Category Archives: Biographies

1 RAMADAN 1442: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM SHAMS UD-DIN IBN `ABDUL HADI AL-MAQDISI

1 Ramadan 1442

محمد بن أحمد بن عبد الهادي بن عبد الحميد بن عبد الهادي بن يوسف بن محمد بن قدامة المقدسي، الجماعيلي الأصل، ثم الصالحي،

He is Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul Hadi ibn `Abdul Hamid ibn `Abdul Hadi ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah Al-Jamma`ili As-Salihi

ثم المقرئ الفقيه المحدث، الحافظ الناقد، النحوي المتفنن، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله بن العماد أبي العباس: ولد في رجب سنة أربع وسبعمائة. وقرأ بالروايات، وسمع الكثير من القاضي أبي الفضل سليمان بن حمزة، وأبي بكر بن عبد الدايم، وعيسى المطعم، والحجار، وزينب بنت الكمال، وخلق كثير.

Referred to as the Muqri’, the Faqih, the Muhaddith, the Hafiz, the insightful grammarian, Shams ud-Din Abu `Abdillah ibn Al-`Imad Abul `Abbas. He was born in Rajab in the year 704 and recited with numerous narratives in ahadith. He heard much knowledge from Al-Qadi Abul Fadl Sulaiman ibn Hamzah, Abu Bakr ibn `Abdud-Da’im, `Isa Al-Mut`im, Al-Hajjar, Zainab bint Al-Kamal and countless others.

وعنى بالحديث وفنونه، ومعرفة الرجال والعلل. وبرع في ذلك. وتفقه في المذهب وأفتى. وقرأ الأصلين والعربية، وبرع فيها. ولازم الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية مدة. وقرأ عليه قطعة من الأربعين في أصول الدين للرازي.

He specialised in hadith and its subsciences, the knowledge of the narrators and flaws in ahadith and excelled in the subject. He studied in the Madhhab intently and gave rulings. He read and recited from the two principles and Arabic language and excelled in that. He regularly attended the gatherings of the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah for a period of time. He recited a portion of the 40 principles of Usul ud-Din by Ar-Razi.

قرأ الفقه على الشيخ مجد الدين الحراني، ولازم أبا الحجاج المزي الحافظ، حتى برع عليه في الرجال، وأخذ عن الذهبي وغيره. وقد ذكره الذهبي في طبقات الحفاظ، قال: ولد سنة خمس- أو ست- وسبعمائة.

He also recited fiqh to Majd ud-Din Al-Harrani and regularly attended the gatherings of Abul Hajjaj Al-Mizzi the Hafiz until he excelled in the knowledge of narrators of hadith. He then took from Imam Adh-Dhahabi and others. Imam Adh-Dhahabi mentioned him in Tabaqat ul Huffaz by saying, “He was born in the year 705 or 706”.

واعتنى بالرجال والعلل، وبرع وجمع، وتصدى للإفادة والاشتغال في القراءة والحديث، والفقه والأصلين، والنحو. وله توسع في العلوم وذهن سيال.

وذكره في معجمه المختص، وقال: عنى بفنون الحديث، ومعرفة رجاله، وذهنه مليح، وله عدة محفوظات وتآليف، وتعاليق مفيدة. كتب عني، واستفدت منه.

The Faqih, Ibn `Abdul Hadi sufficed himself in the matter of knowledge of narrators and flawed transmissions in hadith and excelled in it and gathered together many different principles, sought and give benefit while also busying himself in the recitation of Qur’an, Fiqh and Creed and its subdiscipline along with grammar. He had vast knowledge in the sciences and a very sharp mind. It was said of him in Mu`jam ul-Mukhtass that he had an acuity in the area of Hadith, good acquaintance with the narrators and a sharp mind. He also had a number of things that he had memorised in addition to authoring works and writing beneficial marginalia. He wrote and I have also benefited from it.

قال: وقد سمعت منه حديثاً يوم عرسه بالصدرية.ثم قال: أخبرنا المزي إجازة أخبرنا أبو عبد اللّه السروجي أخبرنا ابن عبد الهادي- “فذكر حديثاً هذا لفظه: درس ابن عبد الهادي بالصدرية”، درس الحديث وبغيرها بالسفح. وكتب بخطه الحسن المتقن الكثير. وصنف تصانيف كثيرة بعضها كلمات، وبعضها لم يكمله، لهجوم المنية عليه في سن الأربعين.

I heard one hadith from him on the day of his wedding at As-Sadariyyah. It was narrated to us by Al-Mizzi by way of ijazah: it was narrated to us by Abu `Abdullah As-Suruji: It was narrated to us by Ibn `Abdul Hadi. This was the narrative and he taught it at As-Sadariyyah. He taught hadith and other things as well at the foot of Mount Qasiyun. He wrote with good handwriting and authored many works. Some of them were just a few words while others he did not finish on account of the onset of an illness that started in his forties.

فمن تصانيفه “تنقيح التحقيق في أحاديث التعليق” لابن الجوزي مجلدان “الأحكام الكبرى” المرتبة على أحكام الحافظ الضياء، كمل منها سبع مجلدات “الرد على أبي بكر الخطيب الحافظ في مسألة الجهر بالبسملة” مجلد “المحرر في الأحكام” مجلد “فصل النزاع بين الخصوم في الكلام على أحاديث:

So from his works is (1) Clarification of the Data in the Ahadith in the work At-Ta`liq which is a summary on Ibn Al-Jawzi’s work by the same title that covers two volumes, (2) Al-Ahkam ul-Kubra which is based upon the said work by Al-Hafiz Diya’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi that was completed in seven volumes, (3) Refutation of Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi on the topic of Reciting the Basmalah Aloud which was one volume, (4) The Clarifier in Hadith and Rulings which is one large volume, (5) Clarifying the Dispute in the topic of Ahadith

“أفطر الحاجم والمحجوم” مجلد لطيف الكلام على أحاديث مس الذكر جزء كبير “الكلام على أحاديث: “البحر هو الطهور ماؤه” جزء كبير “الكلام على أحاديث القلتين” جزء “الكلام على حديث معاذ في الحكم بالرأي” جزء كبير، الكلام على حديث “أصحابي كالنجوم” جزء، الكلام على حديث أبي سفيان “ثلاث أعطينهن يا رسول الله” والرد على ابن حزم في قوله: إنه موضوع. كتاب “العمدة” في الحفاظ، كمل منه مجلدان “تعليقة في الثقات” كمل منه مجلدان، الكلام على أحاديث “مختصر ابن الحاجب” مختصر ومطول، الكلام على أحاديث كثيرة فيها ضعف من “المستدرك” للحاكم، أحاديث الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، جزء منتقى من “مختصر المختصر” لابن خزيمة، ومناقشته على أحاديث أخرجها فيه، فيها مقال، مجلد،

(6) The Blood Letter and his client which is a slim volume, (7) Statement on the Hadith of Touching the Penis which is a large volume, (8) Statement on the Ahadith on the Animals of the Water being Purified by the Water which is a large text, (9) Statement on the Hadith of the Qullatain, (10) Statement on the Hadith of Mu`adh in giving a ruling with opinion which is one large volume, (11) Statement on the Hadith, My Companions are like the stars of the sky which is a small volume, (12) The Statement on the Hadith of Abu Sufyan, We were given three things, Messenger of Allah and the refutation on Ibn Hazm who graded it fabricated, (13) The Supporting Pillar on the Memorisers of Hadith which covers two large volumes, (14) Note on the Reliable Transmitters which is two volumes, (15) Statement on the Ahadith in Mukhtasar Ibn Hajib which is short but has large notes covering subjects, (16) Statement on the numerous ahadith in Al-Mustadrak by Al-Hakim that are da`if, (17) Ahadith of the Salah sent upon the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, which is a small portion taken from the Mukhtasar of the Mukhtasar of Ibn Khuzaimah and his discussion on the ahadith mentioned therein that are discussed. This is one large volume.     

