كثرة الانشغال بالرؤى والأخبار والتحليلات المتعلقة بالمهدي عليه السلام والدجال ونحوهما لن تقدم أو تؤخر بل ربما أضرت بصاحبها – في دنياه وعقله – ضررا شديدا،
Excessive busying oneself in visions, narratives and discussions connected to the Mahdi, peace be upon him, the False Messiah and similar to that in either affair will bring difficulty. In fact, it might bring harm to such a person in his earthly life and even his intellect that is severe indeed.
والذي أراه أن أشراط الساعة إن ظهرت فلن يختلف على تفسيرها أهل الدين والصلاح، فعلينا إذن الاشتغال بإصلاح قلوبنا أولا بالاستغفار والصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وإصلاح ما حولنا ثانيا بحسب الإمكان، وحفظ القرآن والسنة والفقه (بالنسبة لطالب العلم) ..
That which occurs to me is that the Signs of the End of Time when they come to pass shall not have any doubt or difference in their reality to the people of upright religion and rectitude. Now then, it is for us to busy ourselves with rectifying our hearts firstly with seeking forgiveness of Allah and sending peace and blessings upon the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. Then secondly, we rectify all of what is around us according to ability and memorisation of the Qur’an, Sunnah and Fiqh with respect to the seeker of knowledge.
كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان
As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan
 Like fake claimants saying they speak with the Mahdi every night or that he’s coming to Hajj or that they know the exact date of the end of time, the coming of the Mahdi or the False Messiah. So just as Muslims have a natural aversion to seances, palm readings, yoga and other foolishness, they need to keep the same scale of measurement to nonsense “end times” gurus and clowns that read the newspaper and then try to shoehorn prophecy into it.
 It has been to the point that some people think that they themselves might be the mahdi or the False Messiah.
 And then you have these “end times evangelists” who peddle discussion on End Times prophecy constantly without consistently going through the entire discussion on the topic. This way of stringing people along, using news and world events to scare people to pay money to attend conferences that are abysmally useless, discussing matters that have not been narrated. Some even claim that certain things like “America” or “Obama” are mentioned in End Times prophecy or nuclear war when nothing is further from the truth in any way, shape or form. Someone should be careful and mindful of useless idiots like these and wonder why such people never finish a complete book, study their religion systematically or call to the religion in a real way.
 Indeed, so this is why there is no need to go panting after conspiracy theories like Protocols of the Learned Eldersof Zion (which is a forgery), Illuminati, 9/11 truther, 7/7 truther, Building-7 truther, Bin Laden truther, c-19 truther, population decrease through immunisation scams, blood libels, Ya’juj and Ma’juj being Gog and Magog and them being the British, Barack Obama being the False Messiah, a worldwide Zionist/Marxist/Jewish conspiracy, George Soros, Bill and Melinda Gates trying to destroy the environment and world’s population scams, the Bilderbergs, Rothschild Family World Domination, Holocaust Denial, Council on Foreign Affairs conspiracy (CFR!) and countless other baseless affairs that sometimes are couched in hadith on the topic of the end times. We seek refuge in Allah from the kufr of associating things with the Religion of Allah that have nothing to do with it.
 Thus people learn and act according to what is required of them and what they are responsible for in their circumstances.
There is no such thing as “Zakah Sanawiyyah” in the books of the Hanbali School
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته، عيد مبارك، وعيد سعيد، فتقبل الله منا ومنكم
As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah, may your `Eid be blessed and noble. And may Allah accept it from us and you!
أنا عندي سؤالان، يا شيخ. في بريطانيا، أداء الزكاة في صورة المأكولات (كأرز، وحمص بندق وكسكس، وتمر، ورطب كذلك كما وجدنا في كتبنا ومع شيوخنا).
Shaikh, I have two questions on the matter of Zakat ul-Fitr. In Zakat ul-Fitr, there will be the one that will give it in the form of eatables – like rice, lentils, couscous, dry or wet dates – and likewise this is what we found in our books and with our shaikhs.
فوجدنا في بعض المدن أناس يفعلون في صورة الفلس ويدفعون المسجد لفعل الزلكاة لهم. هل هذا يجوز في مذهبنا؟
However we found in one of the cities some people doing so [discharging Zakat ul-Fitr] in the form of fiat currency and paying the masjids in this fiat currency in order for them to do the act of discharging the Zakat ul-Fitr for them. Is this permitted in our School?
السؤال الثاني: في كتاب الزكاة، وجدنا زكاة بهيمة الأنعام، وزكاة النقدين، وزكاة الحبوب والثمار، وزكاة العروض، وزكاة الفطر.
