Category Archives: History

THE RANK OF THE IMAM, IBN AL-JAWZI

مرقد الإمام الكبير ابن الجوزي

أهمية العلماء

The Importance of the scholars

لما انتشر الرفض ببغداد كتب أحد الوزراء الى الخليفة العباسي: “إذا لم تقو يدي ابن الجوزي فلن يرتدع أهل البدع”.

When Shi`ah doctrine spread in Baghdad while Ibn Al-Jawzi[1] was in jail,[2] one of the ministers wrote a letter to the `Abbasid khalifah of the time with the following statement, “So for however long you don’t strengthen the hand of Ibn Al-Jawzi,[3] you will never be rid of the people of innovation”.[4]

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] 511-597 (AD1116-1202). He is Abul Faraj Jamal ud-Din `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah. Theologian, astronomer, jurist, renewer of the faith, he wrote more books than any other author in history. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.336-363.

[2] A grandson of our grandshaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (470-561), by the name of Rukn ud-Din, had used his influence to have him jailed. And today it is most of the imposters and vile sycophants that claim linkage to him while having nothing to do with his rich theological and literary history.

[3] The importance of the scholars can not be stressed enough, especially in regard to their temporal and spiritual authority. Those today who content themselves with debate, takfir competitions and cursing and reviling sessions, will never be around such people, much less have any hope of becoming one of them.

[4] As the Imam was one of the most important figures of his time and a successor to the knowledge of the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani, may Allah have mercy upon him, who laid waste to the underground movement of cults as well.

PECULIAR CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAMS ASH-SHAFI`II AND AHMAD IBN HANBAL

الشيخ أحمد الشامي

أصول فقه المذاهب:

Principles of the Fiqh of the Madhhabs

تميز الإمام الشافعي والإمام أحمد بأنهما لم يقتصرا في أحاديثهما وفقههما على فقهاء مدينة واحدة كما فعل الأحناف مع مدرسة الكوفة وكما فعل المالكية مع مدرسة المدينة

Imams Ash-Shafi`ii[1] and Ahmad ibn Hanbal[2] are distinguished in that they do not limit themselves in their ahadith and fiqh to the fiqh scholars of one city[3] as is done by the Hanafis[4] with the Kufan[5] School or the Malikis[6] with the Medinan School.[7]

(وقد صرح علماء المذهبين بأنه ليس للإمام أبي حنيفة قول يخرج به عن أهل الكوفة وليس للإمام مالك قول يخرج به عن أهل المدينة)

And the scholars of those two madhhabs explicitly cite that it is not for the Imam, Abu Hanifah to have a statement that exits from the Kufan School in just the same way that the Imam, Malik ibn Anas does not have a statement that exits from the Medinan School.

كما أنهما لم يحصرا الفقه في فقهاء عائلة واحدة كما فعل المذهب الزيدي مع أبناء الإمام زيد بن علي ، أو كما فعل المذهب الجعفري في حصر التلقي في أئمة اثني عشر (وقولهم هذا يسد كل أبواب التعلم إلا ما جاء عن الإمام)

And the same thing holds in that Imams Ash-Shafi`ii and Ahmad ibn Hanbal do not limit themselves to the fiqh scholars of one family as is done by the Zaidiyyah with the children of Zaid ibn `Ali[8] or the Ja`fari Madhhab in limiting themselves to the 12 Imams.[9] And there is also their statement in that all the branches of learning are closed except what came from the Imam.

وحديثا يوجد ما يشابه ذلك في كتابات بعض السلفيين في حصر العلم في آل الشيخ وفي تفضيلهم على غيرهم

And there is speech of that same capacity in the writings of the Salafis in which they limit all knowledge to the shaykh family[10] in their preference of him over everyone else.

ولا توجد هذه الخصيصة إلا في المذهبين الحنبلي والشافعي، والفضل في هذا التأصيل يعود للإمام الشافعي فهو أبو هذا العلم كما قال ابن عقيل وغيره.