الكلام على “أحاديث الزيارة” جزء، مصنف في الزيارة مجلد، الكلام على أحاديث “محلل السباق” جزء، جزء في “مسافة القصر” جزء في قوله تعالى: “لمسجد أسس على التقوى” الآية. “التوبة: 108″، جزء في أحاديث “الجمع بين الصلاتين في الحضر”، “الإعلام في ذكر مشايخ الأئمة الأعلام”، أصحاب الكتب الستة. عدة أجزاء، الكلام على حديث “الطواف بالبيت صلاة”، “جزء كبير في مولد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم” تعليقة على “سنن البيهقي الكبرى” كمل منها مجلدان، جزء كبير في “المعجزات والكرامات” جزء في “تحريم الربا” جزء في “تملك الأب من مال ولده ما شاء”

(18) Statement on the Ahadith of Visitation of the Graves which is a slim volume on the topic, (19) Statement of the Ahadith of Late Comers to Salah and Marriage Matters which is a small volume, (20) Travel Rulings and what constitutes Travel which is small volume, (21) small volume on the Masjids are established upon Piety which is a number of volumes, (22) Short tract on the Ahadith on Joining between Prayers while one is resident, (23) Notice on making mention of the Shaikhs of the Imams of Guidance and Luminaries, (24) The Narrators of the Six Books which is in a number of volumes, (25) Statement on the hadith, Making Tawaf around the House is salah, (26) a large tract on the Mawlid o the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, (27) Short notes on As-Sunan ul-Kubra by Al-Baihaqi which is in two large volumes, (28) Miracles and Wonders which is in one large volume, (29) Prohibition of Riba which is a small tract and (30) The Father taking ownership of the wealth of his son according to what he so wills which is a small text.

جزء في “العقيقة” جزء في “الأكل من الثمار التي لا حائط عليها”، “الرد على ألْكيا الهِرَّاسي” جزء كبير، قي ترجمة الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية” مجلد “منتقى من تهذيب الكمال للمزي كمل منه خمسة أجزاء” إقامة البرهان على عدم وجوب صوم يوم الثلاثين من شعبان” جزء، جزء في “فضائل الحسن البصري” رضي الله عنه “جزء في حجب الأم بالإخوة، وأنها تحجب بدون ثلاثة” جزء “في الصبر” جزء “في فضائل الشام” “صلاة التراويح” جزء كبير،

(31) A text on the topic of Al-`Aqiqah, (32) Statement on eating fruit from trees which have no boundary wall for them, (33) Refutation of Al-Kiya Al-Hirrasi in one large volume, (34) Biography of the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, which is a volume, (35) Critique of the Summary of Al-Kamal by Al-Mizzi which is five volumes, (36) Establishing the proof on the non-compulsory nature of fasting on the thirtieth day of Sha`ban, which is one portion, (37) Virtues of Al-Hasan Al-Basri, may Allah be pleased with him, which is one volume, (38) The case where the woman does not inherit when brothers are involved, (39) tract on Sabr, (40) a tract on the Virtues of Sham, (41) a tract on Salat ut-Tarawih, which is a large volume.

الكلام على أحاديث “لبس الخفين للحرم” جزء كبير، جزء في “صفة الجنة” جزء في “المراسيل” جزء في مسألة “الجد والأخوة”، “منتخب من مسند الإِمام أحمد” مجلدان “منتخب من سنن البيهقي” مجلد “منتخب من سنن أبي داود” مجلد لطيف “تعليقه على التسهيل في النحو، كمل منها مجلدان، جزء في الكلام على حديث “أَفرَضَكم زيد” أحاديث “حياة الأنبياء في قبورهم”

(42) speaking on the ahadith of the one in ihram wearing khuffs, which is a large volume, (43) Description of the Paradise, which is one volume, (44) a selection on mursal ahadith, (45) tract on grandparents and brothers, (46) a selection of ahadith of the Musnad of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is two volumes, (47) a selection of ahadith from the Sunan of Imam Al-Baihaqi, which is one volume, (48), a selection of ahadith from the Sunan of Abu Dawud, which is a slim volume, (49) note on easy text on grammar which is two volumes, (50) selection from a statement on the hadith, The most knowledgeable of you in inheritance is Zaid, (51) the life of the prophets in their graves.  

جزء تعليقة، على “العلل”، لابن أبي حاتم، كمل منها مجلدان. تعليقة على “الأحكام” لأبي البركات ابن تيمية لم تكمل “منتقى من علل الدارقطني”، مجلد، جزء في الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر “شرح لألفية ابن مالك” جزء. ما أخذ على تصانيف أبي عبد اللّه الذهبي الحافظ شيخه عدة أجزاء. حواشي على كتاب “الإلمام” جزء في الرد على أبي حيان النحوي فيما رعه على ابن مالك وأخطأ فيه،

(52) a note on the flows in hadith by Ibn Abi Hatim, which is two volumes (53) a note on the rulings of Abul-Barakat Ibn Taymiyyah, which he did not complete, (54) Critique from the flaws in the Book by Ad-Daraqutni, and this is one volume, (55) a note on enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong, (56) commentary on the Alfiyyah of Ibn Malik, which is one volume, (57) a narrative in refutation of Abu Hayyan the grammarian in what was brought together in Ibn Malik and the mistake he made in the dispute he rose. He also took a number of texts from Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdullah Adh-Dhahabi who was his shaikh.

جزء في “اجتماع الضميرين” جزء “في تحقيق الهمز والإِبدال في القراءات” وله رد على ابن طاهر، وابن دحية، وغيرهما، وتعاليق كثيرة في الفقه وأصوله، والحديث، ومنتخبات كثيرة في أنواع العلم. وحدث بشيء من مسموعاته. وسمع منه غير واحد، وقد سمعت من أبيه، فإنه عاش بعده نحو عشر سنين.

(58) a treatise on two indicating markers grouped together in one statement, (59) blending of hamzah and replacement in the different recitations, (60) rebuke of Ibn Tahir, (61) rebuke of Ibn Dihyah and others. He also wrote numerous notes in fiqh and Usul as well the hadith. He also has numerous summaries in the branches of knowledge. He narrated numerous live gatherings and texts and more than one body narrated from him. I heard texts from his father as he lived about ten years after him.

توفي الحافظ أبو عبد الله في عاشر جمادى الأول سنة أربع وأربعين وسبعمائة ودفن بسفح قاسيون، وشيعه خلق كثير، وتأسفوا عليه، ورئيت له منامات حسنة. رحمه اللّه تعالى.

Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdillah died on 10 Jumada Al-Uwla in the year 744 and was buried at the foot of Mount Qasiyun and his janazah procession was attended by a large gathering who mourned his passing. Many people afterwards saw visions of him in dreams that conveyed a good end. May Allah, Exalted be He, have mercy upon him.

BIOGRAPHY: SHAIKH MUHAMMAD ZANNUB AR-RUHAIBANI

محمد الشيخ زنوب

The Shaikh, Muhammad Zannub Ar-Ruhaibani


محمد حسن علي الشيخ الرحيباني الدمشقي الصيادي الرفاعي الحنبلي, ولد رحمه الله عام (1279هـ) في بلدة الرحيبة من أسرة

تعمل في الزراعة، عمل فيها أسوةً بأبيه وجده.

He is Muhammad Hasan `Ali Ar-Ruhaibani Ad-Dimashqi As-Siyadi Ar-Rifa`ii Al-Hanbali. He was born in the year 1279[1] in the town of Ruhaibah into a family that worked in agriculture, the same agriculture done by his father and grandfather.

Early life


– تعلم القرآن على الشيخ حسين محمد المصري في بلدة الرحيبة.

He began by learning the Qur’an with the Shaikh, Hussain Muhammad Al-Masri while in the town of Ar-Ruhaibah.


– وتعلم العربية والتفسير على الشيخ هاشم رباطة.

He also made a detailed a study of the Arabic language and tafsir literature under the tutelage of the Shaikh, Hashim Ribatah.


– وتلقى علم التجويد على يد المقرئ المعروف في عصره الشيخ حسين قداحة من بلدة الرحيبة .

In addition to this, the Shaikh also came to study tajwid of the Qur’an with the well known Shaikh, Hussain Qudaahah.


– ثم تلقى علوم الحديث والفقه ومعظم علومه على الشيخ محمد حسين أبو زيد: وهو من أهم شيوخه.

Then the Shaikh also exerted himself in the sciences of hadith, fiqh and most of this was done with the Shaikh, Muhammad Hussain Abu Zaid, who was one of the most important of Shaikh Zannub’s influences.


لازم الشيخُ محمد زَنُّوب شيخَهُ الشيخَ محمد أبوزيد فترة طويلة من الزمن حتى أصبح زميلاً له وتلميذاً في وقت واحد، وقد منحه إجازة بقراءة الدرس من كل علم نقلي أو عقلي كما تلقى ذلك عن مشايخه.

