FASTING ON 29TH SHA`BAN – THE DAY OF DOUBT

An example of what could be a Day of Doubt

وقال في كشاف القناع ٢ / ٣٣٥

Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti,[1] may Allah have mercy upon him, mentioned in Unveiling the Sufficiency,[2]

(ويكره صوم يوم الشك تطوعا) لقول عمار: من صام اليوم الذي يشك فيه فقد عصى أبا القاسم (ص)، رواه أبو داود والترمذي وصححه، وهو للبخاري تعليقا. (ويصح) صوم يوم الشك (أو) أي ويكره صوم يوم الشك (بنية الرمضانية احتياطا)، ولا يجزئ إن ظهر منه. كما تقدم.

It is makruh[3]  to make an optional sawm on the day of doubt based upon the statement of `Ammar, “Whoever made sawm on the day in which there is some doubt in it, such a one has disobeyed Abul Qasim”.[4] And this was collected by Imams Abu Dawud[5] and At-Tirmidhi,[6] who also declared the statement sahih. This is also cited by Imam Al-Bukhari[7] in his Sahih as a marginal note. It is indeed valid to make sawm on the day of doubt or sawm on the day of doubt with the niyyah that it is for Ramadan out of safeguarding when the horizon is not clear. It is not permitted to do this when the affair is manifest and there is no day of doubt. And this was previously discussed.

(وهو) أي يوم الشك (يوم الثلاثين من شعبان، إن لم يكن في السماء) في مطلع الهلال (علة) من غيم أو قتر ونحوهما، (ولم ير الهلال، أو شهد به من ردت شهادته) لفسق ونحوه. (إلا أن يوافق) يوم الشك (عادة)، كمن عادته يصوم يوم الخميس والاثنين، فوافق يوم الشك أحدهما، فلا كراهة.

The “day of doubt” makes reference to the 29th going into 30th Sha`ban when the crescent moon is not clearly on the horizon in the sky and this may be due to cloudiness, some disturbance on the horizon or the sky. So in the event that he did not see the crescent moon or the one who claimed to have seen it has his witness rejected due to rebellious sin and the like, then it would be disliked to do this act. The exception to this rule would be if someone had a fast that coincided with the day of doubt. An example would be if someone made sawm on Thursday and Monday and that one of the days happened to coincide with the day of doubt, then there is no makruh ruling to be had on this affair.

أو عادته يصوم يوما ويفطر آخر. فوافق صومه ذلك فلا كراهة. (أو يصله) أي يوم الشك (بصيام قبله) لقوله (ص): لا تقدموا رمضان بصوم يوم أو يومين، إلا رجلا كان يصوم صوما فليصمه متفق عليه من حديث أبي هريرة. (أو يصومه) أي يوم الشك (عن قضاء أو نذر) أو كفارة فلا..

Another example is if someone had a regular habit of making sawm on one day and not another and that habit coincided with the day of doubt, then there is no makruh ruling in that affair either. The same thing applies if one carried out a sawm before the day of doubt. This is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Do not preceded the month of Ramadan with a sawm by one day or two days except in the case of someone who had a regular sawm that he did. In that case, let him complete that sawm”. And this hadith is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari[8] and Muslim[9] from the narrative of Abu Hurairah.[10] And if someone made sawm on the day of doubt due to making up a previous sawm or one based on a vow or expiation, then there is no makruh ruling.[11]


[1] d.1051 (AD1656). He is Abus-Sa`adat Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Buhuti. Egyptian marja` and one of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School in the later age, he studied with premier scholars of Sham, such as Imams Yahya Al-Hajjawi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. The Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d.1079 (AD1674), when he learned that Al-Buhuti had penned his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, burned his own text and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp.472-474

[2] Ar.Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `An Matn il-Iqna`

[3] Ar. makruh. Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “So the disliked is the opposite of the praiseworthy. The praiseworthy is that which has been commanded – according to the Revealed Law – but not in an emphatic sense to necessitate it being compulsory. That which is disliked has been forbidden but not emphatically so to necessitate it being impermissible. So the one who so abandons this deed receives praise while the committer of the action is not receiving censure”. cf.Al-Madkhal, pp.153-155

[4] This is the kunyah of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

[5] 210-275 (AD824-889). He is Abu Dawud Sulaiman ibn Ash`ath As-Sijistani. One of the great Imams of Hadith and one of the main scholars of the school after the Imam, his As-Sunan is one of the most important books of hadith for its authenticity, brevity and discussion on the transmitters. Please see the oldest collected biography on Abu Dawud: Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.153-155

[6] 209-279 (AD823-893). He is Abu `Isa Muhammad ibn `Isa ibn Sawrah ibn Musa As-Sulami At-Tirmidhi. The blind memoriser and preacher, he was the successor of his teacher, Imam Muhammad Ibn Isma`il Al-Bukhari in Hadith, his book Jami` us-Sunan was considered by Imam Abu Isma`il Al-Ansari as superior to the two Sahih books of Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Please see Adh-Dhahabi’s Tarajim, pp.152-156  

[7] 195-256 (AD809-870). He is Muhammad ibn Isma`il ibn Ibrahim ibn Al-Mughirah Al-Bukhari. Major Imam in Hadith, he was in later life tested with the accusation of believing the Qur’an to be created. He would go to his Imam and state his entire theology as proof of the opposite and be buried next to him in the cemetery of Hanbali scholars. Regarding the fiqh scholars of the madhhab, he said of them: “I heard some of my companions in the school saying, ‘When he discussed his birth, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: My mother was pregnant with me when she moved from the city of Marw to the city of Baghdad’.” 

Please see the oldest collected biography of Al-Bukhari: Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn Muhammad’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.254-259; Salih Al-Baghdadi’s (the eldest son of Imam Ahmad) Sirat ul-Imam, pp.24-26; Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal, pp.4-5

[8] 195-256 (AD809-870). He is Muhammad ibn Isma`il ibn Ibrahim ibn Al-Mughirah Al-Bukhari. Major Imam in Hadith, he was in later life tested with the accusation of believing the Qur’an to be created. He would go to his Imam and state his entire theology as proof of the opposite and be buried next to him in the cemetery of Hanbali scholars. Regarding the fiqh scholars of the madhhab, he said of them: “I heard some of my companions in the school saying, ‘When he discussed his birth, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: My mother was pregnant with me when she moved from the city of Marw to the city of Baghdad’.” 

Please see the oldest collected biography of Al-Bukhari: Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn Muhammad’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.254-259; Salih Al-Baghdadi’s (the eldest son of Imam Ahmad) Sirat ul-Imam, pp.24-26; Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal, pp.4-5

[9]  d.261 (AD875). He is Muslim ibn Muslim ibn Al-Hajjaj Al-Qushairi An-Naisaburi. One of the premier students of Imam Ahmad and a source for his madhhab, he authored his text Al-Jami` us-Sahih text that became the second most popular hadith book after his death. Please see the oldest collected biography of Muslim: Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn Muhammad’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.311-314

[10] d.59 (AD681). He is `Abdur-Rahman ibn Sakhr but also cited by Imam Al-Bukhari as `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Amr. Coming from Yemen, his name had originally been `Abdu Shams, due to the devotion of the nation to sun worship. He narrated 5,374 hadith to his students from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.  After a long life in teaching, he died in Al-Madinah at 78 years of age. cf.Al-Maqdisi’s Al-Kamal, vol.2, pp.43-47

[11] Kash-shaf ul-Qina`, vol.2, pp.334-335

BIOGRAPHY OF THE SENIOR SCHOLAR, `ABDULLAH AL-KHALAF AD-DAHAYYAN

The authority of Al-Kuwait, the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan (1292-1349)

He is the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan Al-Harbi Al-Hanbali

Birth and upbringing

Ad-Dahayyan (sometimes read as Ad-Dahyaan) was born in Al-Kuwait in on 28 Shawwal 1292, his father being an imam, khatib and Qur’an teacher in the city of Al-Majma`ah in Najd. The father moved from the Najd to Kuwait in the year 1285 after which time the marja` and his son was born.

Shaikh `Abdullah learned Qur’an with his father and also learned the beginnings of reading, writing and math[1] and this made learning something beloved to him. After reaching a certain point, his father sent him to learn fiqh from the Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdullah Al-Faris, whom he accompanied and learned detailed matters of fiqh and Arabic.

Journey for `ilm

After this, in the year 1310, the Shaikh made his way to Az-Zubair[2] in Iraq to learn from the qualified scholars there, particular the Hanbali scholars. So while there he read to the following in fiqh:

The Shaikh, Salih ibn Hamad Al-Mabayyid

The Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn `Abdur-Rahman Al-Hamud

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdullah Ala `Iwajan[3]

The Shaikh, `Abdullah Ad-Dahayyan was well known for his intelligence and quick take up of knowledge and he was loved by his shaikhs and teachers. They were surprised by his quickness and what they saw him do.

Ad-Dahayyan also showed great traits of truthfulness, sincerity, humility, good etiquettes, great morals and calm demeanour. After more than two years, the Shaikh, `Abdullah Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan returned to Al-Kuwait and received more authorisations in the Noble Qur’an, Hanbali fiqh, the six books of hadith and the books of Ahkam. The did this from some of the premier scholars of his time, which included:

The senior scholar of Najd, the Shaikh, Ibrahim ibn Salih ibn `Isa (d.1343)

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdul Karim Ash-Shibl Al-Qassimi (d.1343)

In the year 1323, the Shaikh travelled to fulfill the obligation of Hajj and was able to go along with a caravan of many scholars, taking authorisations from them and also teaching others and giving authorisations. He spoke to them and they spoke to him. And it would be here while on Hajj that he would receive his marja`iyyah.

After he completed his Hajj, he travelled by sea to India, then to Musqat in Oman and then returned to Al-Kuwait and with the knowledge he had gained begun to put himself to the service of his people.

Being a humble man, he often conferred with different scholars to discuss matters and these are preserved in books. Those who corresponded with include:

The Shaikh, the senior scholar, Ibrahim ibn Salih ibn `Isa

The Shaikh, the senior scholar, `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran (d.1346)

The Shaikh, Muhammad Al-Amin Ash-Shanqiti

The Shaikh, Mahmud Shukri Al-Alusi

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn Mani` and others, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

The Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan then had turned over to him the post of imam and khatib at the Central Masjid established by Nasir ibn Yusuf Al-Badr. Many people came from all around the area, not just Al-Kuwait, in order to hear the Shaikh’s khutbahs and lessons.

He had to be forced into a position (as he did not want it) to act as sentencing qadi which he reluctantly accepted after the death of the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalid Al-`Adasani (d.1348). When he relented, he went forward to look after the people’s affairs and refused any wage or gifts given by people for the work that he did. He even refused admin fees for printing documents and the like.

His gatherings and students

Every morning the Shaikh, may Allah have mercy upon him, would read from Tafsir ul-Qur’an il-`Azim by Imam Ibn Kathir (d.774) and then he would read Imam Al-Bukhari’s Al-Jami` us-Sahih along with Imam Ibn Hajar’s (d.852) Fath ul-Bari.

In between the salahs of Maghrib and `Isha’, he would read in other sciences and branch fields of study. Whenever he completed a text, he would move on to the next one. He had a high level of insight into the books of Hanbali fiqh and taught regularly from the books of the latter-day Hanbali scholars.