Such an affair cannot be attributed to the madhhabs of the Hanbalis or Shafi`iis. The virtue in this laying down of principles returns to the Imam, Ash-Shafi`ii as he is the father of this knowledge[11] as has been mentioned by Ibn `Aqil[12] and others.

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] 150-204 (AD767-820). He Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Al-`Abbas Ash-Shafi`ii Al-Muttalibi. Collector of the principles of the Shafi`ii Legal School, he wrote more than five pioneering works in the Principles of Fiqh and its subdisciplines. Some of his greatest students include Abu Ibrahim Al-Muzani and Az-Za`farani. Please see Al-Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.260-262

[2] 164-241 (AD780-855). He is Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. The Imam of the Hanbali School. He learned from some of the premier students of the Companions and their students, such as Imams Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Yusuf ibn Ibrahim, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Ash-Shaibani.  In addition having memorised one million ahadith, he was a tireless campaigner for the Orthodox faith, suffering torture as well as incarceration for preaching against the cults.  Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.5-17; 58-124

[3] So in the case of Imam Ahmad, the School is built upon the Basran School and people that emigrated to Baghdad; however this is not the limit of his hadith gathering. He examined and gathered the knowledge of many different Imams and the like which is why at 16 years of age, he headed to the furthest reaches of Dar ul-Islam in order to note their usul, ahadith, fiqh and the like. He then headed back to Baghdad, went back to Al-Basrah and compared this with the principles he had learned and upon completion produced responsa literature and more.

[4] 80-150 (AD699-767)

[5] Also known as Ahl ur-Ra’y. This methodology is predicated on gathering ahadith, extracting the fiqh from them and building those usul to encompass all other ahadith on the topic. In the beginning of his way, Imam Ash-Shafi`ii was Ahl ul-Hadith but was closer to Ahl ur-Ra’y after his trip to Egypt and new affairs.

[6] 93-179 (AD715-796). Please see the history works on the topic for more information.

[7] Also known as Ahl ul-Hadith. This methodology is through gathering all of the ahadith on a given subject and only taking usul that are apparent in the hadith that are to be extracted rather than reading them or analogising them into the text. Ahl ul-Hadith people were in Al-Madinah and Al-Basrah (including Imam Ahmad). Please see the historical information on the topic for more information.

[8] Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following: Now with respect to the Zaidiyyah the groups said, ‘We ally with and disavow whatever he disavows’. So they came out as supports of Zaid ibn `Ali and thus were called the Zaidiyyah. And these are the people composed of many groups. Sharh Lum`ah, pp.79-80

[9] Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following: The Rafidah were given this name by Zaid ibn `Ali ibn Al-Hussain ibn `Ali ibn Abi Talib as explained by Ibn `Asakir in his history account. Ibn `Asakir records that `Isa ibn Yunus was asked about the Rafidah and the Zaidiyyah to which he replied, “The Rafidah are the first ones that rejected and they came to Zaid ibn `Ali ibn Al-Hussain. They said to him, ‘Disavow Abu Bakr and `Umar so that we might ally with you’. He said in reply to them, ‘No, actually we are in alliance with them and we disavow you for disavowing them.’. So they said, ‘So then we reject and abandon you!’ and this is when they were given the name, the Rejectors or Rafidah. Sharh Lum`ah, pp.79-80

[10] 1111-1206. He is Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab. Known as “the Najdi Shaykh”, he had no qualifications in the Revealed Law and was referred to by the scholars of his time as a false prophet and teacher. For further details, please see The Divine Lightning.

[11] This references the fact that he is the first one to have penned a book on Usul ul-Fiqh that systematically addresses the affairs of assessing evidence.