فسمعنا من أناس أن في مذهبنا زكاة السنوية مع هذه؟ هل هذه “زكاة سنوية” قسمًا مستقلًا في مذهبنا أم هذه في أقسام الزكاة ذكرناها؟
The second question is that under the Book of Zakah, we find Zakah on cattle, Zakah on the two precious metals of gold and silver, Zakah on seeds and crops, Zakah on commerce and Zakat ul-Fitr. We have then heard some people speaking on the affair of our madhhab, mentioning some business about “Zakah Sanawiyyah”. Is this some independent branch of Zakah in our madhhab? Or is it from the divisions of Zakah that we mentioned just a moment ago?
Shaikh `Abdullah Badran remarked:
وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته تقبل الله منا ومنكم
Wa `Alaikum us-Salaamu wa Rahmatullah, may Allah accept it from us and you.
الزكاة واجب على كل مسلم صغر او كبير عاقلا او مجنون
Zakah is wajib on every Muslim, child or adult, sane or otherwise.
وفي مذهب الامام احمد والشافعي والمالكي لا تصح الا من قوت البلد ومما ناكل منه ولا يصح اخراجها مالا هذا بما اوصانا به نبينا المختار عليه الصلاة والسلام
It is listed in the madhhabs of Imams Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ash-Shafi`ii and Malik ibn Anas that it is not valid to discharge Zakat ul-Fitr except in the form of nourishment in the land and from that which we eat from; it is thus not valid to discharge it in the form of currency or wealth. And this is according to what we were advised by the Chosen One, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
الوحيدة زكاة الفطر تدفع من قوت البلد
Zakat ul-Fitr alone is to be given in the form of foodstuffs used as nourishment.
اما باقي الزكوات تدفع مالا نقدا زكاة المال وزكاة القطيع وزكاة التجارة فكلها واحد وتعد زكاة مال وتدفع نقدا الله المستعان
As far as the rest of the Zakah types, they are to be discharged and paid in the form of wealth or the like, whether it is called Zakat ul-Maal,Zakat ul-Qatii`,Zakat ut-Tijarah, all of this is referring to one kind and this is the Zakah on the wealth through commerce and it is given in wealth. And Allah is the Assister.
جزاكم الله خيرًا يا شيخنا. فهل يوجد قسمًا مستقلًا باسم “زكاة السنوية” أم هل هذه زكاة المال أم هذه من أقسام الزكاة التي ذكرت آنفًا
May Allah reward you with good, shaikh! So is there any separate designation referred to as “Zakah Sanawiyyah” or is this Zakat ul-Mal or is this from the categories of Zakah just mentioned a moment ago?
أنا قرأت كلها ثانيًا، مفهوم. فزكاة المال وزكاة القطيع وزكاة التجارة كلها واحد (يعني من زكاة العروض)؟
I have read the whole statement you gave a moment ago and I clearly understand it. So Zakat ul-Mal, Zakat ul-Qatii`, Zakat ut-Tijarah, all of this falls under the same rubric, namely that which is called Zakat ul-`Urud in the books?
Shaikh `Abdullah Badran then replied:
نعم كلها مفهومها زكاة مال الزكاة نوعان
Yes, this is correct. The understanding you have is correct and is another word for the Zakat ul-Mal. Thus the Zakah is of two kinds:
زكاة الفطر وهي زكاة الصوم وزكاة المال ويندرج تحت هذا المسى زكاة المال والقطيع والتجارة بشكل عام
(1) Zakat ul-Fitr which is the Zakah for the Sawm and (2) Zakat ul-Mal, which all other matters fall under this division, whether we call it Zakat ul-Mal, Al-Qatii`, At-Tijarah or the like. This all belongs to the broad category listed.
زكاة تخرج من قوت البلد حصرا اما زكاة المال تخرج مالا ولا يصح ان تخرج طعاما
In terms of the Zakat ul-Fitr, this is discharged in the form of foodstuffs eaten as nourishment in the land of the people. In terms of Zakat ul-Mal, this is discharged in the form of wealth or currency and it is not valid to discharge this in the form of foodstuffs.
As written by the Shaikh, `Abdullah Badran
29 Ramadan 1443
 This expression was given and accepted in anticipation of the `Eid, not that 29 Ramadan 1443 is the day of `Eid ul-Fitr or before the hilal or 30 days of the month of Ramadan have passed. Let the reader be careful.
 This means what was transmitted verbally and through verbal or class ijazahs of sama`, thus there is no doubt about it. This goes back to taking knowledge IN PERSON and not through your favourite computer browser.
 Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d.1051), may Allah be pleased with him, says of the matter, “So the cattle for use must not be for work and they should be shepherded and grazed on permitted land for most of the year and reach the time that the nisab should be discharged. This is based upon the hadith of Bahz ibn Hakim, from his father from his grandfather, who said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, say: Camels that reach up until forty in number that have been grazing off the land most of the year and they grazed off what was permissible are to have one two-year-old calf given as their zakah’. This is collected by Imams Ahmad, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’ii. There is also the hadith of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, declared, ‘So with sheep and goats, the zakah given should only be for the one that has grazed most of the year on permitted land’. Zakah is neither required for cattle that have been fed with fodder nor in the case when someone has purchased for the cattle what they will eat or gathered together from the grazing stock what they will be eating”. Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` Bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp.166-167.
 Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi (d.624), may Allah be pleased with him, ruled wisely, “There is no zakah on commerce and the gold and silver accumulated from it until someone intends trade with it and it has reached the nisab at the time and is established at that point. When it reaches less than the nisab of gold and sister, then he would take out the value of gold and silver, then zakah is taken out for its value. This is based upon the narration of Samurah ibn Jundub who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, commanded us to take out zakah for from that which we had prepared for buying and selling in trade’. This is collected by Imam Abu Dawud and he said, ‘The chain of transmission of this is well known’. The reason for this is that complete wealth that reaches the ruling is connected to a time just like in the case of cattle. Someone that has less than the nisab of gold and silver only gives the zakah in that case as this is to rectify the affair of the poor and show that they have a share in wealth. Zakah is taken from the value of the gold and sislver and not from the principal as the nisab is based upon the value and not the principal. The nisab on gold and silver makes zakah become compulsory on it according to its’ time just like the rest of the wealth. The measure of its zakah is one fortieth as it is connected to the value of it, so it bears a slight resemblance to the zakah on possessings gold and silver”. Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp.183-184.
 Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d.1051), may Allah be pleased with him, says of the matter, “Zakah is indeed compulsory on all seeds, whether they be things like wheat, barley, rice, pure millet, lentils, chick peas and all other kinds of seeds. It is still compulsory to have zakah paid of seeds, even if they are not edible, like in the case of peppergrass, radish, safflower, all kinds of spices – such as cumin, flax seed, leek seeds and cucumber seeds.” The Imam says further, “Fruits are all that have been designated, such as dates, raisins, almonds, peanuts, pistachios and hazelnuts. Zakah is not compulsory in the rest of the fruits, nor vegetables, green herbs, flowers with the exception of thyme, potash, sumac, the leaves of a tree like the lote, marshmallow and myrtle. It is wajib to give zakah in all of these as they are weighed and dried measured things”. Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` Bi-Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp.169-170.
 Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi (d.624), may Allah be pleased with him, said the following, “This is compulsory on every Muslim who finds what is in excess of his nourishment and that of his family and dependants on the day of `Eid which begins at sunset in the night time. He subtracts one sa` from this wealth for distribution and this is based upon what was narrated by Ibn `Umar, who said, ‘The Prophet declared as compulsory Zakat ul-Fitr from the month of Ramdan on the male, female, the free and slave from the Muslims in the form of one sa` of dates, barley for the people and half a sa` of wheat to be given for every young child and old man or woman. He commanded that this amount should be given before the people set out for the `Eid prayer.’ This is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim. The amount of Zakat ul-Fitris one sa` of wheat, barley – whether it be the grains or oatmeal derived from them – as well as dates, raisins, as this was narrated by Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, who stated, ‘We used to gie out zakah in the time of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in the form of one sa` of food, which would be a sa` of dates, wheat, barley, cottage cheese or yoghurt or raisins. Then when Mu`awiyah came and the others came he said: Indeed one double handful of these things equals two double handfuls.’ Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri further said, ‘The form of Zakah given out was always the same just as in the times that we had given it beforehand’. This is collected by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim and agreed upon by them as authentic.
If the individual did not find the items listed to give as Zakat ul-Fitr, then he takes out of this wealth anything that he can get as a sa`. This is whether or not it is seeds, the meat of fish or cattle. This particular statement is that of Imam Ibn Hamid as this is built upon approximations of what people use as nourishment. Abu Bakr `Abdul `Aziz mentions that the individual should set aside as Zakat ul-Fitr any nourishing grains and the like that would stand in place of foods mentioned in the aforementioned explicit texts. So one would give things such as seeds or fruits with things like corn, millet, rice and things such as this as these items are fitting substitutes for those explicitly mentioned matters.
The one required to give Zakat ul-Fitr sets aside what is necessary not only for himself but any who are dependants under him asnd this is done on the night of `Eid when he possesses and takes hold of what is to be discharged as Zakat ul-Fitr. This is due to the fact that the Fitr follows on from the maintenance and this is the extra left over of his maintenance and the maintenance of his dependants on the day of `Eid and its’ night. He therefore takes out the zakah for himself and his dependents. This is based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Discharge the Zakah for those under your care’. This is collected by Imam Ad-Daraqutni. He gives the distribution of the zakah precedence over the maintenance as it is specifically stated by the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Take out the amount for the Zakah, starting with yourself’. This is collected by Imam Muslim. There is another narration in which he also said, ‘Begin with those who are under your care’. This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi.