Students of knowledge flocked to attend the gatherings of the Shaikh whenever he was there and many of the virtuous ones of Al-Kuwait were there. Some of the students of Ad-Dahayyan include:

The Shaikh, Yusuf ibn `Isa Al-Qana`ii

The Shaikh, `Abdul-`Aziz Ar-Rashid

The Shaikh, Yusuf Al-Hamud

The Shaikh, Ahmad Al-Khamis

The Shaikh, `Abdul Wahhab Al-`Abdullah Al-Faaris

The Shaikh, `Abdur-Rahman Ad-Dusari

The Shaikh, `Abdullah An-Nuri

The Shaikh, `Abdul Wahhab Al-`Abdur-Rahman Al-Faaris

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn Sulaiman Al-Jarrah

The Shaikh, `Abdur-Rahman Al-`Ubaidan and others, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

His authored works

The works of the Shaikh do not fully demonstrate his knowledge as he was so busy looking after the people’s needs and affairs, he did not have time to put several books into print. In spite of this, he did leave behind a few works:

Al-Masa’il ul-Fiqhiyyah. This covers questions and answers from waters all the way to Hajj.

Diwan ul-Khutab il-Mimbariyyat il-`Asriyyah. This is a how to guide of giving khutbahs for people who are new.

Majalis Ramadan. This is a series of presentations on the virtues of Ramadan.

Mansak Saghir Fil-Hajj. A new Muslim’s guide to Hajj

Qasidah fi Rihlat il-Hajj. A poetic meter on Hajj and its virtues.

Risalah fi Du`a Khatam il-Qur’an. A selection of supplications for the one that has completed the Qur’an.

Al-Futuhat ur-Rabbaniyyah fil Majalis il-Wa`ziyyah. A series of admonitions to the Ummah about various topics, including neo-Platonist philosophy and the dangers of modernism, which he rightly linked to America.

And there were others besides this that were useful along with individual rulings he passed and these were hung up in the masjid or preserved in books.

The Shaikh, Ahmad Al-Khamis, nephew of the Shaikh

The rank of the Shaikh

The library of the Shaikh was quite extensive and he had some valuable books, especially manuscripts which were sent forth or bequeathed to him from Sham, Egypt, Baghdad, Al-Hijaz and Najd until it reached a sizeable amount.

After the death of the Shaikh, the library was given as inheritance to his nephew, Shaikh Ahmad Al-Khamis and then after that this vast body of manuscripts passed to the Kuwaiti Ministry of Endowments.

After this, it was then handed over to the Fiqh Enyclopaedia Library of Kuwait for preservation and publishing where it is now housed.

The praise the scholars have for him

The historian, `Abdul `Aziz Ar-Rashid, said of him, “The Shaikh, `Abdullah is one of the most noble of the scholars of Al-Kuwait and the most pious. So whenever harsh or rough people came to his gathering, he was patient and magnanimous with these affairs and trials in addition to being humble and generous”.

The student of the Shaikh, `Abdullah Al-Nuri, may Allah have mercy upon him, said of him, “Those that knew the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf, they knew that he was a man of piety and humble for Allah in and of Himself. He was of great rank in the eyes of the people and spent his days benefiting the people, acting as a mufti for them, worshipping Allah, going among the people as an assistant, visiting the ill, wishing them condolences in their difficult times, he had great love in the hearts of the people and exalting the laws of the Religion. He was never known to have laziness and waywardness, and neither was it mentioned of him that he wasted an hour of his time in frivolity and aimlessness”.

The senior scholar of Sham, the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran Al-Hanbali, may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the Shaikh, “The noble and virtuous senior scholar, the Shaikh of the Kuwaiti corridor and Najd, the Shaikh, `Abdullah Khalaf ibn Dahayyan, the scholar and virtuous teacher of those areas”.

The luminary of `Iraq, the Shaikh, Mahmud Shukri Al-Alusi said of the Shaikh, “He is noble scholar, the complete human being, the reminder of the First Three Generations when people saw him. He is the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf and Allah strengthened the Religion through him and made him a coolness of the eyes for the Muslims”.

His death

After spending a life filled with good and striving in which he served the people with knowledge, the Shaikh developed an illness that rendered him in a position in which he was bedridden until his death on 27 Ramadan 1349, having not gone past the age of 57 years. And may Allah have mercy upon the Shaikh with an enveloping mercy and be pleased with him and expand his goodness with all honour and generosity.[4]


[1] Notice that his parents taught him the beginning knowledge. It would be after that when the parents don’t know that they send him to someone else. In the English-speaking countries, so many know nothing and then send their children to learn and the children return home to desolate houses. This is light painting on the waves of the ocean with a paint brush.

[2] And it is a custom there that when someone has finished memorising the Zad and studying the commentary with comprehension, he then has a black `imamah wrapped around his head and he is commanded to teach.

[3] These three scholars were also the chief marja` people over the UAE and wrote a book of fiqh with countless fatawa on modern issues there as well as Iraq and the surrounding environs.

[4] Al-Masa’il ul-Fiqhiyyah, pp. 15-22

THE ATTRIBUTES OF “ARRIVING” AND “DESCENT”

The Imam, `Abdullah Khalaf Ad-Dahyaan (d.1349), one of the great marja` people of Kuwait’s Bedouins. He despised cults and Neo-Platonist philosophy.

[عقيدة الحنابلة في النزول والمجيء]

Doctrine of the Hanbalis on “Descent” and “Arrival”

الإثبات مع التفويض ونفي لوازم التجسيم كالحركة والزوال والتركيب والمكان وحرمة التأويل إلا في رواية صحيحة السند في تأويل المجيء

The position on this matter is affirmation of the Attributes while making tafwid – and negating what would necessarily mean likening Allah with the creation in matters such as movement, changing, moving parts and place – and considering it impermissible to interpret except when there is a sahih chain of transmission that validates interpretation on the topic of “coming”.

قال ابن الزاغوني في الإيضاح في أصول الدين: “المعمول به عند عامة المشايخ من أصحابنا في النزول والمجيء ونحوهما : التسليم للنقل كما ورد ودفع التشبيه لعدم الموجب ومنع التأويل لارتفاع النسبة ولا نلحقه بنزول الآدميين الذي هو زوال وانتقال” أبو الحسن ابن الزاغوني.

Imam Ibn Az-Zaghuni said in his work The Clarification in the Foundation Principles of the Religion: “The affair that is adopted by the overwhelming majority of the Shaikhs of our Companions on the topic of “descent,” “arrival” and such is (1) submission to the text as has been narrated, (2) negating any resemblance to the creation as this is not required from the words, (3) forbidding interpretation as it is a means to taking away the Attribute mentioned and (4) and we do not compare or put the Attribute alongside of the attributes of creation such as the descent of men with regard to moving and change of location”.

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

Dated 1 Sha`ban 1443

LATTER-DAY ELDERS DEPEND UPON THE FIRST THREE GENERATIONS FOR GUIDANCE

The Illumination of the Creed by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah

[الكتب العقدية المعتمدة عند متأخري السادة الحنابلة]

The Depended Upon Creed Books of the Latter-Day Elders of the Hanbali School

يقول العلامة عبد الله ابن صوفان القدومي -شيخ حنابلة فلسطين- -رحمه الله ونفعنا بعلومه-

The senior scholar, `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi [1] – Shaikh of the Hanbalis of Palestine – may Allah have mercy upon him and benefit us with his sciences, uttered the following:

:” اعلم رحمك الله تعالى أن أشهر عقائد علمائنا المتأخرين عقيدة العالم الرباني الشيخ بدر الدين الشهير بالبلباني ، اختصرها من نهاية المبتدئين في اصول الدين للامام ابن حمدان ، و يليها عقيدة العالم القائم بأمر الله المتبع لسنة رسول الله خاتمة السلف بقية الخلف الصالح مع الاجتهاد في كل كدح ناجح الشيخ عبدالباقي البعلي ثم الدمشقي مفتي السادات الحنابلة في الديار الشامية ، فعليهما أعتمد في النقل مع الضبط و الاتقان و عدم الزيادة و النقصان ” .

May Allah, Exalted be He, have mercy upon you! You should know that the most popular doctrinal texts of our latter day scholars include the text of doctrine written by the godly senior scholar, the Shaikh, Badr ud-Din Ibn Balban [2] – known as the Creed of Al-Balbani. He summarised it from Nihayat ul-Mubtadi’in fi Usul id-Din by Imam Ibn Hamdan. [3]  There follows on from that the doctrinal text [4] written by the scholar standing by the Command of Allah, the Follower of the Sunnah, Seal of the Early Generations, Remainder of the Latter-Day Pious Elders with the right to make ijtihad in all affairs. He is none other than the Shaikh, `Abdul Baqi Al-Ba`li Ad-Dimashqi. [5] He is the Mufti of the Hanbali elders in Sham. So let someone looking to study latter day books hold on to these in terms of what has been handed down, read them and memorise them [6] and complete them and not divert from them with any addition or subtraction.

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyah

Dated 17 Rajab 1443


[1] 1246-1331 (AD1829-1912). He is `Abdullah ibn `Awdah ibn `Abdullah Sufan ibn `Isa Al-Qaddumi An-Nabulsi. Reviver of the Religion in his time, originally coming from the Palestinian city of Nablus in the village of Kafr Qaddum, he studied with his father and then went to Damascus. He was a student not just of Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti but other major scholars as well. After living in Damascus, Al-Madinah, Makkah and Cairo for a number of years, he returned to his homeland and died not long after. He left behind a number of works on theology, fiqh, hadith and good character. Scholars from undivided India, Sham and other places, numbering some 500 came to him to learn. With this in mind, we need not join any group when our teachers are their fathers and teachers. Come home and leave your sects and aberrations. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp.213-215.

[2] d.1083 (AD1673) He is Shams ud-Din Abu `Abdillah Muhammad ibn Badr ud-Din ibn `Abdul Qadir ibn Muhammad Ibn Balban Al-Khazraji As-Salihi Al-Ba`li Al-Balbani. Arab on one side and Phoenician on one side of his family, this high ranking scholar wrote extensively in theology, fiqh and tajwid and left behind some ten or more books that are used today by students and scholars alike. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp.122-123

[3] d.695 (AD1296). He is Najm ud-Din Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hamdan ibn Shabib ibn Hamdan ibn Shabib ibn Hamdan Al-Harrani. Specialist in fiqh, Usul, he is author of some five works and later taught in Cairo. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.271-272.

[4] He is making reference to the immaculate book Riyad ul-Jannah Fi Ahl Aathari Ahl is-Sunnah as well as his other theological works.

[5] 1044-1126 (AD1649-1731). He is Abul Muwahibi Muhammad ibn Taqi ud-Din `Abdul Baqi ibn `Abdul Baqi ibn Abdul Qadir ibn `Abdul Baqi Al-Hanbali Al-Ba`li, Ad-Dimishqi, Mufti of Hanbalis in Damascus, who died at 83 years old. He is the successor of his father, who wrote more than five books in comparative creed and was a notable scholar of Hadith. This noble scholar learned the sciences of Islam and he, as well as all students after him, was part of the Khalwati Way, which focused on memorising all the supplications that one was to learn individually, and implementing them in daily life. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp.130-132

[6] And let the reader understand this point: Lum`at ul-I`tiqad is the base of these texts. The Nihayah is pretty much a commentary on the Lum`ah. The Najah is a summary of the Lum`ah. The Balbani is a summary of the Nihayah and the Riyad ul-Jannah is an expansion of the Lum`ah combined with notes of the Nihayah and more. Imam As-Saffarini (d.1189) took the Lum`ah, the Balbani, Nihayah and Najah and created the Lawami` ul-Anwar. And what is the Lum`ah built upon? It was summarised from all of Imam Ahmad’s 12 books on theology and made into a rhyming text. Anyone with any reservations about this theological tradition has doubts about the First Three Generations and this can be kufr. And may Allah protect us from latter day dependance that contradicts the First Three Generations and their eminence.  