Shaikh Zannub kept the company of this teacher for a long time until he became a successor to him in knowledge and a student assistant to him. He was given a license to teach every science they had learned together with chains that had gone back to his teachers previously.

بعد أن تلقى الشيخ (زَنُّوب) علومه بدأ بنشرها في مساجد الرحيبة وفي بيته وتخرج على يده نخبة من العلماء منهم:

After completion of this heady task, the Shaikh and now Faqih, Zannub went about teaching and expounding his lessons in the masjids of Ar-Ruhaibah and his house and a number of scholars would benefit from this teaching.

Scholarly career and students


– الشيخ عبد اللطيف سويدان

The Shaikh, `Abdul Latif Suwaidan[2]


وهو أكثر طلاب الناظم ملازمة له حيث لازمه قرابة عشرين عاماً ونقل معظم علوم الشيخ زَنُّوب حفظاً وتدويناً.

Shaikh Suwaidan was the most regular student of Shaikh Zannub, who accompanied him for some 20 years and narrated most of the sciences of the Shaikh, whether this was by memorisation or written text.


– الشيخ أحمد أبو زيد (ابن شيخه) وإمام وخطيب جامع (زيد بن حارثة) الجب سابقاً.

Shaikh Ahmad Abu Zaid[3] (the son of his shaikh). He was the imam and khatib of the Zaid ibn Harithah Central Masjid.


– ومنهم ولداه الشيخ عمر والشيخ عبد القادر.

Shaikh `Umar Zannub and Shaikh `Abdul Qadir Zannub, the two sons of the Shaikh.


– ومنهم الشيخ قاسم إدريس والشيخ صالح جريش والشيخ حسن دبين والشيخ محمد عباس عليان والشيخ محمد دبين إمام وخطيب بلدة (البحارية) والخطيب المتجول الشيخ محمود دعاس شحادة

Others students to Shaikh Zannub include, the Shaikh, Qasim Idris, the Shaikh, Salih Jarish, the Shaikh, Hasan Dabbain, the Shaikh Muhammad `Abbas `Ulayyan, the Shaikh, Muhammad Dabbain (who was the imam and khatib of the town of Bayariyyah) and finally the Shaikh Mahmud Da`as Shahadah

. – ومنهم الشيخ عبد الحميد شريف الشيخ.

And there was also the Shaikh `Abdul Hamid Sharif Ash-Shaikh[4] also being from their ranks.

Respect shown to him by scholars


كانت تربط الشيخ (زَنُّوب) ببعض علماء عصره الكبار صداقة ومودة، ويأتي في مقدمتهم:

Shaikh Zannub had the respect and love of numerous senior scholars of his time, the most foremost of them being:

الشيخ المحدث بدر الدين الحسني: المحدث الكبير في دمشق، الذي ألبس الشيخ (زَنُّوب) العمامة بيده، وخلع عن رأسه العقال والحطة- اللباس التقليدي لأهل البلد- بعد أن التقاه وتناظر معه وعرف غزارة علمه.

The Shaikh, the Hadith scholar, Badr ud-Din Al-Hasani.[5] He was a major hadith scholar in Damascus and he took the Shaikh, Zannub by the hand, removed his `iqal and Hattah – as was traditionally worn in his land – and dressed him in the `imamah with his own hands out of respect. This happened after they had met discussed some matters of difference of opinion in fiqh and Shaikh Al-Hasani saw the depth of knowledge of Zannub.


كما التقى الشيخين حسن الشطي وجميل الشطي مفتي الحنابلة بدمشق، وتناظر معهما وأهدياه كتاب كشاف القناع إثر حادثة طريفة.

He met and sat in many meetings with the two shaikhs, Hasan Ash-Shatti[6] and Jamil Ash-Shatti[7] (who was the mufti of the Hanbalis in Damascus). He debated with them in fiqh matters and on account of his knowledge they gifted him the book, Kash-shaf ul-Qina`[8] written out and with a new print.


وممن التقاهم أيضا الشيخ عبد القادر القصاب الديرعطاني: وكان بينهما لقاءات متعددة وتزاور وشهد كل منهما بعلم الآخر وفضله.

And among those who he also met was the great scholar and Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Qassab Ad-Dair `Attani[9] and there were a number of meetings between them as well as visits and each before witness to the knowledge and virtue of the other.

Later life and death

وكانت وفاته في ليلة النصف من شعبان عام 1362هـ

The death of the great Shaikh Zannub would come on 15 Sha`ban 1362. He would be gathered to his people and buried. And may Allah envelop him with encompassing mercy.


[1] AD 1861

[2] 1321-1393 (AD 1903-1974). He is `Abdul Latif ibn `Abdu ibn `Abud As-Suwaidan Ar-Ruhaibani. Referred to as “the scholar, the Zahid, the doctor, the righteous and the scholar of inheritance law”, he took from the premier scholars of his time in Ar-Ruhaibah such as Shaikh Muhammad Abu Zaid Ar-Ruhaibi, Shaikh Muhammad Hasan Zannub as well as his father, Shaikh `Abdu As-Suwaidan. He is the successor to the knowledge of Shaikh Zannub and was made the imam and khatib of Masjid As-Sahah in Ar-Ruhaibah, where he taught until his death. He went through many trials in his life, fought against the French invasion of Sham in a great jihad and also had many students. cf. Ash-Shatti’s Tarikh A`lam Dimashq

[3] 1322-1406 (AD 1904-1987). He is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hussain Abu Zaid Ar-Ruhaibani Al-Hanbali. Coming from a family of deep knowledge and insight, the Shaikh grew up under the watchful eye of his father, learning the early sciences of the Religion from him. After the death of his father, he would go on to learn from Shaikh Zannub, also visit Damascus and learn from the great scholar, Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti (d. 1379). Attempts were made to poison him with Salafiyyah but they failed miserably as he referred back to the earlier books in which the scholars answered the cult in responsa literature. cf Ash-Shatti’s Tarikh A`lam Dimashq.

[4] 1338-1429 (AD 1919-2007). He is `Abdul Hamid ibn Sharif Ash-Shaikh.

[5] 1267-1354 (AD 1850-1935). Famous hadith scholar and fiqh specialist of Damascus.

[6]  1296-1381 (AD 1879-1962). Fiqh scholar and son of the great marja`, Hasan Ash-Shatti (d. 1274), he was one of the great scholars of Syria at the time.  

[7] 1300-1379 (AD 1882-1959). Muhammad Jamil ibn `Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti. Scholar of his time and one of the great muftis of his age, he has a separate biography that has been covered.

[8] This text is Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti’s (d. 1051) monumental commentary on the original work Al-Iqna` by Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi (d. 968) and is one of the authoritative commentaries in the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

[9] 1264-1360 (AD 1845-1941). He is `Abdul Qadir ibn Muhammad ibn Hussain ibn Isma`il ibn Ibrahim Al-Qassab. Major and high ranking Hanbali jurist, poet and also teacher of inheritance law, he left behind a large rhyming text of fiqh that summarised Al-Karmi’s classic text Dalil ut-Talib.

THE GREAT MUJAHID AND SCHOLAR SHAIKH MUSA AL-AHMAD AS-SAYYID (D. 1400)

The Great Shaikh and Faqih, Musa Al-Ahmad As-Sayyid

He is the from the final students of the Imam and Renewer of the Religion, `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d. 1331). Shaikh Musa Al-Ahmad As-Sayyid was one of those who fought against the kibbutz establishment system brought by Theodore Hertzl’s Zionist movement.

Shaikh As-Sayyid also was involved with the movement against British colonialism, destroying with dynamite one of the British High Commission buildings and being in many valiant battles against the establishment of what would later become the State of Israel.

BIOGRAPHY: SHAIKH MUHAMMAD JAMIL ASH-SHATTI

He is Muhammad Jamil ibn `Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti. Coming from a well-known Iraqi family from the city of Baghdad in origin, he was born and lived his life in Damascus.

This very scholar is the cousin of Imam Mustafa ibn Ahmad Ash-Shatti (d. 1348) –  author of The Divine Texts – , the great grandson of one of the Revivers of the Religion, Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti (d. 1274) and one of the students of one of the Revivers of the Religion, Imam `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d. 1331).