A condition for Zakat ul-Fitr becoming compulsory is the time entering in for that compulsory act. The compulsory time is sunset on the night of `Eid ul-Fitr. This is based upon the statement of Ibn `Umar, ‘The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, declared Zakat ul-Fitr compulsory from the end of the month of Ramadan’. This is coming after the sunset. Whoever became Muslim, or got married or had a child born to him or owned a servant or slave or war captive after the sunset or they died before the sunset, then there is no Zakat ul-Fitr due. If the sun set and they were with him for the duration of time, then they died, then he must give the Zakat ul-Fitr for them as the necessary time and matter was met and these things are not nullified by death just like the expiation for disavowing one’s wife”. Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp.184-186.
 And things like this often happen when people do not study the Religion and speak on fiqh they’ve never studied, books they’ve never read and scholars they’ve never sat with in life. No one but Allah can lift such a malady from someone.
 Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi, may Allah be pleased with him, made an explicit statement, “The most praiseworthy thing to due is to discharge the Zakat ul-Fitr on the day of `Eid before the prayer. This is based upon the narration given beforehand in the beginning of the chapter. The intent of this is that those seeking Zakat ul-Fitr might be enriched immediately on the day of `Eid based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Let those who seek it be enriched on the day of `Eid’. This is collected by Abu Sa`id and Ad-Daraqutni. This issue is connected with discharging the Zakah before the prayer is enriching them for the entirety of the day. It is not permissible to delay the discharging of Zakah after the day of `Eid. If someone were to do that, he would be sinful as he has delayed a compulsory right to be discharged from its’ proper time and he must make up that thing as the right of wealth is a compulsory one and it does not cease due to delaying its’ time, just like in the case of the debt. It is permissible to give Zakat ul-Fitr two days before the `Eid or three based upon the fact that Ibn `Umar discharged Zakat ul-Fitr before `Eid by a day or two days before that. This is collected by Imam Abu Dawud. The outward statement of this point is that the zakah remains in place if given before the date or part of the date as the enrichment of the people is still completed at the the necessary time. If someone did this more than three days before the `Eid, then this is not permitted as the dominant ruling is that he gives it and the enrichment to be given will not have been realised at the correct time on the day of `Eid. It is permitted for one to give on behalf of a group and the opposite as well just like it is permissible to give the zakah of his wealth for them in any different means possible”. Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp.186-187.
 Ar. wajib. Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346 (AD1929), may Allah have mercy upon him, says of the matter, “So wajib entails what is necessary to carry out and what is blameworthy – according to the Revealed Law – to abandon in any sense, meaning at all times”. Al-Madkhal, pp.146-147
 164-241 (AD780-855). He is Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. The Imam of the Hanbali School. He learned from some of the premier students of the Companions and their students, such as Imams Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Yusuf ibn Ibrahim, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Ash-Shaibani. In addition having memorised one million ahadith, he was a tireless campaigner for the Orthodox faith, suffering torture as well as incarceration for preaching against the cults. Please see Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.5-17; 58-124
 150-204 (AD767-820). He Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Al-`Abbas Ash-Shafi`ii Al-Muttalibi. Collector of the principles of the Shafi`ii Legal School, he wrote more than five pioneering works in the Principles of Fiqh and its subdisciplines. Some of his greatest students include Abu Ibrahim Al-Muzani and Az-Za`farani. Please see Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.260-262
 d.179 (AD801). He is Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi `Amir Al-Madani, the Imam of Makkah and Al-Madinah and the collector and Imam of that school. His Muwatta’ remains a classic and possesses chains of transmission that scholars vie for in their books. Al-Imam Malik: Dar ul-Hijrah by Imam `Abdul Ghani Ad-Daqar, pp.20-27.
 Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620), may Allah be pleased with him, strongly advised, “We have in our favour the statement of Ibn `Umar who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, declared as compulsory the Fitr in the form of a sa` of dates, barley, wheat. When someone leaves that, then he has abandoned that which has been declared compulsory’.” Al-Mughni Sharhu Mukhtasar il-Khiraqi, vol.2, pp. 672-673.
 Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi (d.624), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:
والواجب ربع العشر لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم: في الرقة ربع العشر رواه البخاري
“It is compulsory to give one fortieth in zakah when gold and/or silver reach the nisab amount based upon the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘One fortieth is supposed to be given in zakah for the riqqah dirhems.’ This is collected by Imam Al-Bukhari and classified as authentic.
وروى علي رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ليس عليك في ذهبك شيء حتى يبلغ عشرين مثقالًا فإذا بلغ عشرين مثقالًا ففيها نصف مثقال أخرجه أبو داود
There is another statement narrated by `Ali ibn Talib,may Allah be pleased with him, from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, who said, ‘You have no zakah required upon you until it reaches 20 mithqal. When the gold reaches 20 mithqal, then you will need to give one fortieth.’ This is collected by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan.