WHICH IS MORE VIRTUOUS: MAKING SAWM THREE DAYS OUT OF EVERY LUNAR MONTH OR DOING SO ON MONDAYS AND THURSDAYS?

Mauritanian children taking in foot and drink while the adults prepare for Ramadan.

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته، يا شيخنا هذا أخوك في الله، أبو جعفر حسن الحنبلي

As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu, our Shaikh. This is your brother in Allah, Abu Ja`far Hasan Al-Hanbali.

قرأت في الروض المربع و الزوائد للشيخ محمد عبد الله أل حسين رحمه الله عن فضائل الصوم التطوع كأيام البيض والإثنين والخميس.هل يوجد في المذهب تفضيل أيهما، يعنى أيام البيض على الإثنين والخميس أو بالعكس؟

I have read in Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` [1] by the author [2] as well as Az-Zawa’id by the Shaikh, Muhammad `Abdullah Ala Hussain,[3] may Allah be pleased with him, regarding the virtues of making optional sawm, such as in the case of fasting the ‘white days’ (13th, 14th and 15th) and Mondays and Thursdays. Is there a position in the Hanbal Madhhab that gives a preference between the two, for example is it better to do sawm on the “white days” or on Mondays and Thursday or is it the opposite position? Which is it please?

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته اخي الكريم صيام التطوع كله فضائل وهو تقرب الى الله

Wa `Alaikum us-Salaamu wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu, noble brother. All optional sawm all possess virtues, and it is a means of nearness to Allah.

وان افضل الصيام هو صيام نبيينا داوود وكان رسولنا الكريم صل الله عليه وسلم يحث على صيام الايام البيض وهي ثلاثة ايام من كل شهر

Indeed the most virtuous sawm is that of our Prophet Dawud, peace be upon him, and our Noble Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, enjoined people to fast the “white days” which were three days out of each month.

ولم يثبت اي الايام فمنهم من قال اوله ومنهم اوسطه ومنهم اخره واكثر الاقوال تقول انها يوم 13 و 14 و15وكان صل الله عليه وسلم يصوم يوم الاثنين والخميس ولكن لم يثبت انه كان يصوم الاثنين والخميس بشكل دائم

And it is not established which of these “white days” are best. Among them are those who say the first of the month. Others say the middle of the month and still others say that the “white days” are at the end. And most of the statements on this topic centre on that it is the 13th, 14th and 15th. And the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did indeed used to fast Mondays and Thursdays but it is not established that he always did this act.[4]

وثبت عنه صل الله عليه وسلم انه كان يصوم الايام البيض دون انقطاع وافضلها وسط الشهر

In the case of the “white days”, it is established that he, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to make sawm on them without any disruption to it and the best way to fast the “white days” is in the middle of the month.[5]

As written by the Shaikh, `Abdullah Badran.

5 Sha`ban 1443


[1] cf.Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, vol.1, pp.303-305

[2] d.1051 (AD1656). He is Abus-Sa`adat Mansur ibn Yunus ibn Salah ud-Din ibn Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Buhuti. Egyptian marja` and one of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School in the later age, he studied with premier scholars of Sham, such as Imams Yahya Al-Hajjawi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. The Imam, Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d.1079 (AD1674), when he learned that Al-Buhuti had penned his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi`, burned his own text and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam. Please see Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp.472-474

[3] 1308-1381 (1890-1962). He is Abul-Khail Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Hussain ibn Salih ibn Hussain Al-`Unaizi. Hanbali scholar of high repute from the Najd, he learned from Imams and brothers, `Abdullah Ibn Salim and `Umar Ibn Salim and was made qadi in his lifetime. His crowning achievement was a book on Zad ul-Mustaqni`, in which he produced Cliffnotes, a commentary and notes on both in an interlinear edition. cf.Al-Musnid’s Az-Zawa’id, pp.7-9 by command of the High Court of Al-Qassim.  

[4] Which means that it is a sunnah but it is not masnun, which means that he did not enjoin it on the rest of the Ummah. There are some things that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, did that are unique to him while others were enjoined upon him and others. And what was enjoined upon him and others is masnun and is to be carried out.

[5] Thus in the School, the best is to fast the “white days” as the 13th, 14th and 15th of every lunar month and fasting three days out of every month is of a higher rank that fasting Mondays and Thursday. And this can be seen by looking at the hadith on the topic.

DOES `ILM UL-KALAM MAKE YOU DECEITFUL?

The last government appointed Shaikh ul-Azhar (if Allah wills) and ideologue, Ahmad At-Tayyib, embracing Pope Francis I (who the Latin Rite Catholic Church hold that he takes the place of the Second Person of the Trinity on Earth) but he allows false ideas to be spread about the creed of the First Three Generations

كتاب إضاءات على منهج الإمام أحمد في العقيدة والدعوة كتاب مختصر في أقل من ١٠٠ صفحة ومن تقريظ سبعة مشايخ من شيوخ الحنابلة… وقد أعجب به شيخنا إسماعيل بدران الدومي فقال عنه: وجدته جوهرة .. لذا قام بنسخه خمسين نسخة ووزعه على طلابه وخصص له درسا لدراسته..

The Book Clarification of the Methodology of Imam Ahmad in Creed and Propagation is a summarised work that spans less than 100 pages and there are seven signatories from the Shaikhs of the Hanbalis on it. Our Shaikh, Isma`il ibn Badran Ad-Dumi was very pleased with it and said of it, “I found it to be a precious work and a jewel on the topic”. And due to this he took some fifty copies, gifted them to his students and specifically made a dars about the contents therein.

وقد قرأه شيخنا الحبيب عمر بن حفيظ وأعجب به وأثنى عليه خيرا.

And it was read by our Shaikh, Al-Habib `Umar ibn Hafiz and he was pleased with it and heaped praise on it.[1]

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan on the date of Tuesday 15 Jumada Al-Akhirah 1443 at 9:19am


[1] This text came out in the year 1438, some five years ago. What this means is that the aforementioned would have read this work and referred to it in good terms. And yet Yemeni spokesmen for Islam in the West speak with two tongues: (1) in Arabic they have to acknowledge the point and accept this work but then (2) to the English-speaking audience they teach vile sectarianism, tashbih and tajsim accusations against others in addition to denying the meaning of the doctrine of Jihad and countless other things. To belabor the point, Spokesman for Islam in the West are frauds, they actually know the same thing that we have been saying and yet they teach as if they don’t know this affair and say the opposite. Both their students and these people lie and are confirmed as having done so. They fawn over and claim connection to Imam Al-Bouti (who had been to Duma and Arabia on occasions and advised them and himself not to let anyone create divisions between them (!) and yet none of what they are doing connects to what he has said or done.

What is particularly enraging is that they could smile in the face of Shaikh Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan and then turn around and attempt to incite people against this very theology in the English-speaking countries.

THE THEOLOGY OF THE FIRST THREE GENERATIONS HAS NO EQUAL pt.2: 41 IMAMS OVER 13 CENTURIES HAVE THEIR SAY

Masjid Bani Qudamah, Jamma`il, Palestine, dedicated to the theology of the First Three Generations. And this is the theology of most of the Ummah all through the ages. We call to all and sundry to stay on this way and if they are not, to immediately come to this way that ends all debates and arguments

[أئمة الحنابلة يفوضون الصفات السمعية ويعدونها من الصفات المتشابهة]

The Imams of the Hanbalis make tafwid of the Attributes and consider them to belong to the Mutashabihat [1]

قال الإمام أحمد بن حنبل (ت241هـ) :

The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d.241), may Allah be pleased with him, had the following mentioned of him:

)وأخبرني علي بن عيسى أن حنبلا حدثهم قال سألت أبا عبد الله عن الأحاديث التي تروى إن الله تبارك وتعالى ينزل كل ليلة إلى السمآء الدنيا وأن الله يرى وإن الله يضع قدمه وما أشبهه فقال أبو عبد الله نؤمن بها ونصدق بها ولا كيف ولا معنى ولا نرد منها شيئا ونعلم أن ما جاء به الرسول حق إذا كانت بأسانيد صحاح ولا نرد على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قوله ولا يوصف الله تعالى بأكثر مما وصف به نفسه أو وصفه به رسوله بلا حد ولا غاية {ليس كمثله شيء وهو السميع البصير} ولا يبلغ الواصفون صفته وصفاته منه ولا نتعدى القرآن والحديث فنقول كما قال ونصفه كما وصف نفسه ولا نتعدى ذلك نؤمن بالقرآن كله محكمه ومتشابهه ولا نزيل عنه صفة من صفاته لشناعة شنعت(

It was narrated to me by `Ali ibn `Isa that Hanbal ibn Ishaq narrated to them and said: I asked Abu `Abdillah [Ahmad ibn Hanbal] about the ahadith in which it is mentioned that Allah, Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest sky, that Allah shall be seen, that Allah shall place His Foot and similar statements. He responded by saying, “We believe in it, attest to it, without how and without meaning. We do not deny any of it; but we know that what the Messenger came with is true and we do not reject the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him.”

قال الإمام البربهاري (ت328هـ):

Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Barbahari (d.329), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

(وكل ما سمعت من الآثار شيئا مما لم يبلغه عقلك، نحو قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:

And all of what is you have heard from the narratives – which your intellect can not fathom – such as the statement of the Messenger of Allah,

«إِنَّ قُلُوبَ بَنِي آدَمَ كُلَّهَا بَيْنَ إِصْبُعَيْنِ مَنِ أَصَابِعِ الرَّحْمَنِ»

“The hearts of the Children of Adam are all between the Two Fingers of the Most Merciful”,[2] as well as his statement,

وقوله: «إن الله تبارك وتعالى ينزل إلى سماء الدنيا» … وأشباه هذه الأحاديث

“Allah, Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest sky” and similar things such as these ahadith, then in this case:

فعليك بالتسليم والتصديق والتفويض والرضى ولا تفسر شيئا من هذه بهواك فان الإيمان بها واجب فمن فسر شيئا من هذا بهواه او رده فهو جهمي(شرح السنة للبربهاري ص68

You must have submission, attestation, tafwid and pleasure in and not explain any of these things with your desire as indeed it is wajib to have Iman in it. So whoever explained something of it with his desire or he denied some portion of it, then he is from the Jahmiyyah.[3]

قال أبو بكر الآجري (ت360 ه):

[Imam Abu Bakr Al-Ajurri (d.360), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated the following:]

اعلموا وفقنا الله وإياكم للرشاد من القول والعمل أن أهل الحق يصفون الله عز وجل بما وصف به نفسه عز وجل وبما وصفه به رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم وبما وصفه به الصحابة رضي الله عنهم

You should know – may Allah give us and you success in the right and direct guidance for actions and deeds – that the People of Truth describe Allah, Mighty and Majestic according to how He described Himself, Mighty and Majestic, how His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, described Him, and how the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, described Him.

وهذا مذهب العلماء ممن اتبع ولم يبتدع ولا يقال فيه: كيف بل التسليم له والإيمان به

And this is the way of the scholars who imitated and did not innovate. One is not to say how about the matter. Rather one is to show complete submission to it and have Iman in it.[4]

قال أبو بكر أحمد بن إبراهيم الإسماعيلي (ت371 ه)

[Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Isma`ili (d.371), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared:]

وذلك ومن غير إعتقاد التجسيم في الله عز وجل ولا التحديد له ولكن يرونه جل وعز بأغينهم على ما يشاء بلا كيف.