[12] 431-513 (AD1036-1118). He is Abul Wafa’ `Ali ibn `Aqil ibn Muihammad ibn `Aqil ibn Ahmad Al-Baghdadi Az-Zufri. One of the luminaries of his time, Shaikh ul-Islam and theologian of many areas, he is author of many works covering fiqh, usul and theology. cf. Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhailu `Ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol. 3, pp.118-135

AN EXPOSITION ON THE SIRAH

What is Sirah?

The Arabic word سِيرَةٌ, refers to:

 وَالسِّيرَةُ: اَلطَّرِيقَةُ يُقَالُ سَارَ بِهِمْ سِيرَةً حَسَنَةً وَالسِّيرَةُ: اَلْهَيْئَةُ. وَفِي التَّنْزِيلِ الْعَزِيزِ (سَنَعِيدُهَا سِيرَتَهَا الاُوْلَى) وَسَيَّرَ سِيرَةً: حَدَّثَ أَحَادِيثَ الأَوَائِلِ.

The meaning of this statement is, “So the word sirah means the way. It is said in conversation, ‘He travelled a good way with them.’ Sirah also means the form of something. He has mentioned in the Mighty Revelation, We will surely return it to its previous form.[1] And one can also say, ‘He travelled a way,’ which means that he narrated news and events of times before”. [2]

But in the language of the scholars of the Revealed Law, the word sirah signifies writing down, detailed biographical accounts of people. These biographical accounts serve as sound, historical and chronological works that give the reader a full knowledge of the subject within its pages. This will often include family histories, poetry, birth and death records (when present), genealogies and accounts of major or noteworthy events.

When Did Sirah Begin?

Sirah was not invented at any one point in time. Rather, importance began to be placed upon systematising it after the death of the Prophet.

        Allah has told us that the Prophet was a noble person in the first order, as everything about him was inspired and noble. He has revealed,

)لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلْيَوْمَ ٱلآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيراً(

You have in the Messenger of Allah a noble example. [3]

And as Allah has called him the noble example in the Qur’an, then it behoves us to follow him in every way which includes the revelation and how he acted this out in his historical life. We also see in the Sunnah, the second revelation, the importance of dates, history and times. The Prophet Muhammad said,

((اَلْخِلاَفَةُ بَعْدِي فِي أُمَّتِي ثَلاَثُونَ سَنَةً ثُمَّ مُلْكٌ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ)).

The khilafah after me in my Ummah will be thirty years, then a kingdom will come after that.” [4]

In this statement is the indication that history and dates are important, as the fulfilment of that hadith hinges on us being familiar with what shall happen when the thirty years passes. History is thus paramount for us to know.

The Companions, may Allah be pleased with all of them, also understood this well and preserved information about people, places and things germane to the revelation and its understanding at the time of revelation. The battles of Badr, Uhud, Hunain, the treaties of Al-Hudaibiyyah and others mentioned in the Qur’an directly or alluded to frequently lead us to understanding that we should know about these matters.

Shortly after the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr (also known as As-Siddiq)[5] was chosen by the Companions to be the first successor, followed by `Umar ibn Al-Khattab (also known as Al-Faruq).[6] The 124,000 and more companions emptied out of Arabia in droves, some being dispatched by `Umar al-Faruq to some of the 4,000 or more newly built cities he had designed. Companions taught, lectured, trained students and scholars in established cities such as Madinah and Makkah, but also in newly built cities, the most significant in the latter stages of sirah being Al-Basrah in today’s Iraq.

Al-Basrah was built in fulfilment of a prophecy of the Messenger of Allah when he said,

((يَنْزِلُ النَّاسُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي بِغَائِطٍ يُسَمُّونَهُ الْبَصْرَةَ)).