الرقة الدراهم المضروبة وهي دراهم الإسلام التي وزن كل عشرة منها سبعة مثاقيل بغير خلاف
Ar-Riqqah is the well-known name for the dirhems that are used and minted and these are the dirhems of Islam that are universally known. These are the same dirhems in which upon being weighed, every ten of them are seven mithqal in weight. This is without any difference of opinion”.
There are some people that cause sectarianism (Ar.furqah) by insisting that one may not make salah behind someone of another madhhab as the masa’il differ. This is not only obtuse and small minded but ignores the principles of the First Three Generations that had their ending foundations in Al-Hijaz, Al-Basrah, Al-Kufah and some other places.
The fact of the matter is that nothing is further from the truth and the scholars have always discussed this matter without any doubt. Let us look at the understanding handed down to us.
قال الإمام موفق الدين ابو عبد الله ابن قدامة المقدسي رحمه الله
Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620), may Allah have mercy upon him, uttered the following in his landmark work, The Enricheron the topic:
فأما المخالفون في الفروع كأصحاب أبي حنيفة ومالك والشافعي فالصلاة خلفهم صحيحة غير مكروهة نص عليه أحمد
In terms of those who differ in branch issues, like the Companions of Imams Abu Hanifah, Malik ibn Anas, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii, salah behind any of these is valid and not disliked at all as explicitly mentioned by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
لأن الصحابة والتابعين ومن بعدهم لم يزل بعضهم يأتم ببعض مع اختلافهم في الفروع فكان ذكل إجماعًا
The reason for this is that the Companions, the Followers and their students always did so with one another regarding branch matters and that action constitutes Consensus.
ولأن المخالف أما أن يكون مصيبًا في إجتهاده فله أجران نأجر لإجتهاده وأجر لأصابته أو مخطئًا فله أجر على إجتهاد ولا إثم عليه في الخطأ لأنه
And this is established as the one differing in branch issues is either correct in his ijtihad – in which he has two rewards, one for his ijtihad and one for his being correct – or mistaken – in which he has reward for his ijtihad while bearing no sin for his mistake as sin was lifted from him in this regard – so this is the fact of the matter.
فإن علم أنه يترك ركنًا أو شرطًا يعتقده المأموم دون الإمام فظاهر كلام أحمد صحة الإئتمام به. قال الأثرم: سمعت أبا عبد الله يسأل عن رجل صلى بقوم وعليه جلود الثعالب فقال: إن كان يلبسه وهو يتأول: “أَيُّمَا إِهَابٍ دُبِغَ فَقَدْ طَهُرَ” فيصلى خلفه
If it should be known to the individual that the imam in salah is abandoning what he holds to be a pillar in salah or a condition, the dominant statement of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, is that the imam is valid to lead the salah and the one behind him to follow. Imam Abu Bakr Al-Athram said, “I heard Abu `Abdillah [Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal] being asked about the man who was imam for a people in salah while he was wearing fox hide clothing. He said, ‘Salah behind him is valid when he is wearing it while interpreting the understanding of the hadith: So whichever hide has been tanned, it is indeed pure from that point’.
قيل له أفتراه أنت جائزًا. قال: لا نحن لا نراه جائزًا ولكن إذا كان هو يتأول فلا بأس أن يصلى خلفه، ثم قال أبو عبد الله لو أن رجلًا لم ير الوضوء من الدم لم يصل خلفه ثم قال نحن نرى الوضوء من الدم فلا نصلي خلف سعيد بن المسيب ومالك ومن سهل في الدم أي بلى
“It was then said to him, ‘So do you hold it to be valid?’ the Imam said, ‘No, we don’t hold it to be valid, but when someone understands that from the hadith with that ruling, then there is no harm in making salah behind such a one as imam’. The Imam then said, ‘If there was a man that held that there is no wudu’ to be made when blood is flowing from the body, so then there is no salah to be made behind this individual? Well then, we hold that when blood is flowing from the body, wudu’ is to be made. Are we then to not make salah behind Sa`id ibn Al-Musayyib, Malik ibn Anas and others who pardon this matter? Surely not. We would make salah behind them’.”
ورأيت لبعض أصحاب الشافعي مسألة مفردة في الرد على من أنكر هذا واستدل بأن الصحابة كان يصلي بعضهم خلف بعض مع الإختلاف
And I saw a repudiation written by one of the companions of Ash-Shafi`ii against the one who negates this principle. The writer of the repudiation adduced that the fact that the Companions made salah behind one another although they had differences of opinion in branch issues means that this is valid to do.