Born in the year 18 Safar 1300, he was raised in a house of knowledge from his father, the Shaikh, `Umar Afandi Ash-Shatti (d. 1337). He started his beginning knowledge with him and also his uncle, `Umar Murad Afandi (d. 1314). Then he would go to his paternal uncle, Shaikh Abul Fath Al-Khatib and take inheritance and fiqh, along with whatever he took from his father as well.

He then moved on and took knowledge from his paternal uncle, the Shaikh, Ahmad Ash-Shatti (d. 1316). He studied theology and fiqh with him and also began to make a detailed study of hadith with the Shaikh, the scholar Bakri Al-`Attar (d. 1320).

He also studied hadith with the Shaikh, Badr ud-Din Al-Maghribi (d. 1354), Jamal ud-Din Al-Qasimi (d. 1332) and others scholars of Damascus of high rank and regard. He took ijazahs of teaching and high level from many of these scholars, particularly in the science of hadith, the six collections, tafsir, Hanbali fiqh and inheritance. He was also alive to sit with and take from the peerless author and grand Imam, `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d. 1331).

Soon he reached the level of mufti and was told to give fatawa while in Damascus. It would be not long after reaching the rank of faqih that he would also start authoring books. In the year 1317 he authored a book on the history of the prominent Hanafi family, the Farfur tribe that covered their scholarship and righteousness.

In the year 1322 he printed another text on rhyming together the different sciences of the Revealed Law and making it simple to memorise for students of knowledge. Between the years 1323-1324 he put together a history book on the scholars of Damascus for the past century or more.

The next text came in 1329 when he made more texts and another book that rhymed covering the science of inheritance. Two years later he put together a book on the legal code utilised by the Turks.

After this came his work on Hanbali scholars up to his era which he completed in the year 1339. The year directly after he put together a text dealing with the topic of the Wahhabi cult and their arguments followed by another text in 1350 tackling the topic of the Qadiyani movement (after he received a letter from one of their leaders).

In the year 1360 he wrote stinging rebuttal against a Maliki faqih who allowed the printing of mushafs using modern spelling and contradicting the mushaf of `Uthman. In the year 1363 he printed another text on inheritance that went further with more details and covered modern issues.

The faqih also wrote a book detailing issues differed in with Hanafi scholars particularly when a woman has been raped by her father-in-law and the status of her husband and so forth.

Shaikh Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti continued a writing career that inspired him to bring into print once again rare works by his Shatti ancestors. An entire treasure chest of different works was put together and disseminated in Damascus and the rest of the Muslim world. An entirely new generation of students of knowledge were introduced to books that they had not seen before or perhaps had fallen out of circulation among new students.

In terms of the post of Faqih, he was head of some Courts in Damascus in the year 1313 and also wrote the rulings down in the `Ammarah court. He went on to head another court at the Damascus gate in the year 1327 and was made chief judge of his area in the Redressing of Offenses office portion of the Court. He then became chief judge in the courts and head for the Hanbalis in the non-sentencing courts (which brought him to be a Qadi) and head in the Damascus Courts in the year 1348.

Even during this busy time, he was still teaching fiqh, creed and inheritance in the Umayyad Family Masjid from the time he started in the year 1334. In the year 1352 he was asked to be the khatib in Al-Madrasat ul-Badra’iyyah. All in all the Qadi and Faqih left a vast inheritance of books to the Ummah for use by the laity and elite alike.

He would breathe his last in the year 1379, may Allah reward him and give him good.[1]


[1] cf. Ash-Shatti’s A`yan Dimashq, vol.2, pp. 433-435 for the Shaikh’s personal account and then Shaikh Muhammad Bahjat Al-Baitar’s death notice and details in vol.1, pp. 5-11 in the said work.

BIOGRAPHY: IMAM YUSUF AL-BARQAWI

A rare picture of the Imam, Yusuf Al-Barqawi

Known as the Shaikh of the Hanbalis at Al-Azhar, the Shaikh, the teacher of scholars, the well grounded Faqih, the high ranking, complete and virtuous `Alim, the teacher of high level, Yusuf Al-Barqawi.

Born in the year 1250 in the hamlet of Barqaa, one of the incorporated villages of Nablus, he started his career in his village and then made his way to Damascus, where he would sit with and study with none other than the great marja` and one of the revivers of the Religion in his time, Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti (d. 1274).

Imam Al-Barqawi kept company of Imam Ash-Shatti and studied usul, fiqh, inheritance law, grammar and syntax among other things. After the death of Ash-Shatti, he would go on and sit with one of his outstanding students, Imam `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d. 1331), also one of the renewers of the Religion in his time.

He sat with Al-Qaddumi, may Allah have mercy with him, for a number of years and then upon completion of a number of texts and their mastery, headed back to Nablus to teach and assist others.[1] He taught and benefited others before heading to Egypt, where he would finish his final lessons.

After realising this high aspiration, he was made Shaikh of the Hanbalis of Al-Azhar and this drew large numbers of students from all over that came to sit with him. People came to study fiqh and other sciences with him and became one of the most outstanding figures of his time.

He wrote many rulings and a few books, two of them hawkishly bearing down on Salafiyyah. One of his most outstanding students would be another grand Imam and enemy to the cults, Imam `Abdul Ghani ibn Yasin Al-Labadi (d. 1319). The Imam would later die, after a long life of teaching and hard work and be buried in his adopted homeland of Egypt in the year 1320. [2]

[1] It would be at this point that he became the Shaikh of most of the latter day people from the Qaddumi clan and Shattis along with so many others.

[2] cf. Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 210-211

1 MUHARRAM 1442 AH: THE VALUE OF THE TAFSIR OF IBN `ABBAS

Figure 1A: Tanwir ul-Maqbas, the Tafsir of Ibn `Abbas

Tanwir ul-Maqbas as a source of tafsir literature

By Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

The tafsir made use of is that of Tanwir ul-Maqbas min Tafsir Ibn `Abbas. This is a one volume work by `Abdullah ibn Al-`Abbas, the son of Al-`Abbas ibn `Abdul Muttalib, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

This makes `Abdullah ibn `Abbas the first cousin of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in addition to his being one of his 124,000 Companions. In recent times, some doubt has been raised about this text so it deserves to be given treatment.

One of the sources of transmission

The chain quoted in the tafsir is: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah Ath-Thiqah ibn Al-Ma’mun Al-Harawi who narrated to us from my father. He said, It was narrated to us by Abu `Abdillah who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu `Ubaidullah Mahmud ibn Muhammad Ar-Razi who said: It was narrated to us by `Ammar ibn `Abdul Majid Al-Harawi who said:

It was narrated to us by `Ali ibn Ishaq As-Samarqandi from Muhammad ibn Marwan from Al-Kalbi from Abu Salih from Ibn `Abbas…

No dispute was raised about `Abdullah Ath-Thiqah ibn Al-Ma’mun Al-Harawi, Abu `Ubaidullah Mahmud ibn Muhammad Ar-Razi, `Ammar ibn `Abdul Majid Al-Harawi. This part of the chain is not argued at all by authorities.

Dispute around four personalities

The dispute then centres on `Ali ibn Ishaq As-Samarqandi, Muhammad ibn Marwan, Al-Kalbi and Abu Salih. So let us look at the points in perspective.

With regard to `Ali ibn Ishaq As-Samarqandi, it was said by Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani,

He is `Ali ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Muslim ibn Maimun ibn Nadhir ibn `Adi ibn Maahaan Al-Hanzali Abul Hasan As-Samarqandi. He narrated from `Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak, Isma`il ibn Ja`far, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Mu`awiyah, Abu Bakr ibn `Ayyash and others. [1]

Imam Ibn Hajar sums up,

Abu Hatim said, “He is sound”. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Mansur Al-Qari remarked, “As-Samarqandi died in the month of the Shawwal in the year 237”. I would like to further mention that Imam Ad-Daraqutni stated in his book Al-`Ilal of As-Samarqandi, “He is trustworthy”. [2]

Now that the trustworthiness of As-Samarqandi has been established, we turn our attention to Muhammad ibn Marwan.