And all of that of the Attributes is true. And that is without having a creed of likening Allah, Mighty and Majestic, giving limit, boundary or definition to Him; but the believers shall certainly see Him, Majestic and Mighty is He, with their eyes according to what He so wills without how.[5]

قال ابن بطة العكبري (ت380هـ) :

Imam Ibn Battah Al-`Ukbari (d.380), may Allah have mercy upon him, said:

)فكل هذه الأحاديث وما شاكلها تمر كما جاءت لا تعارض ولا تضرب لها الأمثال ولا يواضع فيها القول فقد رواها العلماء وتلقاها الأكابر منهم بالقبول لها وتركوا المسألة عن تفسيرها ورأوا أن العلم بها ترك الكلام في معانيها (الشرح والابانة(الابانة الصغرى) ش مكتبة الحجاز ص187

And all of these ahadith and similar to them we let them pass just as they came without argument with them, giving likeness to them, seeking to find fault in them with some word. As the scholars narrated them and the seniormost of them met these ahadith with acceptance, abandoned asking about its meaning and believed that knowledge of these is in abandoning discussing their meaning.[6]

الإمام ابو الفضل التميمي (ت410هـ) :

Imam Abul Fadl At-Tamimi (d.410), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:

)وسئل (أي الإمام أحمد) قبل موته بيوم عن أحاديث الصفات , فقال: تمر كما جاءت , ويؤمن بها إذا كانت بأسانيد صحاح , ولا يوصف الله بأكثر مما وصف به نفسه.. بلا حد ولا غاية ,

The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, was asked one day before his death about the Ahadith us-Sifat and he said, “We let them pass by just as they came, we believe in them when the transmissions are sahih, Allah is not described with more than what he described Himself with, without boundary and without limit.

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهْوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

There is none like Him while He is the All Hearing, the All Seeing.[7]

ومن تكلم في معناها ابتدع( عقيدة الإمام المبجل أحمد ص9

And whoever should speak about their meaning has committed innovation”.[8]

قال أبو علي الحسن بن أحمد بن عبد الله بن البناء

[Imam Abu `Ali Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdullah ibn Al-Banna’ (d.411), may Allah have mercy upon him, uttered the following:]

وهذه الصفة مع غيرها من الصفات الناطق بها الأخبار والآيات يجب الإيمان بهها والتصديق والقبول والتحقيق وإذا سئلت عن تفسيرها وتأويلها فقل لا علم لي بذلك ولا سمعت أحدًا من الأئمة فسرها بل أمّرها كما سمعها

So this Attribute, with all the other Attributes mentioned in the narratives and the ayat, are compulsory to have Iman in, testify to the truth of it, accept it and diligently adhere to it. And when you are asked about its interpretation or meaning, then say, ‘I have no knowledge of that, nor did I hear any of the Imams explain it. Rather the Imams passed them by just as they heard them’.[9]

[Imam `Abdul Wahid Al-Maqdisi (d.486), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared of the creed:][10]

وَرَوَيْنَا عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ قَالَ : كُنْتُ أَنَا وَأَبِي عَابِرَيْنِ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ، فَسَمِعَ قَاصًّا يَقُصُّ بِحَدِيثِ النُّزُولِ فَقَالَ :

There is benefit in our mentioning something from `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal[11] who said, “My father and I were staying in the masjid when we overhead someone relating the hadith of descent. When the person narrated it, he said,

إِذَا كَانَ لَيْلَةُ النِّصْفِ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ يَنْزِلُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى سَمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا

 ‘When the fifteenth night of Sha`ban has come, Allah, Mighty and Majestic, descends to the lowest sky’.

بِلَا زَوَالٍ وَلَا انْتِقَالٍ، وَلَا تَغَيُّرِ حَالٍ،

The one narrator of the hadith then added, ‘Without rising or changing state, location or affair.’

فَارْتَعَدَ أَبِي – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – وَاصْفَرَّ لَوْنُهُ، وَلَزِمَ يَدِي، وَأَمْسَكْتُهُ حَتَّى سَكَنَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : قِفْ بِنَا عَلَى هَذَا المتخوِّضِ،

“My father turned his face away in anger and disgust. His complexion became pale and he took hold of my hand and held it until he became calm. Then he said, ‘How can someone say this when speaking of Allah?’

فَلَمَّا حَاذَاهُ قَالَ : يَا هَذَا، رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَغْيَرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْكَ،

When he came forward, he said, ‘The Messenger of Allah had more jealousy and honour for His Lord, Mighty and Majestic, than you.

قُلْ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَانْصَرِفْ.

‘You should limit yourself to stating the matter just as the Messenger of Allah had done and leave it as such.’ My father went away from him shortly after”.

قَالَ حَنْبَلُ : قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ – يَعْنِي أَحْمَدَ بْنَ حَنْبَلٍ – : يَنْزِلُ اللَّهُ إِلَى سَمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا، قُلْتُ : نُزُولُـهُ بِعِلْمِهِ أَوْ بِمَاذَا؟

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s first cousin, Hanbal ibn Ishaq[12] said, “I mentioned the hadith, ‘Allah descends to the lowest heaven,’ to Abu `Abdullah-meaning Ahmad ibn Hanbal-then I said, ‘His Descent is with His Knowledge or what exactly?’

فَقَالَ لِي : اسْكُتْ عَنْ هَذَا، مَا لَكَ وَلِهَذَا، أَمْضِ الْحَدِيثَ عَلَى مَا رُوِيَ بِلَا كَيْفَ وَلَا حَدٍّ، عَلَى مَا جَاءَتْ بِهِ الْآثَارُ، وَبِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ الْكِتَابُ.

He replied, ‘Be silent about this matter. What is the matter with you? Leave the hadith how it has been narrated, without how, nor limit.  Hold firm to what has come in the laid-out narrations and the Book’. ”[13]

وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ رَاهَوَيْهِ : قَالَ لِي الْأَمِيرُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ طَاهِرٍ: يَا أَبَا يَعْقُوبَ، هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ الَّذِي تَرْوِيهِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ  

The Grand Imam, Abu Ya`qub Ishaq ibn Rahuwaih[14] said that the amir `Abdullah ibn Tahir[15] once asked him, “Abu Ya`qub, what does the ‘descend’ mean in this hadith which you have related from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, in which he said,

يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى سَمَاءٍ الدُّنْيَا

‘Our Lord descends every night to the lowest heaven’.

كَيْفَ يَنْزِلُ؟ قَالَ : قُلْتُ : أَعَزَّ اللَّهُ الْأَمِيرَ،

“So how does He descend?” Imam Abu Ya`qub responded, “May Allah strengthen the amir.

لَا يُقَالُ لِأَمْرِ الرَّبِّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَيْفَ، إِنَّمَا يَنْزِلُ بِلَا كَيْفَ

“When speaking of the Lord, Mighty and Majestic, ‘how’ does not enter into the conversation. He indeed descends without how. 

وَمَنْ قَالَ يَخْلُو الْعَرْشُ عِنْدَ النُّزُولِ أَوْ لَا يَخْلُو فَقَدْ أَتَى بِقَوْلٍ مُبْتَدَعٍ وَرَأْيٍ مُخْتَرَعٍ.

“If anyone should speak of the Throne as vacant or not vacant during the descent, this is the statement of the innovator and astray one going near to apostasy”.[16] 

أبو الخطاب الكلوذاني (ت510هـ) :

Imam Abul Khattab Al-Kalwadhani (d.510), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated:

قَالوا: فما معنى استواءه أَبِن لَنَا ؟ فَأجَبْتُهم: هَذا سُؤَال المُعْتَدِي منظومة الكلوذاني

“They say, ‘So what is the meaning of His Istiwa’? Clarify it to us?’ I answer them by saying: This is the question of the innovator that has transgressed the bounds”. [17]

قال الإمام ابن الحنبلي (ت536هـ) :

[Imam Ibn Al-Hanbali (d.536), may Allah have mercy upon him, elucidated the following:]

(وكذلك الإيمان واجب بمجمل الاحاديث التي رويت عن رسول الله واقرارها كما جاءت بلا كيف مثل حديث الاسراء حيث قال رَأَيْتُ رَبِّي فِي أَحْسَنِ صُورَةٍ

And likewise the Iman is wajib in the generality of the ahadith which were narrated from the Messenger of Allah, affirming them just as they came without how, such as the hadith of the Night Journey when he said, “I saw my Lord in the best form”.[18]

و«إِنَّ قُلُوبَ بَنِي آدَمَ كُلَّهَا بَيْنَ إِصْبُعَيْنِ مَنِ أَصَابِعِ الرَّحْمَنِ يُقَلِّبُهَا كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ»… وما أشبه هذه الاحاديث الصحاح كلها بغيرها كما جاءت بلا كيف لانها جاءت مقفلة ومفاتيحها مع رسول الله وروي عن امير المومنين علي بن ابي طالب أنه قال

Another example includes, “The hearts of the Children of Adam are all between the Two Fingers of the Most Merciful. He turns them how He so wills”.[19] This and what is like it of all the authentic ahadith is left just as they are without how as they have come sealed just as they are and their keys are with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. It was narrated from the Leader of the Believers, `Ali ibn Abi Talib who said,

(نهانا الله تعالى ذكره عن تفسير متشابه القران وعن تفسير بعض الاحاديث المروية عن رسول الله التي سبيلها كسبيل متشابه القران وامرنا بالايمان بُجملتها والامساك عن تفسيرها) الرسالة الواضحة في الرد على الاشاعرة 607

Allah, Exalted is His Mention, has forbade us from explaining the mutashabih of the Qur’an, explaining some of the ahadith narrated from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in which their pathway is like that of the mutashabih. We have been commanded to have Iman in them in general and be silent about their meaning. [20]

[Imam `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (d.561), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave the following remarks:]

كما قال سفيان بن عيينة رحمه الله كما وصف الله تعالى نفسه في كتابه فتفسيره قراءته لا تفسير له غيرها ولا نتكلف غير ذلك فإنه غيب لا مجال للعقل في إدراكه

And the discussion about the Attributes is just as Imam Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “It is just as Allah, Exalted be He, described Himself in His Book. So its commentary is its recitation and there is no commentary for it besides that”. So we are not responsible for anything besides that as the matter belongs to the unseen and there is no way for the intellect to reach that.[21]

قال الإمام ابن هبيرة (ت580هـ) ،

The Imam, Ibn Hubairah (d.580), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

 (تفكرت في أخبار الصفات، فرأيت الصحابة والتابعين سكتوا عن تفسيرها، مع قوة علمهم، فنظرت السبب في سكوتهم، فإذا هو قوة الهيبة للموصوف، ولأن تفسيرها لا يتأتى إلا بضرب الأمثال للّه، وقد قال عز وجل: “)

I reflected about the topic of the Akhbar of As-Sifat and I noticed that the Companions and Followers were silent about their meaning, even with the strength of their knowledge. So I looked at the cause of their silence and it was one of reverential fear of the One being described. And to give meaning to these and explain them does not come except by making likenesses to Allah. And He, Mighty and Majestic, has already said,

فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا لِلَّهِ الْأَمْثَالَ ۚ

And do not make likenesses for Allah.[22]