ولأن كل مجتهد مصيب أو كالمصيب في حط المأثم عنه وحصول الثواب وصحة الصلاة لنفسه فجائز الائتمام به كما لو لم يترك شيئًا
The reason for this is that everyone engaging in ijtihad is correct or like the one that is correct as the penalty of sin of lifted from him when he is making ijtihad and reward results whether one is correct or mistaken. So the validity of salah is established and it is thus such a one may lead salah and be followed by those behind him. This is the case as the salah is valid and due to the differences remains in place and even if he left something it is as if he left nothing.
وذكر القاضي فيه رواية أخرى أنه لا يصح ائتمامه به لأنه يرتكب ما يعتقده المأموم مفسدًا للصلاة فلم يصح ائتمامه به كما لو خالفه في القبلة حال الإجتهاد فيها
And it was mentioned by Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la Al-Baghdadi, may Allah have mercy upon him, that there is another narrative from Imam Ahmad that it is not permitted for one to take as imam one who has different branch issues as it goes against that which the follower holds as a nullifier of salah. So it is thus not valid to take one as an imam. And this is just the same way as if someone differed or contradicted him in the matter of the Qiblah and ijtihad was required in the matter.
 Especially those hostile to fiqh and studying it, bringing up canards throughout history that were mostly inauthentic or isolated affairs that were not the depended upon or majority of any group of scholars in any time in history. Let the wise ones use their wisdom.
 541-620 (AD1146-1223). He is Muwaffaq ud-Din Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah. One of the Revivers of Islam in his time, scholar of fiqh, hadith, ihsan, math and many other disciplines, he is one of the highest voices of authority in the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Please see Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhail, vol.4, pp.105-119
 One of the most important things to understand about this book is that it is meant to be a comparative of madhhabs, current and previous, in rulings and the like. It belongs to a class of comparative books known as riyawat (narrative ruling) literature. This and other books like it are not meant to establish the depended upon ruling in the said school, let alone that of the author (rather the texts Al-Muqni` and Al-Kafi (in that order) are Muwaffaq ud-Din’s final statements in fiqh and the depended upon). The fact that this is mentioned in the introduction by the author but people (sometimes even shaikhs (!) ignore this and cite it improperly truly reminds us that we are in the age where not only have scholars decreased but so has knowledge and literacy to boot. And there is no might or power except in Allah.
 80-150 (AD699-767). He is Abu Hanifah An-Nu`man ibn Thabit Al-Kufi. Follower of the Companions, Imam `Ali made supplication for him when his father presented him to him. He also saw Anas ibn Malik and a few other Companions. He would later become a star pupil of many teachers in the city of Al-Kufah and come to organise its principles and methods, thus today bearing the name “The Hanafi School”. He was the first to organise the fiqh books starting from the Chapter of Water to the Chapter of Witnesses. Imam Ash-Shafi`ii said that all people of fiqh are his children due to his organisation of fiqh books. He died a martyr after being poisoned by `Abbasid authorities. cf.Adh-Dhahabi in Siyar, vol.6, pp.391-403
 d.179 (AD801). He is Abu `Abdillah Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Abi `Amir Al-Madani, the Imam of Makkah and Al-Madinah and the collector and Imam of that school. His Muwatta’ remains a classic and possesses chains of transmission that scholars vie for in their books. Al-Imam Malik: Dar ul-Hijrah by Imam `Abdul Ghani Ad-Daqar, pp.20-27.
 150-204 (AD767-820). He Abu `Abdillah Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Al-`Abbas Ash-Shafi`ii Al-Muttalibi. Collector of the principles of the Shafi`ii Legal School, he wrote more than five pioneering works in the Principles of Fiqh and its subdisciplines. Some of his greatest students include Abu Ibrahim Al-Muzani and Az-Za`farani. Please see Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.260-262
 Ar. nass. This is a text that fits its context and is beneficial in and of itself and is not in need of recourse to other sources. It is clear and explicit in its meaning and cannot be interpreted in any other way. This includes ayat from the Qur’an, statements in the hadith collections or unequivocal words stated by members of the first three generations. The basic gist of this would be: A nass is a piece of evidence in context according to its intended meaning that is impossible to refute. Please see Imam Ibn Badran’s Al-Madkhal, pp.113-115
 164-241 (AD780-855). He is Abu `Abdillah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. The Imam of the Hanbali School. He learned from some of the premier students of the Companions and their students, such as Imams Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Yusuf ibn Ibrahim, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Ash-Shaibani. In addition having memorised one million ahadith, he was a tireless campaigner for the Orthodox faith, suffering torture as well as incarceration for preaching against the cults. Please see Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.5-17;58-124
 Let us consider the rank of these three generations:
It was narrated to us by Wasil ibn `Abdul A`la who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Fudail from Al-A`mash from `Ali ibn Mudrik from Hilal ibn Yasaf from `Imran ibn Husain who said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saying:”
‘The best of people is my generation, then those who come next, then those who come next. Then there shall come a people after them in which there shall appear fatness and they shall love fatness. They will give the testimony before they are asked to do so’.” This is collected by Imams Muslim, Al-Bukhari and At-Tirmidhi. This particular wording is in that of At-Tirmidhi.