Imam Muhammad ibn Hussain Adh-Dhahabi (d. 1397 AH) said of him,

He is Muhammad ibn Marwan As-Sudai Al-Kufi. This is As-Sudai the younger, who narrates from Hisham ibn `Urwah and Al-A`mash. They left him and one of them did accuse him of lying. As-Sudai the younger is also the student of Al-Kalbi.[3]

Imam Muhammad `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi says further:

Al-Bukhari said, ‘The people were silent about him’. He is the freed slave of the Khattabi people but hadith are not written from him. Yahya Ibn Ma`in mentioned, ‘It is clear that this man’s narrations are weak’.[4]

Looking at this, we can see that some people differ in As-Sudai the lesser. Someone accused him of lying, another said his narrations are weak and Al-Bukhari quoted that the people were silent about him.

Thus his narrations have not been ruled out although scrutinised. If it is him by himself, there is doubt, but in a chain, everyone is examined. Everyone up until him has been sound, so he is left in place.

As for Al-Kalbi, Imam Muhammad `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi (d. 748 AH) said of Al-Kalbi:

He is Muhammad ibn As-Sa’ib Al-Kalbi…Sufyan ibn `Uyainah said, “Al-Kalbi said, ‘Abu Salih told me: Look into everything that you narrate from me. Do not narrate it verbally’.”[5]

The Imam said further:

Ya`la ibn `Ubaid said, “Sufyan said, ‘Be careful what you take from Al-Kalbi’. Someone remarked, ‘But you take from him’. Sufyan responded, ‘I am aware of where the truth is from the lie’.” [6]

Thus Al-Kalbi is not altogether rejected. Rather, it must be checked what he has taken, when he took it and from where it came in the end. If everything else is sound, then there is no issue. Anything else has to be examined.

The fact that major Imams upon examination took from him shows that there is some dispute about him but not one great enough that disqualifies him from being used in the discussion of Ibn `Abbas’s tafsir at all.

Finally, there is Abu Salih. Let us go to the words of Imams Muhammad `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi and Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani (d. 852 AH) on the topic. Imam Adh-Dhahabi states:

He is `Abdullah ibn `Salih ibn Muhammad ibn Muslim Al-Juhni Al-Masri Abu Salih. He is the writer and scribe of Al-Laith ibn Sa`d regarding his wealth. Abu Salih is a man of abundant hadith and knowledge although he has some repudiation in that regard.

Abu Salih narrated from Mu`awiyah ibn Salih, Al-Laith ibn Sa`d, Musa ibn `Ula, Ibn Wahb, Ibn Ma`in, Ahmad ibn Al-Furat and others.[7]

Imam Ibn Hajar writes:

Abu Hatim also said, “I heard `Abdul Malik ibn Shu`aib say, ‘Abu Salih is trustworthy and reliable. He heard the hadith from my grandfather Al-Laith ibn Sa`d. My father used to sit in his company for hadith and he would also narrate hadith in the presence of my father’. ”[8]

The Imam further stated,

Ibn Abi Hatim stated, “I asked Abu Hatim Ar-Razi about Abu Salih and he replied, ‘He has not narrated anything in my sight that depended upon or was based upon lying or falsehood. He has good hadith’. ”[9]

Within these same texts, some other authorities question aspects of his narration or reliability. Keeping this in mind, the fact that no categorical statement was made about him being unreliable leaves him in the realms of acceptability as the basic principle in this field is reliable until proven otherwise without doubt.

Is Al-Fairuzabadi the author of the text?

It was claimed by one author that Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn Ya`qub Al-Fairuzabadi (d. 817 AH) gathered together the sources for the tafsir Ibn `Abbas and then attributed it to him. The problem with this position is that Al-Fairuzabadi’s supposed patchwork of Ibn `Abbas’s tafsir is four volumes while Tanwir ul-Maqbas is only one volume.[10]

In closing, we should also keep in mind that this is but one chain of transmission from which we recover the tafsir of Ibn `Abbas. There are numerous other chains, such as those of Mujahid, Tawoos and `Ali ibn Talhah as was alluded to by Imam Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani.[11]

When the content of these chains and aspects of commentary are compared with that in Tanwir ul-Maqbas, the statements are the same with the exception of the chains of transmission. The actual text being given over is virtually the same albeit a few words and two sentences are different.

This therefore shows us that the commentary of Ibn `Abbas has come to us from numerous sources and they are reliable through all of them although individual narrators have required research to establish this point.

[1] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol.4, pp. 563-564 entry #5500, Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[2] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol.4, pp. 563-564 entry #5500, Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[3] Please see the Imams Muhammad Hussain Adh-Dhahabi in At-Tafsir wal-Mufassirin, vol.2, pp. 25-27; Muhammad ibn `Uthman Adh-Dhahabi in his  Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.4, pp. 31-33, Dar ul-Ma`rifah, Beirut, 1382 AH

[4] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.4, pp. 31-33

[5] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.3, pp. 556-559 entry #7575

[6] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.3, pp. 556-559 entry #7575

[7] Mizan ul-I`tidal fi Naqd ir-Rijal, vol.3, pp. 440-445 entry #4383

[8] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol., pp. 513-517, vol.3, pp. , Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[9] Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib, vol., pp. 513-517, vol.3, pp. , Dar ul-Kitab il-`Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1425 AH

[10] Please see Hajji Khalifah in his work, Kashf uz-Zunun, vol.1, pp. 501-502, Dar Ihya’ ut-Turath il-`Arabi, Beirut, 1360 AH

[11] Hadi us-Sari, vol.1, pp. 410-416

AL-WA`II AL-ISLAMI INTERVIEW WITH IMAM ISMA`IL BADRAN AD-DUMI FROM 1422

Gatherings for hearing and reciting the Books of Hanbali Fiqh 

An Interview with Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi

It is well known that the scholars are the inheritors of the prophets due to their being the successors of these people in the Muslim societies and in reality they have taken on the inheritance of direct knowledge of Allah, Usul of the methodology and different judgements that cover life.

This is the correct understanding and fulfillment of the statement of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “The rank of the scholar over the worshipper is like my rank over the least of you.” And this is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi.

There is no action without knowledge and no completion of an action without fiqh. Knowledge and action are both saving graces for the human being in this life and the Hereafter from certain destruction, evil and tribulations.

Al-Wa`ii Al-Islami magazine recently came to one of the seniormost scholars of Sham and the Muslim world – namely the Shaikh, Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi – in order to sit down and shed light on the matters of the scholars today, knowing the levels and affairs between the schools of knowledge of the Revealed Law, the ways to preserve our Usul in the different challenges that arise and those who are taking on madhhab in this time. We present to you the following interview:

Al-Wa`ii Al-Islami: What do you say about the lack of righteous scholars that fear Allah in this time and this absence is abundantly clear? What do you say about that?

Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi: By the Favour of Allah, there are indeed righteous scholars that fear Allah in this time, scholars that act by what they know as well as fiqh scholars.

We have in Sham some trustworthy and respected scholars, for example Dr. Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan Al-Bouti, Muhammad Ratib An-Nabulsi, Muhammad Kurayyim Rajih and Mahdi Mustafa An-Nur – and these scholars are indeed head over the Muslim world and not just Sham alone.

AWI: What is the difference between the shaikh, the `alim and the `allamah?

Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi: The word ‘shaikh’ in the language does not entail the word ‘`alim.’ In our day to day language, the word ‘shaikh’ signifies faqih or fiqh scholar and the imam of a central masjid. In terms of the word ‘`alim’ this is a higher rank and the word ‘`allamah is an even higher rank.

AWI: What was the reason for your recent visit to Kuwait?

Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi: Our visit was due to coming together to listen to the books of fiqh with the students of knowledge. Books read to me at this time include Kashf ul-Mukhaddarat – the Commentary on Aksar ul-Mukhtasarat, Nail ul-Ma’arib – the Commentary on Dalil ut-Talib, Bulugh ul-Qasid – the Commentary on Bidayat ul-`Abid.

AWI: Upon who does the responsibility fall for reviewing and safeguarding the sciences of the Revealed Law and any short comings?

Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi: There is a shortcoming from both the scholars and the people. The people have this idea that whoever seeks knowledge should have no other work for him to support himself; but I was a farmer and I would came from the farm land to the house of the beloved in order for us to review the lesson. This was done by both myself, my brother and my cousin.

Then there are those who argue, “We are not able to review knowledge and seek knowledge due to day to day needs and other pressing matters.” However speech such as this is rejected as there are 24 hours in a day and it is actually possible for you to remove one hour of your sleep or work in order to engage in the pursuit of the knowledge of the Revealed Law that is required.

AWI: What is your opinion on the taking on madhhabs and ijtihad in the subject of seeking knowledge?

Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi: In terms of the one who has the ability to exert himself in the Usul, there is no prohibition, like in the case of the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Badran, the scholar of Sham.

He had reached the level of ijtihad while it was not dire necessity that he take a madhhab with the knowledge that he had been Hanafi and in his later life he took the Hanbali madhhab.[1] So Consensus is possible in some of the affairs and in some judgements. It is not a condition that one adhere to the madhhab in all affairs without question as this would be named partisanship or bias and I am indeed at war with bias such as this in affairs.[2]

In terms of the body of people who recite to me texts I would say to them, “Do not call me solely Hanbali. Indeed in my Usul I am Hanbali but I do not give support to bias and partisanship.”[3] When the judgement of a piece of evidence is stronger than another piece of proof, then following the stronger position has the most right to be followed.[4]

AWI: What is your opinion on the profusion of rulings today?

Imam Isma`il Badran Ad-Dumi: I would say that the shaikh, the `alim who has reached the level of fatwa that he read the text I`lam ul-Muwaqqi`in[5] before he would engage in rulings. As for the one who did not read such a book as this, then it is impermissible for him to engage in giving rulings.[6]

If the question was in Arabic language or fiqh and he is not completely certain, then he should not answer while he does not have the information yet. Remember that the Imam, Malik ibn Anas – may Allah be pleased with him – was asked 36 questions and only answered three of these and the other 33 he said, “I don’t know.”

There is also the narrative that one of the scholars of the Yemen came to Al-Madinah the Radiant and asked him a question, to which he replied, “I don’t know.” The man responded, “Dear Imam, I came all the way from the Yemen to ask Malik questions and his response was ‘I don’t know?!’ ”

The Imam responded, “Go back to your people and say to them, ‘I went and asked Malik a question and he said he didn’t know.’ ”

 

[1] trans note: In his early life, the Imam was studying several different things at once. Before he sat with people to systematise his knowledge, he studied Hanafi fiqh, Shafi`ii fiqh, different books of logic, prosody and Tasawwuf in various masjids with various people but it was not organised.

[2] trans note: In terms of the fiqh, there are some 15-20% of issues that the four madhhabs differ in and of these there are a certain percentage that are currently open and need resolving. So when that is possible and Consensus can be made a reality, this should indeed be done.

[3] trans note: So if there is some need in which he needs to borrow from another school or another ruling within one’s school, the individual should do so.

[4] trans note: So the Imam is referring to a principle in Usul ul-Fiqh in the madhhab that when the mujtahid should see a text that in his research and exertion is indeed stronger, then he would refer to this and utilise this position rather than the other one. So one would be Hanbali using Usul ul-Fiqh but in the branch issues he would be looking at the masa’il, he would be looking at the texts and coming to conclusions.

[5] trans note: This is a text on Usul written by Imam Ibn ul-Qayyim.

[6] trans note: This is because this individual did not learn the requisite knowledge and principles to carry out the principles of Usul ul-Fiqh that would lead to the ruling.

29 RAMADAN 1441 AH: PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF IMAM `ABDUL QADIR AL-JILANI

Imam Ibn Al-`Imad described the Shaikh:

كان شيخ الشيوخ الشيخ عبد القادر نحيف الجسم عريض الصدر عريض اللحية

أسمر مدور الحاجبين ذا صوت جهوري وسمت بهي

The Shaikh of Shaikhs, Shaikh `Abdul Qadir had a thin body, wide chest with luxurious beard and he was brown skinned. The Shaikh had arched eyebrows that were joined together in addition to having a loud voice and wide gait. [1]

Imam At-Tadhifi also give an account of the appearance of the Imam:

قال الشيخ موفق الدين ابن قدامة المقدسي رحمه الله تعالى

The Shaikh, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi – may Allah have mercy upon him, said,

كان شيخنا محيى الدين عبد القادر رضي الله عنه نحيف البدن ربع القامة

عريض الصدر واللحية طويلها أسمر

“Our Shaikh – `Abdul Qadir – had a thin body, wide chest with luxurious beard and he was brown skinned.

مقرون الحاجبين خفيًا ذا صوت جهوري وسمت قدر عليّ وعلم وفيّ رضي الله عنه

“The Shaikh had arched eyebrows that were joined together in addition to having a loud voice and wide gait.”[2]

[1] cf. Shadharat udh-Dhahab, vol.6, pp.331-332

[2] cf. At-Tadhifi’s Qala’id ul-Jawahir, pp. 5-6

28 RAMADAN 1441 AH: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM YAHYA AT-TADHIFI

يحيى بن سوسف بن عبد الرحمن الحلبي التاذفي القادري

He is Yahya ibn Yusuf ibn `Abdur-Rahman Al-Halabi At-Tadhifi Al-Qadiri,

قاضي القضاة نظام الدين أبو المكارم سبط الأثيرين الشحنة وهو عم ابن الحنبلي

شقيق والده

Chief Qadi, Nizam ud-Din, Abul-Mukarim, the grandson of Athiri  Ash-Shahnah clan, and he is also the uncle of Ibn Al-Hanbali, full brother of the father of Ibn Al-Hanbali.

ولد سنة 871 وتفقه على أبيه وأخيه وجماعة من المصريين منهم

At-Tadhifi was born in the year 871 and studied fiqh with his father and brother and a group of Egyptian scholars, which includes:

المحب بن الشحنة والقاضي زكريا والبرهان القلقشندي والديمي والخضيري وغيرهم

Al-Muhibb ibn Ash-Shahnah, Al-Qadi Zakariyyah, Al-Burhan Al-Qalqashandi, Ad-Dimi, Al-Khudairi, and others.

وقرأ بمصر على المحب بن الشحنة والجمال بن شاهين سبط ابن حجر جميع

مجالس البطاقة سنة 87.

He began reading to Al-Muhibb ibn Ash-Shahnah, Al-Jamal ibn Shahin – grandson to Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani – and this was in the year 887.

ثم لما عاد والده إلى حلب متوليًا قضاء الحنابلة ناب عنه فيه وسنه دون العشرين

When his father returned to Halab tro take dominion over the judgeship of the Hanbalis, At-Tadhifi acted as his assistant while he was under 20 years of age.

فلما توفي والده أوائل سنة 900 اشتغل بالقضاء بعده وبقي إلى أن انصرمت دولة

الجراكسة وكان آخر قاضٍ حنبلي بها

When his father died in the year 900, At-Tadhifi busied himself with giving judgement after him and remained until the collapse of the collapse of the rulership of the time and he was the last Hanbali judge of the time.

ثم ذهب إلى دمشق وبقي بها مده ثم استوطن مصر وولي بها نيابة قضاء الحنابلة

بالصالحية النجمية وغيرها

At-Tadhifi then headed to Damascus and stayed there for some time. He then took up residence in Egypt and became assistant to the Hanbali judges at As-Salihiyyah school there in Egypt called An-Najmiyyah as well as others.

وحج منها وجاوز ثم عاد إلى حكمه وكان لطيف المعاشرة حلو المللتقى حسن العبارة

He made Hajj from there later and then returned to his judgeship after completing Hajj. He was good in manners, sweet in disposition with good wording.

جميل المذاكرة يتلو القرآن بصوت حسن ونغم طيب توفي بالقاهرة سنة 959

قاله في الشذرات

He would be in good gatherings and times of reflection and he regularly recited the Qur’an with a good voice. He died in Cairo in the year 959 as was said by Ibn Al-`Imad.[1]

[1] cf. Ibn Humaid’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp. 483-484.

27 RAMADAN 1441 AH: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM HASAN ASH-SHATTI

The Shatti family is originally from Baghdad, in today’s Iraq. The grandfather, `Umar ibn Ma`ruf Al-Baghdadi, was an accomplished scholar of his legal school and a great figure amongst the people in Baghdad.

Other notables include his brother, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ma`ruf, and his son, Shaikh `Abdullah Al-Baghdadi.[1] These great people were also contemporaries of scholars such as Shaikh Muhammad ibn Kamal ud-Din Al-Bakri As-Siddiqi[2] and his friend, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad, both of whom being students of the Grand Imam, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Abul Muwahib Ad-Dimashqi.[3]

As a child Shaikh `Umar was surrounded by people of knowledge. Such righteousness was brought to fruition when he married a noble daughter from the Az-Zubair section of the city of Al-Basrah, a stronghold of Hanbali fiqh and also female scholars.

