THE BEST FIQH TO DEAL WITH TODAY’S PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

الشيخ عبد الله النوري بالمكتب (المرجع الحنبلي)

ذهب الفقيهان الجليلان العلامة محمد أبو زهرة والعلامة مصطفى الزرقا إلى أن المذهب الحنبلي أوسع المذاهب وأقدرها على حل مشكلات العصر..

The two faqihs – the senior scholars, Muhammad Abu Zahrah (Hanafi) and Mustafa Az-Zarqa (Shafi`ii) – have both said that the Hanbali madhhab is the most flexible and able to deal with the problems and issues of the time.

As was said by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

DEATH OF SHAIKH `ABDUL WAHID KAAMIL ASH-SHANNAWI, FATHER OF THE SHAIKH, MUHAMMAD `ABDUL WAHID

جامع الأزهر

إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ..

To Allah we belong and to Him is the return.

تتقدم قناة مدرسة الحنابلة باسم شيخنا الدكتور مصطفى عليان الحنبلي بخالص العزاء للشيخ محمد عبدالواحد الحنبلي بوفاة والده الشيخ عبدالواحد كامل الشناوي ..

It has been announced by our Shaikh, Mustafa `Ulayyan Al-Hanbali – through the site Madrasah Al-Hanabilah – that the Shaikh, Muhammad `Abdul Wahid Al-Hanbali, has suffered the loss of his father, the Shaikh, `Abdul Wahid Kaamil Ash-Shannawi.

سائلين المولى عز وجل أن يتغمده بواسع رحمته وأن يحشره تحت لواء سيد المرسلين مع الذين أنعم الله عليهم من النبيين والصديقين والشهداء والصالحين وحسن أولئك رفيقا ..

We ask the Lordly Master, Might and Majestic, that he envelop him in His Encompassing Mercy and gather him under the banner of the Master of the Messengers with those Allah has shown favour to among the prophets, truthful ones, martyrs and pious ones. And how good is their company!

As mentioned by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

THE RANK OF THE IMAM, IBN AL-JAWZI

مرقد الإمام الكبير ابن الجوزي

أهمية العلماء

The Importance of the scholars

لما انتشر الرفض ببغداد كتب أحد الوزراء الى الخليفة العباسي: “إذا لم تقو يدي ابن الجوزي فلن يرتدع أهل البدع”.

When Shi`ah doctrine spread in Baghdad while Ibn Al-Jawzi[1] was in jail,[2] one of the ministers wrote a letter to the `Abbasid khalifah of the time with the following statement, “So for however long you don’t strengthen the hand of Ibn Al-Jawzi,[3] you will never be rid of the people of innovation”.[4]

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] 511-597 (AD1116-1202). He is Abul Faraj Jamal ud-Din `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah. Theologian, astronomer, jurist, renewer of the faith, he wrote more books than any other author in history. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.336-363.

[2] A grandson of our grandshaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (470-561), by the name of Rukn ud-Din, had used his influence to have him jailed. And today it is most of the imposters and vile sycophants that claim linkage to him while having nothing to do with his rich theological and literary history.

[3] The importance of the scholars can not be stressed enough, especially in regard to their temporal and spiritual authority. Those today who content themselves with debate, takfir competitions and cursing and reviling sessions, will never be around such people, much less have any hope of becoming one of them.

[4] As the Imam was one of the most important figures of his time and a successor to the knowledge of the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani, may Allah have mercy upon him, who laid waste to the underground movement of cults as well.

IMAM AHMAD IBN HANBAL AND THE BEST RECITATION OF THE QUR’AN

المصحف برواية قالون عن نافع

واختار الإمام أحمد قراءة نافع من رواية إسماعيل بن جعفر لأن إسماعيل قرأ على شيبة شيخ نافع ثم قراءة عاصم من رواية أبي بكر بن عياش لأنه قرأ على أبي عبد الرحمن السلمي وقرأ ابو عبد الرحمن السلمي على عثمان وعلى زيد بن ثابت وأبي بن كعب وابن مسعود

The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, has as his chosen position that the best recitation of the Qur’an is any of that from Nafi` from the narrative of Isma`il ibn Ja`far.[1] This is because Isma`il ibn Ja`far recited to Shaibah, the Shaikh of Nafi`. The next best after this is the recitation of `Asim from the narrative of Abu Bakr ibn `Ayyash as he recited upon Abu `Abdir-Rahman As-Sulami. And Abu `Abdir-Rahman As-Sulami recited to `Uthman, `Ali, Zaid ibn Thabit, Ubai ibn Ka`b and `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud.