Imam At-Tirmidhi said, “This is a strange hadith from the narrated hadith of Al-A`mash from `Ali ibn Mudrik and the Companions of Al-A`mash only narrated from Al-A`mash from Hilal ibn Yasaf from `Imran ibn Husain”.
It was narrated to us by Hilal ibn Yasaf from `Imran ibn Husain from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and this is more authentic than the hadith of Muhammad ibn Fudail. The meaning of this hadith is according to some of the People of Knowledge that they shall give testimony before they are asked to give it. This means the false testimony. So this means that one of them will bear testimony without it being sought from him and the explanation of this in another place.
But who are the Salaf, who we know as the First Three Generations?
قال النووي: الصحيح أن قرنه صلى الله عليه وسلم والصحابة الثاني التابعون والثالث تابعوهم.
Imam Yahya An-Nawawi said, “The truth is that the best generation refers to that of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and the Companions. Those who come next are the Followers of the Companions and those that come next are the Followers of the Followers”. cf. Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh in-Nawawi, vol.16, pp.86-89, Samaluti’s Al-Azhar edition.
How long did the First Three Generations last? What is the cutoff point?
Imam As-Suyuti says of this hadith: “The most correct statement is that the intent of the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in this hadith is the Companions. The description of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, has already been discussed.
“The amount of time that elapsed between the sending of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and the last one to have died from the Companions is 120 years or a little bit less or more than that. This is based upon the dispute about the death of Abut-Tufail. So when this is kept in mind it could be that the 100 years is a little bit less, perhaps 99 or 97 years plus the 20 years. As for the age of the Followers, this runs from the year 100 onwards and lasted 70 or eight years.
“As for those that came after of the Followers of the Followers, this lasted some fifty years and reached up to the year 220 and during this time there appeared innovations that spread out and the Mu`tazilah wagged their tongues, the philosophers raised their heads the People of Knowledge were tested so that they might declare the Qur’an created. The states of the people and places became difficult and the matter has continued without abating until now. And this is the fulfilment of the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him that lies would be let loose and spread out”. cf.Tuhfah, vol.6, pp.469-470, hadith #2320
Thus anyone coming after the Salaf would be referred to as Khalaf (latter day or post-First Three Generations). Let us all make first intention to follow the First Three Generations in all the affairs of our Religion. Amin!
 Ar. ijma`. Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah gives the meaning of Consensus: ‘The meaning of Consensus in the Revealed Law is the agreement of the scholars of the Ummah of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, on some matter of the faith at a point in time’. cf.Rawdat un-Nazir wa Junnat ul-Munazir, vol.1, pp.375-376
 This word is explained with two subcategories, depending on the one who is doing the ijtihad. For the Absolute Mujtahid, when he uses ijtihad, it has sometimes been translated, ‘Advanced Juridical Reasoning (AJR)’, while for every Mujtahid besides, it has been translated, ‘Restricted Juridical Application (RAJA)’, although both of them are doing ijtihad. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, used this expression when he said, “When the judge makes ijtihad and he is correct, he has two rewards (ajr) and when he is mistaken, he has one reward”. Ash-Shami’s Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain:Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.3, Section 7:Al-Imamah, pp.439-440.
 d.260 (AD874). He is Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hani’ Al-Iskafi. One of the premier students of Imam Ahmad, he transmitted principles of fiqh, abrogation, creed, rulings and more. He has perhaps the oldest detailed work on the principle of abrogation (Ar.naskh).Please see the oldest collected biography of Abu Bakr Al-Athram: Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn Muhammad’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.65-71
 Collected by Imams Ahmad in his Musnad, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’ii and Ibn Majah via As-Suyuti in Al-Jami` us-Saghir, vol.1, pp.453-454 from the narrative of Ibn `Abbas and classed as sahih
 Look at the taqwa and the righteousness of the First Three Generations in preserving the unity of the body of Muslims even when there is difference in branch issues! Contrast that with today’s sectarian people with refrains of “Oh, we can’t make salah behind you because you do this dhikr, wazeefah, tareeqah…” or “We can’t make salah behind you because you do…” or “We’re ‘not allowed’ to make salah behind ‘you guys’ because of…”. Indeed the First Three Generations (Ar.salaf) are more knowledgeable and wiser than the Latter-Day Generations (Ar.khalaf) and look at how they conducted themselves while having greater knowledge than the latter day.