The result of this union was a number of children, the most well known being a child by the name of Hasan. This young man was born in the year 1206 (AD 1791) in the city of Damascus in Sham,[4] while the married couple were visiting scholarly relatives and acquaintances.

The soon to be Shaikh Hasan proved himself capable when he memorised the Qur’an and some 18 books, one in each science of Islam, while still in his pre-teens. He studied with close relatives and others. He started by learning from his father, then subsequently gained knowledge from one of the seminal scholars of his time, Shaikh Mustafa ibn Sa`d Ar-Ruhaibani,[5] studying the science of hadith, commentary, fiqh, the principles of creed and fiqh, and also inheritance.

Shaikh Hasan Ash-Shatti quickly showed an aptitude for learning, delving into and mastering the sciences of Islam, including, of course, grammar, syntax and their subcategories. He visited numerous masjids and received legal authorisations[6] from his teachers in institutions such as Umayyah Family Central Masjid, Al-Badara’ii Seminary in Iraq and others. He was known to constantly be researching, and left his house when necessary.

He wrote numerous books, more than 50 in number, on various subjects. They include books on such topics as the Birth of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and celebrating it, and the Commentary of Bringing Things to Be, a book on Arabic grammar.

He also wrote Summation of the Pearl [7] a commentary on the theological work of Shaikh ul-Islam Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini,[8] the great Damascene and master of heresiography.

He travelled to Baghdad in his twenties and met great scholars such as Shaikh Muhammad Al-Bukairi and Shaikh Dawud ibn Sulaiman Al-Khalidi.[9] Upon completion of his learning, he returned to Damascus and continued his teaching, at which time he reached the post of expounder,[10] then jurist[11] and not long thereafter, judge.[12] People from far and wide came to take all that could be learned from this towering figure of knowledge and gaze at him to see his wisdom.

In his life he also wrote documents and offered material and physical aid for the preparation and execution of continued resistance against the French led by the great Shaikh Amir `Abdul Qadir,[13] the great warrior of Algeria and hero to the Muslims. The Amir had travelled far and wide to Baghdad, Damascus and other areas seeking the help of the Muslims.

He found Shaikh Hasan Ash-Shatti willing to help. Shaikh Hasan was known for his easy smile, good manners and righteous demeanour towards all people, Muslim and unbeliever. He was also an accomplished scholar of theology, and witnessed many difficulties and tribulations that would affect his life and the life of so many other Muslims.

When the Salafi Call rose to prominence, it set itself out as the only true way of knowing the truth and made good on its word by killing those who would not accept its ideas.

A measure of his bravery was the fact that he resisted this subversive and violent influence, when he received a letter from Abdullah Ala Shaikh, the successor to the movement’s founder and messianic figure with prophetic pretensions, Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab.

Scholars were assassinated and threatened throughout the Muslim world in places as far afield as Baghdad, where his teacher, Shaikh Dawud ibn Sulaiman Al-Khalidi, had dodged the assassin’s sword, and in Najd and Makkah in Arabia, where towns and villages – beginning with teachers and high ranking figures – were put to the sword.

Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti had never met or known the founder of the movement as other scholars who preceded him (many of whom were murdered), but it was no less risky in his own time. While lying in bed and very ill, he received a letter from `Abdullah Ala Shaikh, inviting him to the organisation and to preach this particular doctrine to the people and allow their missionaries to have free rein in his jurisdiction.

Although dying and in great pain, he refuted them on the last page of the letter they had sent, with all the bravery that a scholar of his calibre would be expected to do in times of turmoil.[14]

His death came in the year 1274,[15] being buried in his city. A huge funeral procession followed immediately after. As with every great tree of knowledge, seeds were left behind.

His students include the shaikhs Sa`id Afandi Al-Hanbali,[16] `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi,[17] Muhammad Afandi Ash-Shafi`ii, not forgetting his two sons, Ahmad Ash-Shatti[18] and Muhammad Ash-Shatti,[19] who also became scholars.

These scholars continued the tradition of preaching and teaching but also warning people from these strange groups, which by now had gained somewhat of a foothold in Damascus, although tiny. Books were written, people were taught and numerous centres of knowledge were built. One such venture was a joint effort between all scholars of the four schools to better and reinvigorate the Orthodox faith as taught at the Dar Al-Hadith centre.

The Shattis worked intensely with Hanafi Imams and other scholars to hasten this process, as with each decade they were losing ground to theologically poisonous movements such as the Shi`ah[20] (particularly the Alawi),[21] Druze,[22] Salafi and others that were working diligently to uproot the Orthodox faith that had always been the majority faith of that area.

This constant effort produced shaikhs such as Muhammad ibn Humaid An-Najdi,[23] who had come from Makkah to learn, `Abdul Qadir Al-Badran Ad-Dumi,[24] Muhammad ibn `Uthman Ad-Dumi[25] and countless others.

[1] d. 1198 (AD 1783).

[2] d. 1162 (AD 1749). He is Muhammad ibn Kamal ud-Din Mustafa Al-Bakri As-Siddiqi. A specialist in creed, fiqh and hadith, he also gave lectures on sincerity and devotion. He left behind some five books that are extent in libraries in the United States and Europe. Please see Al-Muradi’s Salak ud-Darar fi A`yan il-Qarn ith-Thani `Ashara, vol.4, pp. 12-14.

[3] 1044-1126 (AD 1649-1731). He is Abul Muwahibi Muhammad ibn Taqi ud-Din `Abdul Baqi ibn `Abdul Baqi ibn Abdul Qadir ibn `Abdul Baqi Al-Hanbali Al-Ba`li, Ad-Dimishqi, Mufti of Hanbalis in Damascus, who died at 83 years old. He is the successor of his father, who wrote more than five books in comparative creed and was a notable scholar of Hadith. This noble scholar learned the sciences of Islam and he, as well as all students after him, was part of the Khalwati Way, which focused on memorising all the supplications that one was to learn individually, and implementing them in daily life. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 130-132

[4] This is the name that designates the modern day countries of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine.

[5] 1165-1243 (AD 1752-1828). He is Mustafa ibn Sa`d ibn `Abduh As-Suyuti Ar-Ruhaibani Al-Hanbali. Master of fiqh and hadith, he was fortunate to learn from the great scholar, Shaikh Ahmad Al-Bali and also was a contemporary with Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini. Shaikh Ar-Ruhaibani left behind many books but only one complete work, a commentary on fiqh. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 179-180; Rawd ul-Bashar, pp. 240-243 and Muntakhabat ut-Tawarikh Li-Dimashq, pp. 670-678.

[6] Ar. ijazah. Other words for it include idhn, sanad, mashaikhah, isnad and others. The only expression extensively used during the first three generations was sanad or isnad, while the others are of later import. That aside, the words were all a reference to when someone is trained by a scholar (in person), found to be competent in a particular field and then, upon completion of the necessary studies, is given legal qualification to teach others and also add his own findings and details to his lessons and classes. The closest modern equivalent to this practice in the United States, Canada and the UK would be the examinations and practices a doctor must go through before he is licensed. The rigorous level of checking, researching, testing and review ensures that someone is ready and capable to teach others and answer questions. If they do not know the answer to those questions then they will know how to find the answers. This method of isnad or transmission has been passed down since the early days of the Muslims. An important note must be made, however, as to the difference between teaching basic knowledge and teaching as a master or authority in the field. Rudimentary things such as belief in the testimony of faith, the angels, the books, the messengers, the Day of Resurrection and Destiny are all things that can be known by the layperson without this intermediary. Isnad enters into the equation when one wants to teach as a scholar and designate others as a scholar, or in areas where rulings need to be derived from the text for specific cases that have arisen. This requires special training. Please see Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi’s Kitab ul-Faqih wal-Mutafaqqih, vol.1, pp. 27-89.

