise by name, he was the first cousin of `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf and was known as one of the earliest converts to Islam.
 d.18 (AD639). One of the first seven Muslims, he was an outstanding teacher in Basrah and one of the most influential scholars of fiqh and creed. He stands as a giant amongst all the Companions. He had emigrated to Ethiopia, then returned and went to Madinah and was declared the governor of Basrah after he helped commission and build it.
 19-93 (AD640-711). The jurist of Basrah, a scholar of such rank, some say he was greater than Imam al-Hasan al-Basri, he made hajj 40 times for the reward but also for the opportunity to meet more Companions and take knowledge from them. Ibn Zaid is reputed to have met 70 of the Badr fighters as well as `A’ishah, mother of the believers, may Allah be pleased with all of them. He learned further from `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas, `Abdullah ibn `Umar and others, who all praised his ability. Ibn `Abbas, when the Basrans used to debate with him or question him, would advise them to go back and ask Jabir ibn Zaid who would have the answer.
 33-110 (AD653-728). A great scholar even though he was deaf, he learned from companions such as Abu Hurairah, Anas ibn Malik and `Abdullah ibn `Umar. He was such an authority, that Companions sometimes referred to him due to his deep piety and love for the sunnah.
 d.100 (AD718). A scholar who memorised the Qur’an at the age of twelve, her brother Muhammad ibn Sirin and her father, Sirin, used to seek her advice on matters of creed, tafsir and recitation of the Book of Allah. She is considered one of ‘the three greatest scholars who were students of the Companions,’ living to the noble age of 90 years.
 d.110 (AD729). One of the great saints, a top student of `Ali ibn Abi Talib and a writer on many subjects, he was the first to confront the Mu`tazilah cult by refuting its founder, Wasil ibn `Ata. He was famed for his beautiful black head coverings and noble demeanour.
 96-187 (AD714-801). This great woman was a contemporary of Imam al-Hasan al-Basri, was a scholar of Ihsan, fiqh and other disciplines. It is from her that we know so much about the ways of teaching Ihsan utilised by women in the first three generations. We can see from her that in reality, female scholars of Ihsan had and have no tariqah as their state is more disposed to that than that of men.
 d.131 (AD753). A great scholar of the students of the Companions, he was a tireless campaigner in favour of righteousness.
 d. 59 AH (AD 680). One of the great scholars of Ihsan, he was given the responsibility by `Uthman of reciting and teaching the people from the standardised Arabic writing of the Qur’an sent to Basrah. Amir was one of the greatest reciters in the history of Islam but was humble to all those who met him.
 168-230 (AD784-865). Historian, traveller and celebrated author, he was one of the greatest scholars that Basrah produced in the field and is a major source of knowledge about the scholars, culture and practices of the first three generations.
 c.161 (AD777). The grandson of a hadith scholar, he was one of the teachers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the leading Basran authority on history in his time.
 d.58 (AD678). Mother of the believers and scholar par excellence, she was held as possessing half of all available knowledge on Islam, narrating 2,210 statements from the encyclopaedic knowledge on the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. There was no science she did not speak in and no area she did not have some expertise to rule on amongst men and women.
 3-50 (AD625-670). The first grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he was only the khalifah for six months before succumbing to poison put into his food by arch enemies. Even though he died in his forties, he passed numerous rulings and was famous for his patience and reserve. His grave still stands today in Madinah.
 4-61 (AD626-680). The second grandson of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, Al-Husain was fearless and a foremost scholar of hadith, creed and tafsir. He was martyred resisting oppression from tyrannical rule.
 24 BH-40 (AD600-661). He is the fourth khalifah and at times known as the ‘Lion of Allah,’ the ‘Qadi of the Ummah’ and numerous other titles. In the beginning, he desired to marry Fatimah but was so poor, he could not muster the courage. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, received revelation of this and revealed it, then the marriage was contracted. He was martyred while entering into his masjid. He is buried in Iraq.
 d.105 (AD723). He is the son of `Uthman ibn `Affan, the third khalifah.
 50 BH-36 (AD569-656). The third khalifah of the Muslims and the first to invent a unified postal system, he also made one unified script for the Qur’an, put a hard back case and cover on it and set in place the beginning of a vowelling system to enable non-Arabic speakers to read the text. He was martyred in his house while reading the Qur’an.
 77 BH-36 (AD596-656).One of the ten companions promised the Paradise by name, he was married to Asma bint Abi Bakr and his son `Abdullah was the first child of the Muslims to be born in Madinah after the emigration. He was martyred in Iraq and the place where he fell is named after him today.
 d.94 (AD714). A student of `A’ishah, teacher of Az-Zuhri and many others, he is known as ‘one of the seven great fiqh scholars of Madinah’ and one of the greatest of all time.
 d.59 (AD678). He is `Abdur-Rahman ibn Sakhr, one of the greatest hadith narrators and one of the most popular of companions (particularly those hailing from Yemen). He began as an orphan and quickly became one of the greatest hadith scholars of Islam.
 3 BH-66 (AD619-687). Lauded the world over as, ‘The Translator/Commentator of the Qur’an,’ he is the most famous source for Imam Ash-Shafi`ii’s fiqh and practice. Ibn `Abbas wrote books on tafsir, fiqh in different categories and was held in such esteem by the people of Madinah, they would often refuse rulings from any scholars coming from outside of Madinah due to him. His preaching to the Khawarij cult resulted in 5,000 of them coming back to Muslim Orthodoxy.