وقال) : لا يفسر على الحقيقة ولا على المجاز لأن حملها على الحقيقة تشبيه، وعلى المجاز بدعة (ذيل طبقات الحنابلة ح2 ص156

He also said in another place, “They are not explained as being upon the reality that we know nor metaphorical as saying they are the reality that we know is likening Him while saying they are metaphorical is indeed innovation”.[23]

قال الإمام ابن الجوزي في كلامه عن الصفات(ت597هـ) :

The Imam, Ibn Al-Jawzi (d.597) in his discussion about the Attributes said:

وانما الصواب قراءة الايات والاحاديث من غير تفسير ولا كلام تلبيس ابليس ص79

“The correct position is that reciting the Ayat and Ahadith on the topic is without commentary or discussion”.[24]

قال تقي الدين عبد الغني بن عبد الواحد المقدسي (ت600 ه)

[Imam Taqi ud-Din `Abdul Ghani ibn `Abdul Wahid Al-Maqdisi (d.600), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:]

فيجب الإيمان به، والتسليم له، وترك الإعتراض عليه، وإمراره من غير تكييف ولا تمثيل، ولا تأويل، ولا تنزيهه ينفي حقيقة النزول

So it is compulsory to have Iman in it, show submission to it, abandon seeking to reject it, passing it by without any how, likeness, interpretation or seeking to glorify Him by negating the existence of things such as the descent done by Him.[25]

قال شيخ الحنابلة الموفق ابن قدامة المقدسي (ت620هـ) :

The Shaikh of the Hanbalis, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (d.620), may Allah be pleased with him, remarked:

)وكل ما جاء في القرآن أو صح عن المصطفى عليه السلام من صفات الرحمن وجب الإيمان به، وتلقيه بالتسليم والقبول، وترك التعرض له بالرد والتأويل والتشبيه والتمثيل. وما أشكل من ذلك وجب إثباته لفظا وترك التعرض لمعناه ونرد علمه إلى قائله( {لمعة الاعتقاد ص6}

And all of what came in the Qur’an or is authentically narrated from the Chosen One, peace be upon him, is from the Attributes of the Merciful. It is compulsory to have Iman in it, meet it with submission and acceptance, leaving seeking to refute it, interpret it, liken it or give it semblance. And whatever is ambiguous of that, it is compulsory to establish and affirm the wording and leave seeking the meaning while returning the meaning of it to the One who said it.[26]

وقال :

The Imam also remarked:

( ومذهب السلف رحمة الله عليهم الإيمان بصفات الله تعالى وأسمائه التي وصف بها نفسه في آياته وتنزيله أو على لسان رسوله من غير زيادة عليها ولا نقص منها ولا تجاوز لها ولا تفسير ولا تأويل لها بما يخالف ظاهرها ولا تشبيه بصفات المخلوقين ولا سمات المحدثين بل أمروها كما جاءت وردوا علمها إلى قائلها ومعناها إلى المتكلم بها) {ذم التاويل ص11}

And the way of the First Three Generations, may Allah have mercy upon them, is to have Iman in the Attributes and Names of Allah, Exalted be He, which He has described Himself with in His Ayat or the Revelation in total or on the tongue of His Messenger without addition or subtraction from it. And one does not transgress them, give meaning to them or interpretation that opposes the text, likening them with the attributes of the creation or qualities of ephemeral things; on the contrary, one is to let them pass just as they came, return the knowledge of it to the One that said it and return the meaning of it to the One who spoke it.[27]

وقال

He said on another occasion:

( فمنهم من أمرها كما جاءت من غير تفسير ولا تأويل مع نفي التشبيه عنها وهو مذهب السلف) {ذم التاويل ص27}

And among them are those who let them pass by just as they came, with neither meaning nor interpretation while negating likeness with the creation from them. And this is the way of the First Three Generations.[28]

قال الإمام مجد الدين ابن تيمية (ت(652

The Imam, Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.652), may Allah have mercy upon him,

( أما الإتيان المنسوب إلى الله فلا يختلف قول أئمة السلف كمكحول والزهري. والأوزاعي وابن المبارك وسفيان الثوري والليث بن سعد ومالك بن أنس والشافعي وأحمد وأتباعهم أنه يمر كما جاء. وكذلك ما شاكل ذلك مما جاء في القرآن أو وردت به السنة كأحاديث النزول ونحوها. وهي طريقة السلامة ومنهج أهل السنة والجماعة  يؤمنون بظاهرها ويكلون علمها إلى الله ويعتقدون أن الله منزه عن سمات الحدث. على ذلك مضت الأئمة خلفا بعد سلف كما قال تعالى

As for as the expression “arrival” or “coming” being attributed to Allah, the statement of the Imams of the First Three Generations – like Mak-hul, Az-Zuhri, Al-Awza`ii, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Al-Laith ibn Sa`d, Malik ibn Anas, Ash-Shafi`ii, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and their followers – do not differ in that these statements are left to pass just as they came. And likewise what is ambiguous of what is in the Qur’an or narrated in the Sunnah – like in the case of the ahadith of descent and the like – the path of safety and methodology of Muslim Orthodoxy is to believe in the text, consign its meaning to Allah while having firm conviction that Allah is exalted and above semblance to the creation. And upon that have passed the very Imams of the latter-day generations that came after the First Three Generations. And this is just as the Exalted One said,

وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ

And no one knows its meaning but Allah. And those well-grounded in knowledge say, “We believe in it”.[29]

وقال ابن السائب في قوله

As-Sa’ib heard the ayah recited,

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ

Are they waiting that Allah should come to them in the clouds?[30]

هذا من المكتوم الذي لا يفسر مجموع الفتاوى لأبن تيمية ج16 ص409

As-Sa’ib said, “This is from the hidden knowledge which cannot be explained”.[31]

[Imam Yahya ibn Yusuf As-Sarsari (d.656), may Allah have mercy upon him, emphatically stated:]

أمرّ أحاديث الصفات كما أتت، على رغم غمر يعتدي ويشنع

Passing the Ahadith of Attributes by just as they have come is the fact, without transgressing the bounds, showing hostility but leaving the texts intact.[32]

قال الإمام عز الدين الرسعني الحنبلي (661هـ) :

Imam `Izz ud-Din Ar-Ras`ani Al-Hanbali (d.661), may Allah be pleased with him, expounded:

(وقاعدة مذهب امامنا في هذا الباب : اتباع السلف الصالح، فما تأولوه تأولناه وما سكتوا عنه سكتنا عنه مفوضين علمه إلى قائله منزهين الله عما لا يليق بجلاله) رموز الكنور في تفسير الكتاب العزيز ج8 ص241

The way of our Imam on this subject is to follow the pious First Three Generations. So whatever they interpreted, then we interpret it. And what they were silent from, we are silent from, consigning its meaning to the One who said it, declaring Allah free from anything that does not befit His Majesty.[33]

[Imam Abul Fadl `Abbas As-Saksaki (d.683), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:]

يوصف بما وصف به نفسه ووصفه رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم من غير تمثيل ولاتكييف على العرش استوى بلا كيف مباين لجميع خلقه ليس بممازج لهم ولا مختلط بهم

He is described by what He described Himself and His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, described Him without likeness or how and above the Throne without how, distinct from all His Creation. He is not mingled among them or mixed with them.[34]

قال الإمام ابن حمدان الحنبلي (ت695هـ) :

The Imam, Ibn Hamdan Al-Harrani (d.695), may Allah have mercy upon him, ruled:

(ونجزم بأنه سبحانه في السماء وأنه استوي على العرش بلا كيف بل علي ما يليق به في ذلك كله ولا نتأول ذلك ولا نفسره ولا نكيفه ولا نتوهمه ولا نكذبه بل نكل علمه إلى الله) ص31 نهائية المبتدئين في اصول الدين (ش مكتبة الرشد )

We categorically state that the Glorified One is above the sky and that He is above the Throne without how but according to His Majesty and as benefits him in that in totality. We do not interpret any of that, give meaning to it, how to it, assign considerations to it or deny it. Rather, we consign the meaning to Allah.[35]

قال الإمام البعلي الحنبلي (ت709هـ) :

The Imam Al-Ba`li Al-Hanbali (d.709), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked,

(والصحيح ان المتشابه ما ورد في صفات الله مما يجب الإيمان به ويتحرم التعرض لتأويله كقوله تعالى (الرحمن على العرش استوى)  (بل يداه مبسوطتان) (ويبقى وجه ربك) (تجري باعيننا) فهذا اتفق السلف على الاقرار به وامراراه على وجهه وترك تأويله … وفي الآية قرائن دالة على أن الله  تعالى  متفرد بعلم المتشابه وان الوقف الصحيح عند قوله (وما يعلم تاويله الا الله) لفظا ومعنى) تلخيص روضة الناظر ج1 ص123

“The authentic statement is that the mutashabih is what has been narrated regarding the Attributes of Allah – of that which is compulsory to have Iman in and absolutely impermissible to seek its meaning – like in the statement of the Exalted One, The Most Merciful is above the Throne, But His Two Hands are outspread, His Face shall remain forever more, it floated under Our Eyes. All of this was met with agreement by the First Three Generations in which one is to affirm it, pass it by just as it came, leave seeking the meaning. And in the ayah are many points of reference that show that Allah, Exalted be He, alone has knowledge of the mutashabih and this is the reason why there is a stop mark when he says, And none knows its meaning but Allah. This refers to knowing the meaning of the words and the meaning all together”.[36]

قال الإمام نجم الدين الطوفي (ت716هـ) في كلامه عن المتشابه :

The Imam, Najm ud-Din At-Tufi (d.716), may Allah have mercy upon him, made his statement on the mutashabihah statements:

( أو لظهور تشبيه في صفات الله تعالى،  كآيات الصفات وأخبارها نحو:

The ayat of the Sifat and their narratives, like,

وَيَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ

The Face of Your Lord will remain forever. [37]

لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ

The one who I created with My Two Hands[38]

بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ

But both His Hands are outspread.[39]

يد الله ملأى لا تغيضها النفقة، فيضع الجبار قدمه، فيظهر لهم في الصورة التي يعرفونها، خلق الله آدم على صورة الرحمن، ونحو ذلك، مما هو كثير في الكتاب والسنة ; لأن هذا اشتبه المراد منه على الناس ;  

Then there are the narratives, “The Hand of Allah is full and is never emptied from spending”,[40] “The Most Dominant shall put His Foot”,[41] “He shall come to them in a form that they shall know”,[42]  “Allah created Adam on the Form of the Most Merciful” [43] and similar matters that have been mentioned in the Book and Sunnah that have some resemblance in wording that then creates some doubt for the people.

فلذلك قال قوم بظاهره فجسموا وشبهوا، وفر قوم من التشبيه ; فتأولوا وحرفوا ; فعطلوا،

So it is due to that a group of people took the external form to be literal, fell into attributing a body to Him and likening Him to the creation. Then another people fled from likening Him to His Creation, so they interpreted, corrupted and fell into negation.