[7] Ar. Mukhtasar ad-Durrat il-Mudiyyah

[8] 1114-1189 (AD 1702-1775). He is Abul `Awn Shams ud-Din Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini An-Nabulsi Al-Hanbali. Renewer of his era and one of the chief authorities of the Hanbali Legal School in his time, he learned from Grand Imams such as Muhamamd Hayat As-Sindi, `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi and others. He acted as judge and jurist for all of Sham. He wrote books in the field of comparative creed, fiqh, inheritance, manners, medicine and grammar. It was this noble scholar who received a letter of assistance from the scholars of Arabia against the Salafi Movement. He wrote five volumes of books against the group, the shorter and more famously known being, Questions and Answers Regarding Najd, which upon receipt by the scholars of Arabia became a rallying point for the Orthodox. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp. 140-143

[9] d. 1299 (AD 1882). He is Dawud ibn Sulaiman Jirjis Al-`Ani Al-Khalidi Al-`Iraqi An-Naqshabandi. A master of creed and Ihsan, he witnessed the murder of scores of laymen and scholars in Baghdad upon the arrival of the Salafi Call. He wrote some five books on comparative creed, two of them being heresiographical works against the organisation.  cf. Dawud ibn Sulaiman’s Ashaddul Jihad: Muqaddimah, pp. 1-9

[10] Ar. mufti. This is a scholar who is able to tell someone what the ruling is on a particular subject, but does not have the executive authority to implement the outcome and consequence of the ruling. There are different levels and divisions within this class of people, based upon experience and qualification. Please see Ibn Hamdan’s Adab ul-Mufti wal-Mustafti for a full treatment of the topic

[11] Ar. faqih. A scholar able to tell the ruling on a given subject in his or according to other schools, choose or differentiate between them and, in certain cases, derive new rulings in particular cases. There are different levels and divisions within this class of people, based upon experience and qualification. Please see Ibn Hamdan’s Adab ul-Mufti wal-Mustafti for a full treatment on the subject.

[12] Ar. qadi. This is a scholar who is able to tell someone what the ruling is on a particular subject and is able to bring about and oversee the outcome or consequence of the ruling, in the case of the qadi of the judiciary, or is able to exact the judgement himself, as in the case of a sentencing qadi. There are different levels and divisions within this class of people, based upon experience and qualification. Ibn Hamdan’s Adab ul-Mufti wal-Mustafti for a full treatment on the subject.

[13] 1223-1300 (1808-1883 AD). He is Muhy ud-Din `Abdul Qadir ibn Mustafa ibn Muhammad ibn Mukhtar ibn `Abdul Qadir Al-Jaza’iri. Scholar of Ihsan, creed and fiqh according to the Maliki School, he was one of the great Ash`ari theologians of the age and also a soldier against French occupation and encroachment into North Africa. Please see Nizar Abazah’s Al-Amir `Abdul Qadir Al-Jaza’iri: Al-Alim ul-Mujahid, pp. 9-16

[14] The direct quote from the Imam

[15] AD 1858.

[16] 1234-1288 (AD 1817-1871). He is Sa`id ibn Mustafa ibn As`ad ibn Ar-Ruhaibani As-Suyuti. Mufti of the Hanbalis in his time after his brother’s death, he was a student of the grand Imam, Hasan Ash-Shatti, Rida Afandi Al-Ghazzi and Sa`id Al-Halabi. He died on 18 Muharram 1288 and was buried by a large procession. Please see Rawd ul-Bashar fi A`yani Dimashq, vol.2, 132-133.

[17] 1246-1331 (AD 1829-1912). He is `Abdullah ibn `Awdah ibn `Abdullah Sufan ibn `Isa Al-Qaddumi An-Nabulsi. Reviver of the Religion in his time, originally coming from the Palestinian city of Nablus in the village of Kafr Qaddum, he studied with his father and then went to Damascus. He was a student not just of Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti but other major scholars as well. After living in Damascus, Al-Madinah, Makkah and Cairo for a number of years, he returned to his homeland and died not long after. He left behind a number of works on theology, fiqh, hadith and good character. Please see Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, 213-215.

[18] 1251-1310 (AD 1834-1893). He is Ahmad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti Ad-Dimashqi. Mufti of the Hanbalis of Damascus, scholar of fiqh and hadith, he is the son of the great reviver, Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti. After memorising the Qur’an in his youth, he studied with the premier scholars of his time in various subjects before reaching the level of mufti, followed by faqih and then finally qadi. He died suddenly after returning from a park on Monday 12 Safar 1310. Please see Rawd ul-Bashar fi A`yani Dimashq, vol.2, 377-379.

[19] 1248-1307 (AD 1831-1890). He is Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti Ad-Dimashqi. Fiqh scholar, mathematician, scholar of inheritance law and also specialist in Arabic grammar and language, he studied from this father, Imam Hasan Ash-Shatti and was a classmate of his brother, Shaikh Ahmad Ash-Shatti. He died Thursday after `Asr on 4 Ramadan 1307 and was buried the next day with throngs of people witnessing his funeral. Please see Rawd ul-Bashar fi A`yani Dimashq, vol.2, 377-379.

[20] An organisation founded possibly 300-400 years after the first three generations, there are as many as 300 million or more in the world. Shi`a beliefs include Allah never being seen in the Hereafter, the Qur’an is created, salvation by faith and deeds and also the infallibility of the 12 Imams as well as certain renewers of each century. The majority of Shi`a are the Ithna’ Ashari or Twelvers, which have control over Iran, sections of Iraq, Bahrain, Qatar and Arabia. Please see Ash-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol.1, 106-139.

[21] A Shi`ah offshoot founded by a man named Ibn Nusair, they proclaimed that the five pillars of Islam actually possessed metaphorical meetings. Thus those who practised the five pillars in reality were not Muslims, as they had misunderstood the metaphors. Their most famous beliefs include salvation by faith and deeds, continuing revelation after the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, as well as deification of the Companion, Ali, may Allah be pleased with him. Following the collapse of the Ottoman Government in Istanbul in AD 1919 and the Arabs siding with colonialists in nationalistic movements, the Alawi group was granted official status by the French authorities and put into the position to rule the country later created and named Syria. They are still the ruling party of Syria today, ruling over a country in which more than 75 per cent of the people are Orthodox. Please see Ash-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol.1, 106-139

[22] Founded 900 years ago, they proclaimed the Fatimid Ruler of Egypt, Al-Hakim bi Amrillah (AD 985–1021) to be ‘incarnate deity’ and directed worship to him. It is believed that he will return as the Mahdi at the end of time to save humanity. The first one to systematise their theology was a Nastakin Ad-Darazi, from where they derive their name, Druze. Much of their beliefs are secret, but they make annual pilgrimages to the grave of the prophet Jethro, peace be upon him, and have their own text, the Book of Wisdom, to which only special initiates are allowed access. They occupy many important roles in the Syrian and Israeli secret service agencies. Please see Ash-Shahrastani’s Al-Milal wan-Nahal, vol.1, 106-139

[23]1236-1295 (AD 1821-1878). He is Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn `Ali ibn `Uthman ibn `Ali ibn Humaid ibn Ghanim An-Najdi Al-Makki. Chief Judge in Makkah, he studied under some of its greatest scholars and in his travels gained knowledge from the Qaddumi and Shatti families. He suffered persecution, and directly witnessed atrocities and other trials under the Salafi movement, which was gaining more of a foothold in Makkah where he resided. He was the author of some ten books on various subjects. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 160-161

[24] d. 1346 (AD 1927). He is `Abdul Qadir ibn Ahmad ibn Mustafa ibn `Abdur-Rahim ibn Muhammad Badran Ad-Dumi. A senior scholar of fiqh, creed, history and poetry, he was classically trained by going from masjid to masjid and sitting with scholars. He was able to learn from Muhammad ibn `Uthman Ad-Dumi as well as from some of the great names in Syria, such as the Qaddumi and Shatti families. The Shaikh was also a great friend of the reciter and Qur’an verifier, Shaikh Muhammad ibn Sa`id Al-Hanbali. Shaikh Al-Badran wrote numerous commentaries and also gave some rulings on issues that were printed. Please see Al-Madkhal ila Madhhab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Muqaddimah, pp. 25-38; Az-Zirkali’s Al-A`lam, vol.4, pp. 160-161; Al-A`lam ush-Sharqiyyah, pp. 125-128, first printing.

[25] d. 1308 (AD 1891). He is Muhammad ibn `Uthman ibn `Abbas ibn Muhammad ibn `Uthman ibn Rajab Al-Mulaihi Ar-Ruhaibani Ad-Dumi. Friday preacher, commentator, hadith scholar, fiqh specialist and Usuli as well as astronomer, Ad-Dumi acted as a judge in Damascus and also the chief mufti of his hamlet in Duma. Please see Az-Zirkali’s Al-A`lam, vol.7, pp. 121-122; Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, pp. 201-202