 9 BH-91 (AD612-712). Among the last of the companions to die, he was one of the early Muslims and used to learn numerous ahadith as a child simply by just being present. He witnessed some of the worst atrocities committed by tyrants against the Companions but was able to continue teaching in Basrah and made the city his permanent residence until his death. In AD2006, Shi`ah members attacked and defiled his grave.
 d.107 (AD725). Originally coming from a family of Jewish scholars, his father, Munabbih ibn Kamil, converted to Islam and brought the whole family with him. Wahb went on to be tutored by his brother Hammam, Abu Hurairah, Anas ibn Malik, `Abdullah ibn `Umar, Jabir ibn `Abdullah and others.
 d.132 (AD750). He is the brother of Wahb ibn Munabbih and a scholar of comparative religion and theology. He compiled tracts on fulfilled prophecies in Judaism by the coming of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
 d.32 (AD653). Former Rabbi (his name means, ‘Capstone of the Temple Priests’), student of the Companions and commentator on prophesy and eschatology, he helped with the excavation of the site of Masjid al-Aqsa and learned from prominent Companions such as `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, `Uthman ibn `Affan and other great scholars. Ka’b’s coming from a family of Rabbis and former priests (Hebr. Cohanim) gave him unique insight when he studied fulfilled prophecies and preached to other Jews.
 Eng. The Book of Wars
 Eng. Healing by Means of the States of the Chosen One
 476-544 (AD1083-1149). He is `Iyad ibn Musa ibn `Iyad ibn `Amr ibn Musa ibn `Iyad, one of the greatest scholars of Maliki fiqh and fought the Khawarij when they began destroying Spain and Portugal and killing Muslims. He became serious about his Islam at 43 and subsequently became a judge and leading preacher in the entire Iberian Peninsula. He was later poisoned by a Jew and died from the incident.
 Engl. The Enduring Gifts of Excellence from the Way of Muhammad.
 851-923 (AD1448-1517). He is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Al-Qutaybi, a great Shafi`ii scholar and considered one of the greatest latter-day authorities on the science of the sirah and history. He wrote commentaries on hadith collections, the sirah, fiqh works and was known for his humility and attention to detail.
 209-279 (AD824-892). He is Muhammad ibn `Isa ibn Surat ibn Musa ibn Ad-Dahhak At-Tirmidhi. Considered by Imam al-Bukhari to be his successor in hadith memorisation and knowledge, he wrote nine voluminous works on hadith and sirah. He is one of the most trustworthy narrators all around according to scholars from his age up until our very own today.
 Eng. The General Traits of Muhammad and the Specific Characteristics of the Chosen One
 Eng. The Prophetic Life
 Eng. Understanding the Sirah
 b.1348 (AD1929). He is Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan Al-Buti. One of the greatest scholars of this age, this ‘Jewel of the Kurds’ followed in his father’s footsteps by studying the religion since adolescence and became an expounder, a jurist and finally a judge. He teaches to this day at his seminary in Damascus, attended by thousands.
 Surat ul-Fath (48), ayah 27
 16-94 (AD637-715). A student of many companions, he particularly benefited from `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan and Abu Hurairah, whose daughter he married. He was an accepted Basran authority in creed, fiqh, tafsir and other sciences.
 d.108 (AD726) Al-Qasim was the grandson of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and together with Imams Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, `Urwah ibn Az-Zubair, Abu Bakr ibn `Abdur-Rahman, `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah ibn `Utbah ibn Mas`ud, Sulaiman ibn Yasar and Kharijah ibn Zaid ibn Thabit is classed as one of the seven greatest fiqh scholars of all time and one of the seven fuqaha’ of Madinah.
 57-114 (AD676-743). He is the great grandson of `Ali ibn Abi Talib. Widely considered one of the most knowledgeable in his time, Imam Al-Baqir was one of the two teachers of Imam Abu Hanifah, may Allah be pleased with both of them.
 122 (AD740) This is the son of `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf, a great teacher and historian.
 d.148 (AD765). He is Abu Bakr ibn Yazid Al-Asamm. He was known for his quiet manner and was taken by Imam Malik ibn Anas as a personal role model.
 d.117 (AD735). A freed slave and student of `Abdullah ibn `Umar, he was known for his piety, knowledge of the sunnah and wisdom.
 d.124 (AD742). He is Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn `Ubaidullah ibn ash-Shihab az-Zuhri. This Imam was a star pupil of Imams Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib and `Urwa ibn az-Zubair and was reputed to have memorised some 500,000 ahadith from this travels and studies.
 Eng. The Life of the Messenger of Allah
 Eng. The Book of Wars
 Eng. The Book of the Beginning of Things and the Stories of the Prophets
 Eng. The Book of the Successors of the Prophet
 d.161 (AD778). Theologian, judge and jurist, this scholar was sought by the authorities consistently, but always eluded them and rejected their offers and favours. He even refused to give them advice when they sought it as he knew how corrupt they were in reality. He was a close friend of Abu Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani and spent much time in Basrah.
 d.150 (AD767). Imam Ibn Juraij was known for his knowledge of hadith, sirah and many other subjects. He is counted by hadith scholars as reliable and is numbered among one of the greats.
 d.198 (AD814). One of the teachers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Imam Sufyan narrated from over 80 students of Companions and wrote several books on the topic of the sunnah and its application.
 d.199 (AD721). He was one of the great scholars of the time and noted for his piety and voluminous writing.
 d.183 (AD799). He was one of the teachers of Imam Ibn Hisham and a tireless scholar of hadith, sirah, fiqh, creed and ihsan. Imam Al-Bakka’ii was known for his charity, constant prayer and contemplation.
 80-150 (AD700-767). One of the greatest of students of the Companions and one of the greatest scholars of Kufah, he had 40 Qadis under his tutelage.