وتوسط قوم فسلموا وأمروه كما جاء، مع اعتقاد التنزيه ; فسلموا، وهم أهل السنة) شرح مختصر الروضة ج2 ص44

The middle path is those who submitted, passed the statements by just as they came while knowing that He is not in possession of any shortcomings or faults and they submit to the reports. These are Muslim Orthodoxy.[44]

قال الإمام شمس الدين ابن مفلح (ت773هـ) :

The Imam, Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih (d.773), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the Names and Attributes:

(المحكم: ما اتضح_معناه، فلم يحتج إلى بيان. والمتشابه عكسه؛ لاشتراك أو إجمال، قال جماعة من أصحابنا وغيرهم: وما ظاهره تشبيه، كصفات الله.) أصول الفقه لأبن مفلح ج1 ص316

The muhkam is a text in which its meaning is clear and does not require explanation or clarification for it. The mutashabih is the opposite of that as it shares similar words and general statements with other affairs. A group of our companions and others have said that taking it according to its outward form would be drawing a likeness, such as in the case of the Attributes of Allah.[45]

قال الحسن بن أحمد المقدسي (ت773هـ) :

Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad Al-Maqdisi (d.773), may Allah have mercy upon him, discussed the following point:

(فيه -اي :القران- الألفاظ المحكمة وهي المفسرة والمتشابهة عكسها وهو ما ورد في صفات الله عز وجل المنهي عن تأويله ويجب رد علمه لله كقوله تعالى (الرحمن على العرش استوى) و(بل يداه مبسوطتان)) التذكرة في اصول الفقه ص160 ش مكتبة الرشد

So in it – meaning the Qur’an – are decisive statements what are explained and clear and mutashabihah statements that are the opposite of that. The mutashabihah are what was related on the topic of the Attributes of Allah, Mighty and Majestic and are forbidden to interpret. And it is compulsory to return the meaning of those to Allah, such as his statement, The Most Merciful is above the Throne and But both His Hands are outspread.[46]

قال الإمام ابن عادل الحنبلي (ت775هـ) :

The Imam, Ibn `Adil Al-Hanbali (d.775), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

(وإذا ثبت هذا فنقول: إن قوله تعالى: {ثم استوى على العرش} من المتشابهات التي يجب تأويلها، وللعلماء هاهنا مذهبان.

When the affair is established, then we say that the statement of the Exalted One, He is above the Throne is from the mutashabihat which is compulsory to interpret while the scholars have two ways of discussion on the matter.

الأول: أن يقطع بكونه تعالى متعاليا عن المكان والجهة، ولا نخوض في تأويل الآية على التفصيل،  بل نفوض علمها إلى الله – تعالى – ونقول: الاستواء على العرش صفة لله – تعالى – بلا كيف يجب على الرجل الإيمان به، ونكل العلم فيه إلى الله – عز وجل …

The first position is that one decisively hold that the Exalted One is exalted from and not in need of place or direction. We do not discussion in the detailed meaning of the ayah but instead we consign the meaning of it to Allah, Exalted be He. And we say that the istiwa’ on the Throne is an Attribute of Allah, Exalted be He. It is without how and is compulsory for the man to have Iman in it and consign the meaning of it to Allah, Mighty and Majestic.

وروي عن سفيان الثوري، والأوزاعي، والليث بن سعد وسفيان بن عيينة، وعبد الله بن المبارك، وغيرهم من علماء السنة في هذه الآيات التي جاءت في الصفات المتشابهة، أن نوردها كما جاءت بلا كيف)   اللباب في علوم الكتاب ج9 ص151

So with regard to the ayat which are from the Mutashabihat Sifat, we narrate them just as they came to us without how. And this is the understanding narrated from Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Al-Awza`ii, Al-Laith ibn Sa`d, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, `Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak and others from Muslim Orthodoxy.[47]

ابن رجب (ت795هـ) :

Imam Ibn Rajab (d.795), may Allah be pleased with him, uttered:

 (والصواب ما عليه السلف الصالح من إمرار آيات الصفات وأحاديثها كما جاءت  من غير تفسير لها ولا تكييف ولا تمثيل: ولا يصح من أحد منهم خلاف ذلك البتة خصوصا الإمام أحمد ولا خوض في معانيها ولا ضرب مثل من الأمثال لها: وإن كان بعض من كان قريبا من زمن الإمام أحمد فيهم من فعل شيئا من ذلك اتباعا لطريقة مقاتل فلا يقتدى به في ذلك إنما الإقتداء بأئمة الإسلام كابن المبارك. ومالك. والثوري والأوزاعي. والشافعي. وأحمد. واسحق. وأبي عبيد. ونحوهم.) بيان فضل علم السلف على علم الخلف ص4

The correct statement is what the pious First Three Generations were upon, which is passing by the Ayat and Ahadith of the Attributes just as they came without explanation, how or likeness. And it is not valid from anyone among them to have any dispute in that, especially in the case of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. There is no debate regarding their meaning or likeness given. And even if one of them near to the time of Imam Ahmad did something regarding explaining them by following the way of Muqatil, such a one should not be followed in that. One is only to follow the Imams of Islam, such as Ibn Al-Mubarak, Malik ibn Anas, Ath-Thawri, Al-Awza`ii, Ash-Shafi`ii, Ahmad, Ishaq, Abu `Ubaid and others like them.[48]  

قال الإمام ابن اللحام الحنبلي (ت803هـ) :

The Imam, Ibn ul-Lihham Al-Hanbali (d.803), may Allah have mercy upon him, mentioned the following:

(مسألة فى القرآن المحكم والمتشابه وللعلماء فيها أقوال كثيرة

On the point of The Qur’an possessing the mutashabih and muhkamah ayat, the scholars have many statements on the matter.

والأظهر المحكم المتضح المعنى والمتشابه مقابله لاشتراك أو اجمال  أو ظهور تشبيه ولا يجوز أن يقال فى القرآن ما لا معنى له عند عامة العلماء وفيه ما لا يفهم معناه الا الله تعالى عند الجمهور ولا يعنى به غير ظاهره إلا بدليل) المختصر في اصول الفقه ص73

The most dominant affair is that the muhkamah is something that is clear in its meaning and manifest while the mutashabih is the opposite of that as the names are shared or the general affair and some apparent likeness. It is not permitted that something be said in the Qur’an that has no meaning mentioned by all the scholars or something in it in which its meaning is not understood by anyone except Allah, Exalted be He according to the vast majority. And one may not take the matter away from the text except with an evidence.[49]

قال الإمام المرداوي (ت885هـ) :

The Imam, `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d.885), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared:

( والمتشابه: مقابله،  وهو غير المتضح المعنى، فتشتبه بعض محتملاته ببعض، للاشتراك وعدم اتضاح معناه. فالاشتراك – مثلا – كالعين، والقرء، ونحوه من المشتركات …) ثم قال : (أو لظهور  تشبيه في صفات الله تعالى،  كآيات الصفات وأخبارها فاشتبه المراد منه على الناس، فلذلك قال قوم بظاهره فشبهوا وجسموا، وفر قوم من التشبيه فتأولوا وحرفوا فعطلوا، وتوسط قوم فسلموا فأمروه كما جاء مع اعتقاد التنزيه فسلموا، وهم أهل السنة وأئمة السلف الصالح.) التحبير شرح التحرير ج3 ص397

The mutashabihah the opposite of the muhkamah as it is not clear and has some likeness to other words in wording but the meaning of the other one is not clear. Examples of shared meeting include `ain, qar’ and similar things which have the same wording but different meanings. As far as the appearance of the Attributes of Allah, Exalted be He, like the Ayat and Akhbar of the Attributes that appear to have some likeness to the people as the words are spelled the same, it is due to that there are some people who took the outward form of the ayah, likened it and gave Him likeness and body. Then another group of people fled from likening, interpreted, corrupted the texts and stripped them of their attributes. Still another group of people were in the middle, submitted to it, passed them by as they came with the believe that He is pure of any shortcomings and they submit to that. And these are none other than Muslim Orthodoxy and the Imams of the First Three Generations.[50]

قال الإمام مجير الدين العليمي الحنبلي (ت928هـ) :

The Imam, Mujir ud-Din Al-`Ulaimi Al-Hanbali (d.928), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:

(والأولى في هذه الآية وفي ما شاكلها أن يؤمن الإنسان بها، ويمرها كما جاءت بلا كيف،  ويكل علمها إلى الله سبحانه، وهو مذهب أئمة السلف وعلماء السنة، قال سفيان بن عيينة: كل ما وصف الله تعالى به نفسه في كتابه، فتفسيره قراءته، والسكوت عنه،  ليس لأحد أن يفسره إلا الله ورسوله) وقال : ({على العرش استوى} استواء يليق بعظمته بلا كيف، وهذا من متشابه القرآن، نؤمن به ولا نتعرض لمعناه) فتح الرحمن في تفسير القرآن ج4 ص280

The most important thing about the ayah in question and what is similar to it is that the human being believe in it, pass it by just as it came without how, consign the meaning of it to Allah, Glorified be He, and this is the way of the Imams of the First Three Generations and the scholars of the Sunnah. Imam Sufyan ibn `Uyainah said, “All what Allah, Exalted be He, described Himself with in Book, its explanation is its recital and being silent regarding it. It is not for anyone to explain it except Allah and His Messenger”. He then said, “As for Him making istiwa’ above the Throne, it is an istiwa’ that befits His Grandeur without how and this is from the mutashabih of the Qur’an. We believe in hit and do not seek its meaning”.[51]

قال الإمام ابن النجار الحنبلي (تقي الدين) (ت972هـ) :

The Imam, Taqi ud-Din Ibn An-Najjar Al-Hanbali (d.972), may Allah be pleased with him, gave this point of reference:

(“وعكسه” أي عكس المحكم ” متشابه” وهو  ما لم يتضح معناه إما “لاشتراك” كالعين والقرء ونحوهما من المشتركات. أو “إجمال” وهو إطلاق اللفظ بدون بيان المراد منه. … أو ظهور تشبيه كصفات الله تعالى” أي كآيات الصفات وأخبارها. فاشتبه المراد منها على الناس. فلذلك قال قوم: #بظاهره فشبهوا وجسموا، وتأول قوم: فحرفوا وعطلوا. وتوسط قوم: فسلموا، وهم أهل السنة وأئمة السلف الصالح) مختصر التحرير في شرح الكوكب المنير ج2 ص141

The opposite of the decisive is the mutashabih and it is what does not have its meaning clearly given. And this is whether it shares a meaning with another word or two meanings within one word, like the words `ayn, qar’, general meanings without a clarification of which meaning is preferred or the apparent likeness like in the case of the Attributes of Allah, Exalted be He – such as in the case of the Ayat of the Attributes or the Akhbar of Sifat. The doubt or likeness intended belongs to the people (and not the texts). So it is due to this that one people speak with the apparent meaning of the text, liken Him and declare Him to have a body. Still another interpret, corrupt and then fall into negation of the Attributes. The middle path is to submit to what was given and the this is the way of Muslim Orthodoxy and the Imams of the First Three Generations.