“The people from my Ummah will come down to a low lying area and name it Al-Basrah.” [7]

Commissioned, designed and excavated by `Umar al-Faruq, the second khalifah gave specific instructions that this city must be built in a place that was never a permanent home to idols. After digging deep and in all directions, it was found that the land fit the edict and construction began in 15[8] and ended 16/7.[9]        Shortly after the order to populate it was delivered and people flocked to the new location. Teachers, soldiers and other people of merit and standing were sent with the sole purpose of passing on knowledge, including senior Companions such as Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari,[10] Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas,[11] `Utbah ibn Ghazwan[12] and others. These were in turn succeeded by students like Jabir ibn Zaid,[13] Muhammad ibn Sirin[14] and his sister Hafsah,[15] al-Hasan al-Basri,[16] Rabi`a Al-`Adawiyyah,[17] Qatadah ibn Da’imah, Abu Ayyub As-Sakhtiyani,[18] `Amr ibn Abd al-Qais,[19] Muslim ibn Yasir among others, who focused on creed and fiqh.

Historians such as Muhammad ibn Sa`d[20] and Khalifah Ibn Khayyat Al-Laithi[21] paved the way for codifying the sirah by streamlining the subjects and giving them chapter headings to make for easy reading.   

But none of this would have been possible without the Companions of the Messenger of Allah. Whether they were sent on a permanent basis or merely just to visit and teach, the number of teaching Companions assigned to Basrah was between 3-10,000, including no less than `A’ishah,[22] Al-Hasan,[23] Al-Husain,[24] `Ali ibn Abi Talib,[25] may Allah be pleased with all of them, and a galaxy of other greats.

The life that the Prophet Muhammad spent with his wives gave us snapshots of his personal life, domestic mannerisms and things that could only be known by women. The other Companions that focused on the things done in public recorded matters diligently and put them into practice. Whether it was the way he spoke, his eating manners or even instructions about use of the toilet, all was recorded. Prophecies, important dates in history, including the reset of the lunar calendar, were all things taken seriously. Therefore the passing on of incidents, as eyewitnesses to the revelation, makes their witness all that more compelling and reputable.

The step of actually writing down sirah alone, not for the purpose of deriving rulings-but for the merit of historicity-was begun by Abban, [26] the son of `Uthman ibn `Affan,[27] Az-Zubair ibn Al-`Awwam[28] and his son `Urwah,[29] Abu Hurairah,[30] Ibn `Abbas[31] and Anas ibn Malik,[32] to name a few. Other Companions often recounted specific episodes, such as war, end time prophecy, theology, but the aforementioned took the holistic approach, which made them more sought after by later authorities such as Ibn Ishaq, who shall be mentioned later.

The followers of the companions wrote down the words with great care, checking dates, crucial events, second opinions from other eyewitnesses not to mention the etymology of certain words that were fast losing usage as the Arabic language became diffused among non-native speakers. So in the students of the students, commentaries on sirah began to appear. Ibn Hisham, Az-Zuhri, Wahb ibn Munabbih[33] and his brother Hammam,[34] Ka`b ibn Al-Ahbar[35] and legions more sought to preserve the meaning of the Arabic words and their application through recording the actual language of the sirah. Points of erudition, poetry, rare words used were not seen to them as slight. These were included in the rich tapestry while at the same time preserving the primal integrity of the sirah text, that of history.

The Different Types of Sirah

Sirah scholars broadly fall into the following types when covering the subject, although there may be slight overlap:  

  1. Historicist. This is history in its simpler form, referring to people, events and places and without heavy coverage of other circumstances. This is especially the case in war literature or details regarding Makkah at the birth of the Prophet Muhammad as expressed in works such as Kitab ul-Maghazi [36]by Imam Ibn Ishaq.
  2.  Phenomenal. This gives some of the life story of the Prophet Muhammad but focuses more exclusively on his miracles, relation to other prophets, prophecies, parables and things based around his miraculous nature. Although historical, these forms of sirah do not always give the date for these occurrences, which leaves the reader to research. This would include Ash-Shifa’ bi Ahwal il-Mustafa[37]by Al-Qadi `Iyad[38] and its commentaries, Al-Mawahib ul-Laduniyyah wal-Minah ul-Muhammadiyyah[39] by Imam Al-Qastallani.[40]
  3. Descriptive/Proscriptive. Imam Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi,[41] in his Ash-Shama’il ul-Muhammadiyyah wal-Khasa’il ul-Mustafawiyyah,[42] is the best example of this, by giving a complete description of the physical characteristics, gestures, clothing, complexion and day to day habits of the Prophet.
  4. Inclusionist. This form of sirah is the most complete and often the most gratifying of the methods used by the scholars, for it combines all the above. Works such as these are not usually small and are long reading, but for a patient reader a wealth of knowledge. This includes As-Sirat un-Nabawiyyah [43] by Ibn Hisham, Al-Fiqh us-Sirah[44] by Muhammad ibn Sa`id Ramadan Al-Buti.[45] 