وظاهر كلام أحمد: أنه أختارها من رواية أبي بكر بن عياش وهو أضبط من اخذ عنه مع علم وعمل وزهد. وقال له الميموني: أي القراءات تختار لي فأقرأ بها قال قراءة ابن العلاء لغة قريش والفصحاء من الصحابة

So the clear statement of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal is that he preferred the next best narrative of Abu Bakr ibn `Ayyash which is more clear and distinct than taking other than that with knowledge, action and zuhd. Al-Maimuni said to the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal one day, “Which of the recitations is the best for me to use?” He said, “The recitation of Ibn Al-`Ula’[2] as it is the language of the Quraish and the eloquent and clear in language from the Companions”.

كشاف القناع ج 1 ص 321-322

As cited from Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti in Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matan il-Iqna`, vol.1, pp.321-322


[1] This is through Warsh or Qalun, in that order.

[2] This is one of the transmitters of Qalun.

WITNESSES FOR TALAQ AND RECONCILIATION

Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d.1051), may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “It is the sunnah to have witnesses for reconciliation and talaq but it is not a condition for it as it is not in need of acceptance for a case and nor is there any need for witness. In the same way, reconciliation does not require a wali, mahr, the happiness of the wife or her knowledge”.[1]

Imam Ibn Qa’id An-Najdi (d.1098), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the reconciliation and the talaq, “Taking witnesses for either is indeed the sunnah but not a condition for validity”.[2]

Imam `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Abdullah Al-Ba`li (d.1192), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated, “So having witnesses is a sunnah for reconciliation and talaq in an encompassing fashion although it’s not a condition for either”.[3]

Imam Ibn `Awad Al-Mardawi (d.1298), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the reconciliation and the talaq, “Taking witnesses for either is indeed the sunnah but not a condition for validity”.[4]

Imam Ibrahim ibn Duwayyan (d.1353), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked, “The Companion, `Imran ibn Husain was asked about the man who made talaq upon his wife and then came to her afterward without any witness for the talaq or reconciliation. He remarked, ‘He made talaq without the sunnah, made reconciliation without the sunnah. Let him take witness for the talaq and the reconciliation and not repeat the previous action again’. And this is collected by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan”.[5]

The Faqih, Shaikh Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji, may Allah preserve him, said, “Reconciliation and talaq is without witnesses as a condition although it is a sunnah to do so”.[6]


[1] Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi bi Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, vol.1, pp.601-602

[2] Hidayat ur-Raghib, vol.3, pp.246-247

[3] Kashf ul-Mukhaddarat, pp.652-653

[4] Fath Mawl al-Mawahib, vol.3, pp.246-247

[5] Manar us-Sabil bi-Sharh id-Dalil, vol.2, pp.586-587

[6] Zad ul-Mubtadi, pp.39-40

GROUND RULES AND PRINCIPLES: AN EXPOSITION

if you can’t implement your Usul, you will have no qawa`id and if you can’t do that, your fiqh is dead.

القواعد الفقهية: (من كتابي: أصول الفقه على مذهب إمام أهل الحديث والأثر)

The Ground Rules of Fiqh as explained from my book Usul ul-Fiqh according to the madhhab of the Imam of Ahl ul-Hadith and Al-Athar

هي قواعد تشبه الأدلة وليست بأدلة لكن ثبت مضمونها بالدليل، وصارت يُقضَى بها في جزئياتها كأنها دليلٌ على ذلك الجزئي، فلما كانت كذلك ناسب أن نذكر هنا شيئا من مهمات مذهب أحمد وأصحابه التي صارت مشهورةً بين الأصحابِ، وهي في الحقيقة راجعةٌ إلى قواعدِ أصول الفقه، فنذكرها ونشير إلى ما يرجع كل منها إليه من قواعد أصول الفقه باختصار.

These fiqh rules are similar to evidences while they are not evidences; but instead they have been established by the said evidence as a marker. Thus they are used in particular matters to establish things as if there was a particular evidence on the said matter. When the matter is understood in that way, we can then mention at this juncture that one of the most important things that is known of the madhhab of Imam Ahmad and his Companions which is popularly known is that the foundational principles (Ar. usul) have ground rules (Ar. qawa`id) working under them.

وقد ذكر العلامة ابن رجب قواعد جليلة عظيمة لكنها في الفقه.

The senior scholar, Ibn Rajab (d.795), mentioned noble and immense ground rules but they were with respect to fiqh.

وبعده تلميذه القاضي علاء الدين ابن اللحام البعلي، ذكر قواعد في أصول الفقه، كل منهما أتى بأشياء كثيرة حسنة جدا نافعة لطالب العلم.

After him came his student, Al-Qadi `Ala’ ud-Din Ibn Al-Lihham (d.803) and he mentioned the ground rules in Usul ul-Fiqh, each of them brought many good things indeed that were useful to the student of knowledge.

وكذلك الشيخ تقي الدين ذكر قواعد كثيرة في المذهب، وكذلك ابن القيم وغيره.