قال الإمام مرعي الكرمي الحنبلي (ت1033هـ) :

The Imam, Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi Al-Hanbali (d.1033), may Allah have mercy upon him, discussed:

(إذا تقرر هذا فاعلم أن من  المتشابهات آيات الصفات التي التأويل فيها بعيد فلا تؤول  ولا تفسر وجمهور أهل السنة منهم السلف وأهل الحديث على الإيمان بها  وتفويض معناها المراد منها إلى الله تعالى  ولا نفسرها مع تنزيهنا له عن حقيقتها فقد روى الإمام اللالكائي الحافظ عن محمد بن الحسن قال اتفق الفقهاء كلهم من المشرق إلى المغرب على الإيمان بالصفات من غير تفسير ولا تشبيه) {اقاويل الثقات في آيات الصفات ص60}

So when you have affirmed this, then know that part of the mutashabih are the Ayat of Sifat in which interpretation of them is far-fetched and they should not be interpreted or explained. The vast majority of Muslim Orthodoxy – among them the First Three Generations and the People of Hadith – have Iman in them, consign their meaning and the intent of it to Allah, Exalted be He. We do not explain them under the guise of glorifying Him and then negating the meaning of them. The Imam, Al-Hafiz, Al-Lalaka’ii already narrated from Muhammad ibn Hasan who said: The fiqh scholars in totality – from the east to the west – have all agreed upon Iman in the Sifat without commentary or likeness.[52] 

قال الإمام السفاريني الحنبلي (ت1188هـ) :

Imam Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini (d.1188), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave this ruling:

( فمذهب السلف أنهم يصفون الله – تعالى – بما وصف به نفسه، وبما وصفه به رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – من غير تحريف ولا تكييف، وهو – سبحانه – ليس كمثله شيء لا في ذاته، ولا في صفاته، ولا في أفعاله، وكل ما أوجب نقصا أو حدوثا فالله – تعالى – منزه عنه حقيقة، فإنه – تعالى – مستحق الكمال الذي لا غاية فوقه، ومذهب السلف عدم الخوض في مثل هذا، والسكوت عنه،  وتفويض علمه إلى الله – تعالى) لوامع الانوار البهية ج1 ص97

So the madhhab of the First Three Generations is that they describe Allah, Exalted be He, as He described Himself and as the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, described Him. And this is without corruption, how while He, Glorified be He, there is no thing like Him in His Essence, Attributes and Actions. All of what would necessarily be a shortcoming or something created, then Allah, Exalted be He, is not in not of it and pure from it in reality. Indeed He, Exalted be He, is deserving of the perfection which has no limit or boundary above it. And the way of the First Three Generations is no debate in this affair, silence about it and making tafwid of its meaning to Allah, Exalted be He.[53]

قال الإمام محمد بن بدر الدين بن بلبان (ت1083 ه)

[Imam Muhammad ibn Badr ud-Din ibn Balban (d.1083), may Allah have mercy upon him, concluded:]

والمراد بمعرفته – جل وعلا وتقدس – معرفة وجوب وجود ذاته بصفات الكمال فيما لم يزل ولا يزال

So the intent of having direct knowledge of Him – Majestic, Mighty and Holy is He! – references knowing the necessary fact of the existence of His Essence with the complete and perfect Attributes that have been and shall always be.

لا معرفة حقيقة ذاته لإستحالة ذلك لأنها مخالفة لسائر الحقائق فلا يمكن معرفتها وتحصل المعرفة بالله تعالى وصفاته شرعًا،

One is not safeguarded with having direct knowledge of His Essence as that is impossible on account of the reality of His Essence being different to all other realities and thus it is impossible to know it. Direct knowledge of Allah, Exalted be He and His Attributes results from that which is given in the Revealed Law.[54]

]قال الإمام عبد الله صوفان القدومي (ت1331 ه)[

[Imam `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d.1331), may Allah have mercy upon him, spoke unequivocally:]

وهو من الأحاديث التي يجب الإيمان بها مع التنزيه لله عن مشابهة المخلوقين كبقية أحاديث الصفات وآياتها نؤمن بها مع تنزيهنا لله عن مشابهة المخلوقين والله أعلم

And this belongs to the the Ahadith which it is compulsory to have Iman in them while declaring Allah glorified above resembling the creations, like the rest of the Ahadith of the Sifat and the Ayat on the topic as well. So we believe in all of these while declaring Allah glorified from likeness with the creation. And Allah knows best. [55]   

قال الإمام عبد القادر بن بدران الدومي (ت1346 ه)

[Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346), may Allah have mercy upon him, made the following decisive remark:]

أي لا نقول كيف هي؟ ولا نقول معناها كذا وكذا، بل نقول صفة أثبتها تعالى لنفسه، فنحن نثبتها له ونكل كيفيتها ومعناها إليه تعالى، وأعلم أن هذا ما كان عليه السلف كلهم والأئمة المقتدى بهم وذهب إليه المحققين من الخلف،

This means that we don’t say, “How is it?” And we don’t say, “It means thus and so”. Instead we say that it is an Attribute that the Exalted One has affirmed for Himself. So we affirm it for Him and the how and meaning of it back to Him, Exalted be He. You should know that this is what all of the First Three Generations were upon and the Imams that followed them as well as the researchers from the latter-day generations.[56]

قال الإمام عبد الله خلف الدحيان (ت 1349)

[Imam `Abdullah Khalaf Ad-Dahyaan (d.1349), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the right creed:]

ذكر المصنف رحمه الله في بعض تعليقاته ما نصه: ذكر العقائد ما لفظه عقائد الفرقة الناجية قال: وهم الأشاعرة والماتريدية وأهل الحديث، وقال بعض العلماء: الفرقة الناجية أهل الحديث يعني الأثرية والأشعرية والماتريدية فإذا قلت لفظ الحديث يقتضي عدم التعدية حيث قال فيه ستفترق أمتي على بضع وسبعين فرقة كلهم في النار إلا فرقة واحدة وهي ما كان على ما أنا عليه وأصحابي،

So the author of the said text, may Allah have mercy upon him in one of his footnotes mentioned a discussion centred around the doctrines of the Saved Sect and he said that the Saved Sect were: the Ash`aris, the Maturidis and the People of Hadith.[57] Some of the scholars have said that the Saved Sect are the People of Hadith, meaning the people of Athar and narrations, the Ash`aris and the Maturidis.[58] Thus in the case that one says the hadith on the topic refers not to a number but rather one group with the wording: “Indeed my Ummah shall divide into some seventy or more sects, all of them in the Fire except one and it is what I and my Companions are upon”, this leaves an ambiguity in the mind of some people.

فالجواب أن الثلاثة فرق هي فرقة واحدة لأنهم كلهم أهل الحديث فإن الأشاعرة والماتريدية لم يردوا الأحاديث ولا أهملوها وإنما فوضوها وإما أولوها وكل منهم أهل الحديث، وحينئذ فالثلاثة فرقة واحدة لإقتفائهم الأخبار وانتحالهم الآثار. بخلاف باقي الفرق فإنهم حكموا العقول وخالفوا المنقول فهم أهل بدعة وضلالة ومخالفة وجهالة والله تعالى أعلم.

The answer to this matter is that the three groups are in fact the one sect as they are all from the People of Hadith. So indeed the Ash`aris and Maturidis neither reject the hadith nor negate their value.[59] They only consign the meaning in some cases and interpret in other cases.[60] And both the Ash`aris and Maturidis are from the People of Hadith.[61] So then at that point it is clear that the three groups are in fact the one Saved Sect as they follow the narratives and hold onto and abide by the traditions of the past. This is the opposite of the remaining sects as they give judgement to thier intellects and oppose the transmitted and handed down texts. So they are a people of innovation, astrayness, opposition to the truth and grave ignorance. And Allah, Exalted be He, indeed knows best.[62]

قال الإمام محمد بن عبد العزيز بن مانع (ت 1389)

[Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn Mani` (d.1389), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave this response:]

كذاك أي: كما أن علمنا لا يحيط بذاته المقدسة، لا ينفك أي: يخلص ويزول عن صفاته الذاتية، وأفعاله الإختيارية، فذاته ليست مثل ذوات المخلوقين، وصفاته كذاته ليست كصفات المخلوقين.

And none knows or encompasses the reality of the Names and Attributes or His Holy Essence or the wisdom of His Actions. So His Essence is not like that of the creations and His Attributes in the same way are not like the attributes of the creation.[63]

قال الإمام محمد عصام الشطي (ت 1440)

[Imam Muhammad `Isam Ash-Shatti (d.1440), may Allah have mercy upon him, quoted Imam As-Saffarini and then agreed with and seconded the quote:]

اعلم أن مذهب الحنابلة هو مذهب السلف، فيصفون الله بما وصف به نفسه، وبما وصفه به رسوله، من غير تحريف ولا تعطيل ولا تمثيل، فللَّهِ تعالى ذات لا تشبه الذوات، متصفة بصفات الكمال التي لا تشبه الصفات من المحدثات، فإذا ورد القرآن العظيم، وصحت سنة النبي الكريم عليه أفضل الصلاة والتسليم، بوصف للباري جلّ شأنه، تلقيناه بالقبول والتسليم،

You should know that the madhhab of the Hanbalis is indeed the madhhab of the First Three Generations. They describe Allah in the way that He described Himself and in the way that His Messenger described Him without corruption, negation or likening. So Allah, Exalted be He, has an Essence and it is not like the essences of the creation. He is described with the Most Complete and Perfect Attributes which bear not resemblance to the attributes of the creation. So when it has been mentioned in the Grand Qur’an, authentically reported by the Noble Prophet, upon him be the best peace and blessings, in describing the Creator and Fashioner of things – Majestic is His Mention – then we meet such statements with acceptance and submission.

ووجب إثباته له على الوجه الذي ورد، ونَكِلَ معناه للعزيز الحكيم، ولا نعدل به عن حقيقة وصفه، ولا نُلْحِدُ في كلامه، ولا في أسمائه، ولا في صفاته ولا نزيد على ما ورد، ولا نلتفت لمن طعن في ذلك ورَدَّ فهذا إعتقاد سائر الحنابلة كجميع السلف، فمن عدل عن هذا المنهاج القويم، زاغ عن الصراط المستقيم، وانحرف فدع عنك فلان عن فلان، وعليك بسنة ولد عدنان ، فهي العروة الوثقى التي انفصام لها والجُنة الواقية التي لا انحلال لها  

So it is compulsory to affirm the wording according to how it has been related, attributing its meaning to the Almighty, the All-Wise. And we do not depart from affirming that the Attribute given has a reality. We do not strip away or take away from His Speech, Names and Attributes and nor do we add to that which was related. And we do not turn any attention to the one that transgresses in that affair and repudiates them. The aforementioned is the creed of all the Hanbalis like all the First Three Generations. Thus whoever should depart from this straight methodology and path has again gone astray from the Straight Path, departed into crookedness. So see that you protect yourself regarding “such and such” from “such and such”. You must follow the Sunnah of the Chosen One from the Children of `Adnan. And this is the Firm Rope which shall not be severed and the clear and obvious shield of truth which has no weak portions in it.[64]

قال إسماعيل محمد بن بدران الدومي

[contemporary Imam, Isma`il Ibn Badran explained:]

كُلُّ مَا جَاءَ فِي اَلْقُرْآنِ، أَوْ صَحَّ عَنِ اَلْمُصْطَفَى صلى الله عليه وسلم كَآيَةِ الاِسْتوِاءِ، وَحَدِيثِ النُّزُولِ، والرَّحْمَةِ، وَاليَدِ، وَالوَجْهِ وغيرها، يَجِبُ الإيمان بِهِ، وَتَرْكُ اَلتَّعَرُّضِ لَهُ بِالرَّدِّ، وَالتَّأْوِيلِ، وَالتَّشْبِيهِ، وَالتَّمْثِيلِ، والتَّفْسِيرِ، وَهْوَ مِنَ الْمتشابه الَّذِي لا يعلمه إلا الله

All of what is in the Qur’an or authentically narrated from the Chosen One, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, – like the ayah of Istiwa’, the hadith of descent, rahmah, hand, face and other than that – is compulsory to have Iman in it, one is to abandon seeking to reject it, interpret it, give likeness or semblance to it while it is from the mutashabih in which none but Allah knows its meaning.[65]

قال الإمام عبد الرحمن الشامي

[contemporary Imam, `Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami gave the following statement:]