 15-94 (AD637-716). He is Abu Muhammad Sa`id ibn Al-Musayyib ibn Huzn ibn Abi Wahb ibn `Amr ibn `A’ish Al-Qurshi Al-Makhzumi. Chief scholar of the people of Al-Madinah and leader among the Followers, he was based in Al-Basrah for a period of time and taught large bodies of students. cf.Adh-Dhahabi’s Siyar, vol.4, pp.217-218
 This shows that the First Three Generations held different understandings but still made salah behind one another. In addition to that, this principle has to be kept in mind: (a) one holds a matter to be invalid in fiqh and (b) the other holds it to be valid. Either may make salah behind the author as whether or not (a) or (b) holds an opposing view it is valid. In the case that they both agree upon an affair being invalid and either (a) or (b) leave it, then the said act would be invalid. And this is fleshed out in the text.
 Please see the hadith in the notes that establishes this point.
 Meaning something those behind him hold as not being valid but it is valid for him to leave it.
 d.458 (AD1063). He is Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Farra’ Al-Baghdadi. Grand marja` and spiritual father to 40 other grand maraji`, he was the first to catalogue the rise of the Ash`ari jama`ah. The Imam’s extensive teaching record and written legacy gave us a number of classics. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp.166-198
 This is connected to the issue of when there is something they are both agreed is a nullifier, pillar or wajib in the salah but then the imam goes contrary to that, either due to ijtihad or some other understanding. And this is also mentioned in greater length in other books by the Qadi. Let the reader bear this in mind and abandon sectarianism (Ar.furqah). Fear Allah!
The closing point is that if someone abused the Companions in a way that neither negated their trustworthiness nor their Religion – such as someone describing one of them as stingy, cowardly, of little knowledge, lack of zuhd and such – then this individual deserves corporal punishment or a deterrent punishment but does not receive takfir.
In the case of the one that cursed the Companions or described them with ugly attributes that belong to the affair of cursing, this is a point of dispute. What I mean by this is that the question arises: Is the one that perpetrated this act deserving of tafsiq or takfir? The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, hesitated regarding the kufr of such a one or his being killed. He said, “This individual should be punished, flogged or detained until he either dies or turns back from that behaviour”.
ويظهر في ذلك توسط الإمام أحمد في المسألة.
So from this it becomes clear the balanced response of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the matter.
كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان
As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan
 1165-1243 (AD1752-1828). He is Mustafa ibn Sa`d ibn `Abduh As-Suyuti Ar-Ruhaibani Al-Hanbali. Master of fiqh and hadith, he was fortunate to learn from the great scholar, Shaikh Ahmad Al-Bali and also was a contemporary with Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini. Shaikh Ar-Ruhaibani left behind many books but only one complete work, a commentary on fiqh. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp.179-180; Rawd ul-Bashar, pp.240-243 and Muntakhabat ut-Tawarikh Li-Dimashq, pp.670-678.
 This is when someone is declared a kafir. Please see The Divine Lighting, in which the author lays out these and more on the topic of takfir.
 Ar.la`nah. Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi said this of la`nah: “Ibn Qutaibah mentioned that the root of the word la`n is that of remoteness and to be distant from good, to be far away. So the la`ah of Allah upon Iblis is that he is cast out of His Presence and remote from any good. So from this point in the Arabic language, the word came to be associated with that”. cf. Zad ul-Masir, pp.96-97. Imam Ibn Manzur also said, “So la`n refers to punishment and wrath to come. So whoever Allah has made distance from Himself shall never have His Mercy come to him and he shall be eternally in the Fire under judgement. As for Al-La`een, this is the name of Ash-Shaitan and it is a overarching description as he was made distant and remote from the sky after exile. And it is also said that it is on account of his being far from the Mercy of Allah. La`nah is used as a supplication against him”. Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.13, pp.476-477
 Imam Ibn Manzur has remarked, “So fisq is the disobedience and the abandonment of the Command of Allah, Mighty and Majestic and exiting from the Path of the Truth”. cf. Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.6, pp.369-370
 164-241 (AD780-855). He is Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. The Imam of the Hanbali School. He learned from some of the premier students of the Companions and their students, such as Imams Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Yusuf ibn Ibrahim, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Ash-Shaibani. In addition having memorised one million ahadith, he was a tireless campaigner for the Orthodox faith, suffering torture as well as incarceration for preaching against the cults. Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.5-17; 58-124
 As it is based upon circumstance as la`nah is not a constant affair or something constant. Some scholars even disagree upon sending la`nah on Shaitan as it is not narrated concurrently, let alone a human being.
Yesterday we went to the hillock and due to overcast weather were not able to see the hilal, however we received news from Morocco from their 41 zones of sighting that they indeed did see the hilal.
Thus today was 1 Shawwal, 1443, which is `Eid ul-Fitr. We enjoyed Salat ul-Eid and exchanging pleasantries with Muslim brothers afterward and enjoying one another’s time. May Allah richly bless all those who fasted in the month.
And for those able, let them fast the six days of Shawwal and increase their reward.