And likewise in the same vein, the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (661-728) mentioned many ground rules in the madhhab and so did Ibn ul-Qayyim (d.751) and others besides.

إذ يجبُ على كل من أراد إحكامَ علم أن يضبط قواعدَه ليردَّ إليها ما ينتشرُ من الفروع، ثم يؤكدُّ ذلك بالاستكثار من حفظ الفروع ليرسخَ في الذهن؛ فيتميز على نظرائه بحفظ ذلك واستحضاره.

So it is necessary on whoever wants to look into rulings to know the point about ground rules so as to return to them and take them out from the branch points of fiqh. Then that is given rise to through the memorisation of branch issues so as to be well grounded in the mind and one will be distinguished from his equals in his time through memorising that and paying careful attention to that.[1]

واعلم أن قواعد مذهب الإمام أحمد وأصحابه كثيرة جدا لا تنحصر، كما تقدم ذكر بعضها عن ابن رجب وغيره، وكذلك جميع المذاهب الأربعة لكل أصحاب مذهب قواعد كثيرة جليلة عظيمة.

You should know that the ground rules of the madhhab of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and his Companions are many indeed that have not been elucidated here. Some of them were mentioned and discussed in detail by Imam Ibn Rajab and others besides. And likewise all of the Four Schools for each of their companions of the perspective madhhab possess many noble and weighty ground rules.[2]

تنبيه: رد بعض العلماء الفقه كله إلى أربع قواعد، وهي: اليقين لا يزال بالشك، والضرر يزال، والمشقة تجلب التيسير، والعادة محكمة. ورد العز ابن عبد السلام الفقه كله إلى اعتبار المصالح ودرء المفاسد.

Important point: some of the scholars in fiqh return to four ground rules: (1) certainty is not lifted by doubt, (2) safeguarding from harm and its reciprocal effects, (3) difficulty can be offset for the sake of ease and (4) custom can be used as a decisive marker for shaping a given locale. Al-`Izz ibn `Abdus-Salaam (d.661) returned all fiqh to the expression of facilitation and closing the doors to matters of corruption.

قال المرداوي: ” وكل هذا تعسف، وفيه إجمالٌ شديدٌ، بل القواعد تزيدُ على المائتين، كما ذكر بعضها ابن اللحام من أصحابنا وغيره. وذكر التاج السبكي قواعد كثيرة جدا أجاد فيها وأفاد”.

Imam Al-Mardawi (d.885), may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “All of this is hastiness while there is much generality being made about the affair. The fact of the matter is that the ground rules are more than 200 as was mentioned by Ibn Al-Lihham from our Companions and others. At-Taj As-Subki has mentioned many ground rules indeed and the statement he made was useful and beneficial”.

فائدة: قال الإمام أحمد: أصول الإسلام ثلاثة أحاديث:

Beneficial point: The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, said: The Principles of Islam revolve on three ahadith:

” الأعمال بالنيات ” و ” الحلال بين والحرام بين ” و ” من أحدث في أمرنا هذا ما ليس منه فهو رد “.

“Actions are by intentions”, “The permissible is clear and the impermissible is clear” and “Whoever introduced some matter into this affair of ours that is not from it shall find that matter rejected”.

وأضاف تلميذه أبو داود :  ” من حسن إسلام المرء تركه ما لا يعنيه ” و ” لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يرضى لأخيه ما يرضى لنفسه “.

Imam Abu Dawud As-Sijistani (d.275), may Allah have mercy upon him, also added, “From the best of someone’s Islam is that he abandons that which does not concern him” as well as “No one of you believes until he is pleased with his brother what he is pleased with for himself”.

وذكرنا هنا بعض قواعد تشتمل على مسائل مهمة، وهي متسعة جدا.

So we have mentioned here some of the ground rules that are general for important matters and the matter can be quite vast indeed.

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] And this partially explains why the School of Imam Ahmad, which has eight usul, has many qawa`id, which thus leads to flexibility, creativity and the like. This is how the Gulf region (Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, UAE) has almost left behind its counterparts in medicine, technology, trade and commerce when the nations neighbouring it had the same amount of time (some of them even having a head start). It is also useful that this large region was not under colonialism and was thus able to maintain its schools and other apparatus being open throughout that long period. Border disputes, medicine, social issues and the like are all used by referring to the mother books and its numerous ground rules to put things in perspective. And this is how a living, active school makes headway and continues on. One need only look at the print marks and dates on books (with regard to commercial law, judicial punishments and the like) to know the relevance of a school.

[2] This is indeed true but there is only one School that explicitly dispatches Mujahidin throughout the world, erects and debases masjids, mints money, controls its endowments, has courts where people will be punished judicially and can shape/change/modify society based upon its rulings and judgements.