كُلُّ مَا جَاءَ فِي اَلْقُرْآنِ، أَوْ صَحَّ عَنِ اَلْمُصْطَفَى صلى الله عليه وسلم كَآيَةِ الاِسْتوِاءِ، وَحَدِيثِ النُّزُولِ، والرَّحْمَةِ، وَاليَدِ، وَالوَجْهِ وغيرها، يَجِبُ الإيمان بِهِ، وَتَرْكُ اَلتَّعَرُّضِ لَهُ بِالرَّدِّ، وَالتَّأْوِيلِ، وَالتَّشْبِيهِ، وَالتَّمْثِيلِ، والتَّفْسِيرِ، وَهْوَ مِنَ الْمتشابه الَّذِي لا يعلمه إلا الله

All of what is in the Qur’an or authentically narrated from the Chosen One, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, – like the ayah of Istiwa’, the hadith of descent, rahmah, hand, face and other than that – is compulsory to have Iman in it, one is to abandon seeking to reject it, interpret it, give likeness or semblance to it while it is from the mutashabih in which none but Allah knows its meaning.[66]

قال الإمام محمد السيد الأزهري

[contemporary Imam, Muhammad As-Sayyid gave this statement:]

أما مذهب الحنابلة على ما قرره شيخ المذهب ابن قدامة فهو التفويض والمقصود باختصار هو إثبات ما أثبته الله لنفسه من صفات مع تفويض معناها إلى الله عز وجل مع نفي مماثلة و مشابهة الحوادث وتفويض معنى الصفة متفرع على تفويض معنى الذات والمقصود بالمعنى المفوض هو حقيقة الذات وحقيقة تلك الصفة أما لوازم الصفة التي تفهم من السياق القرآني أو الحديثي فلا تفويض فيها

As far as the madhhab of the Hanbalis, this is according to what was established and affirmed by the Shaikh of the Madhhab, Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah and that way is consigning the meaning of the Names and Attributes to Allah. The intent of this in brief is that one is to affirm that which Allah has affirmed for Himself of the Attributes while consigning the meaning to Allah, Mighty and Majestic while at the same time negating likeness and resemblance to the creation. Thus consigning the meaning of the Attribute is a branch of consigning the meaning of the Essence. So the intent of the word consignment is the reality of the Essence and the reality of that Attribute. As for the general expression of the Attribute mentioned and understood from the speech of the Qur’an or the hadith, there is no consignment of the general meaning[67] of the Attribute.[68]

قال الإمام عبد الباسط الرحيباني آل الشيخ

[contemporary Imam, `Abdul Basit Ar-Ruhaibi gave his word:]

والصفات الإلهية من المتشابه وقد سار الإمام أحمد – لو عورة هذا الطريق – على طريقة السلف الصالح وهي: التفويض ونعني بالتفويض: إثبات نصوص المتشابه كما هي، مع التسليم وتفويض المعنى إلى الله دون الخوض في التفصيلات مع الفهم الإجمالي

So the Divine Attributes are from the mutashabih ayat and the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal – with all earnestness – travelled this path that is the path and way of the First Three Generations, namely tafwid. By this word we mean affirming the texts of the mutashabih just as they are while submitting to what was given and then consigning the meaning of that to Allah without debate or discussion into the details while having a general understanding[69] of the Attributes.[70]

وقال

And he said further

أثبت الإمام أحمد صفات الله تعالى، ولكنه نفى لوازم التجسيم والأعضاء والجوارح والحدود والغايات وكل ما يخطر ببال البشر، سئل الإمام أحمد رضي الله عنه عن الإستواء فقال: “استوى كما أخبر لا كما يخطر للبشر”

The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, affirmed the Attributes of Allah, Exalted be He, but he negated any earthly likeness and attribution of organs, limbs, boundaries and extremities and all of what occur to the mind of the human being. The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, was asked about the istiwa’ and he said, “Istiwa’ is just as He has informed us and not like what occurs to the human being”.[71]

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan but with footnotes and additional scholars that are indicated by the inclusion of [].

[This is by no means an exhaustive list but rather one that has a large body of luminaries. There are many that could be and perhaps later will be included that are not enclosed on this list currently. The point was to give a clear enough record of the creed of the First Three Generations that could be seen by all and sundry – Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali]


[1] These represent 41 statements, starting with the Imam of Muslim Orthodoxy and the last of the third age and its Reviver, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, all the way up to our time. We boldly and brazenly challenge anyone to bring 41 examples from the same school and methodology declaring the opposite. If one cannot – and he will not be able to – repent from sin, avarice and bearing false witness and leave what you are upon and come to the way of the First Three Generations and the successful vouchsafe of their way.

[2] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Muslim, vol.1, Section1: Al-`Aqidah, pp.199-200

[3] Sharh us-Sunnah, p.68

[4] Kitab ush-Shari`ah, pp.231-232

[5] I`tiqad Ahl is-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah, pp.42-43

[6] Ash-Sharh wal-Ibanah (Al-Ibanat us-Sughra), Maktabat ul-Hijaz Printers, p.187

[7] Surat ush-Shura (42), ayah 9

[8] `Aqidat ul-Imam Al-Mubajjal Ahmad, p.9

[9] Al-Usul ul-Mujarradah, pp.44-45

[10] The Well Balanced Creed, pp.116-119

[11] d.290 (AD903). He is Abu `Abdur-Rahman `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. He was the second son of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and one of his successors in the madhhab and has often narrated from his father’s theology and understanding on matters. Please see Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.174-181

[12] d.273 (AD886). He is Abu `Ali Hanbal ibn Ishaq ibn Hanbal ibn Hilal ibn Asad Ash-Shaibani. Notable memoriser and trustworthy, he witnessed and wrote on the Inquisition of the Imam and the events immediately following. Tadhkirat ul-Huffaz, vol.2, pp.599-601.

[13] Mentioned by Imam Al-Lalaka’ii in Sharh Usul ul-I`tiqad, point# 777.

[14] d.238 (AD852). He is Abu Ishaq Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Makhlid Al-Hanzali. One of the great memorisers of his time and the chief scholar of Central Asia and the Grand Imam over them. Please see Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.108-109.

[15] He is `Abdullah ibn Tahir ibn Al-Hussain ibn Mus`ab ibn Zuraiq Al-Khuza`ii. He was the governor of Khurasan in his time and one of the most important leaders of the `Abbasid government and was well trusted by the ruler Al-Ma’mun. Al-A`lam by Az-Zarkali, vol.4, pp.224-226

[16] Cited partially by Al-Lalaka’ii in Sharh Usul I`tiqad Ahl is-Sunnah, vol.3, pp.450-452.

[17] Manzumat ul-Kalwadhani, pp.3-4

[18] Collected by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Musnad, vol.5, pp.233-234

[19] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Muslim, vol.1, Section1: Al-`Aqidah, pp.199-200

[20] Ar-Risalat ul-Wadihah fir-Raddi `Al al-Asha`irah, p.607

[21] Al-Ghunya, vol.1, pp.86-87

[22] Surat un-Nahl (16), ayah 74

[23] Dhail Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.2, p.156

[24] Talbis Iblis, p.79

[25] Al-Iqtisad fil-I`tiqad, pp.104-105

[26] Lum`at ul-I`tiqad, p.6

[27] Dhamm ut-Ta’wil, p.11

[28] Dhamm ut-Ta’wil, p.27

[29] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[30] Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 208

[31] Rumuz ul-Kunuz fi Tafsir il-Kitab il-`Aziz, vol.8, p.54

[32] Manzumah fi Madh in-Nabi, pp.32-33

[33] Majmu` Al-Fatawa, vol.16, p.409

[34] Al-Burhan, pp.95-96

[35] Nihayat ul-Mubtadi’in fi Usul id-Din, p.31, Maktabat ur-Rushd Printers.

[36] Talkhis Rawdat in-Nadir, vol.1, p.123

[37] Surat ur-Rahman (55), ayah 27

[38] Surah Sad (38), ayah 74

[39] Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 64

[40] Ash-Shami, Jami` ul-Usul it-Tis`a: Ahmad and Muslim, vol.7, Section1: Al-`Ibadat, pp.354-355

[41] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.1, Section2:Al-Iman, pp.162-163

[42] Collected by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Musnad, vol.5, pp.233-234

[43] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.3, Section8:Ar-Raqa’iq, pp.538-539

[44] Sharh Mukhtasar ir-Rawdah, vol.2, p.44

[45] Usul ul-Fiqh, vol.1, p.316

[46] At-Tadhkirah fi Usul il-Fiqh, p.160, Maktabat ur-Rushd Publishers

[47] Al-Lubab fi `Ulum il-Kitab, vol.9, p.151

[48] Bayan Fadli `Ilm is-Salaf `Ala `Ilm il-Khalaf, p.4

[49] Al-Mukhtasar fi Usul il-Fiqh, p.73

[50] At-Tahbir Sharh ut-Tahrir, vol.3, p.397

[51] Fath ur-Rahman fi Tafsir il-Qur’an, vol.4, p.280

[52] Aqawil uth-Thiqat, p.60

[53] Lawami` ul-Anwar, vol., pp.96-97

[54] Mukhtasar ul-Ifadat, pp.485-486

[55] Al-Minhaj, pp.9-10

[56] Short Commentary on The Illumination of the Creed, pp.38-39

[57] The People of Hadith (Ar.Ahl ul-Hadith) is another reference for the First Three Generations or the Salaf while the Ash`aris and Maturidis – although from Muslim Orthodoxy – are from the khalaf or latter day generations in which one is not duty bound to follow them, while in the case of the former one most certainly is to be guided. The First Three Generations handed to us the Book, Sunnah, Consensus and their unimpeachable understanding without any flaw. The latter day generations after them are only to be followed as and when they agree with these blessed three; outside of that, one may do the opposite or discard their positions.

[58] This order is more correct as the First Three Generations came first, then the Maturidis and then the Ash`aris, both from the latter-day generations that one is not required to follow. They are not Muslim Orthodoxy, rather a branch within Muslim Orthodoxy. Let the reader keep this distinction in mind so as not to be pulled into senseless wars and matters that will do nothing to his knowledge and Hereafter but deplete it.

[59] Although there are a small group today in the West and some students of knowledge that engage in this and are guilty of negating the Names and Attributes as mentioned by the Shaikh, Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji. And this tiny, vile and vituperative band soil the name of the scholars like An-Nawawi, Ibn Hajar and Ibn Daqiq Al-`Eid.

[60] When in reality the way of the First Three Generations is to consign the meaning in all cases as this is what was handed down to us infallibly.

[61] And this was said by the Imam, Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la Al-Baghdadi the Elder when the Ash`aris crystallised in his time after having come out of the seventy-two sects years previously.

[62] Sharh As-Saffariniyyah, pp.74-75

[63] Sharh us-Saffariniyyah, pp.132-133

[64] Fada’il il-A`mal, vol.1, pp.29-31

[65] Mukhtasar ul-`Aqa’id, pp.12-13

[66] Mukhtasar ul-`Aqa’id, pp.12-13

[67] Meaning that His Power is different than His Mercy, His Wrath is different than His Pardon and the ayat given, whether at the beginning, middle or end demonstrate the generalities of the expressions. Thus one (1) affirms the said Attribute, (2) has Iman in it and (3) attributes meaning of it to Allah.

[68] Taken a fatwa given Ramadan 1440.

[69] Please see previous notes on this matter.

[70] Ida’at, pp.62-63 and 82-83

[71] Ida’at, pp.62-63 and 82-83