This is what makes us able to understand revelation, the meanings of words, how it is understood and that our Lord speaks in history.

Why is Sirah Important?

 Let us take for example the statement of Allah when He revealed,

)لَقَدْ صَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ ٱلرُّءْيَا بِٱلْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ ٱلْمَسْجِدَ ٱلْحَرَامَ إِن شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لاَ تَخَافُونَ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُواْ فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَلِكَ فَتْحاً قَرِيباً. (

        Allah has fulfilled the vision for His Messenger in truth indeed. You will enter Al-Masjid ul-Haram, if Allah has willed, secure, having your hair shaved and cut, without fear. But He knows what you do not know. And He has given a near victory to you besides that.[46]

When someone reads this ayah in its context, a question comes to mind: has this prophecy been fulfilled yet? If so, when was it fulfilled? And how was it fulfilled? It is only the study of revelation and the example of the sirah that will answer these and other questions.

Ibn Ishaq

This author is Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar ibn Jabbar, born in the year 85[47] in the city of Madinah from freed slaves brought by Khalid bin al-Walid. Ibn Ishaq began striving hard to collect sirah, historical reports, war history and all narrations related to the life of the Prophet.

As a student of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with him, Ibn Ishaq was blessed with the company of Anas ibn Malik, Sa`id ibn Al-Musayyib,[48] Al-Qasim,[49] Abban, Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Baqir,[50] Abu Salamah,[51] `Abdur-Rahman ibn Hurmuz,[52] Nafi`,[53] Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri,[54] `Urwah ibn Az-Zubair and so many others that a separate research could be written on his scholarly lineage alone.

Imam Ibn Ishaq left us four books as a treasury of Islamic history, one of which is the Siratu Rasulillah,[55] his second most well known work. There is no preserved text of this work except in Imam Ibn Hisham’s As-Sirat un-Nabawiyyah. Thus although the autographas are no longer with us, they have been preserved by Ibn Hisham, who was a student of one of the students of Ibn Ishaq.  His most sought after work was Kitab ul-Maghazi,[56] a detailed account of all the battles and military engagements made by or witnessed by the Prophet Muhammad.

There is another text, Kitab ul-Mabda’i wa Qasas il-Anbiya’,[57] a historical account of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, from the Beginning of Creation and terminating at the time of the Migration of the Prophet.

Ibn Ishaq’s final work, Kitab ul-Khulafa’,[58] is a history of the first khalifah after the Messenger of Allah up until the rulers contemporary to himself. It is a well known work, but only in manuscript form.    

The students of Ibn Ishaq are no less than one hundred, including names like Sufyan Ath-Thawri,[59] Ibn Juraij,[60] Sufyan ibn `Uyainah,[61] Yunus ibn Bukair,[62] Ziyad ibn `Abdullah Al-Bakka’ii[63] and a multiplicity of other highranking judges, historians, theologians, and the like.

This great personality finally died in the year 151[64] in the city of Baghdad and was buried next to Imam Abu Hanifah,[65] may Allah be pleased with both of them.

Ibn Hisham

He is the author of the work under study, namely `Abdul Malik ibn Hisham ibn Ayyub Al-Humairi Al-Ma`afiri Al-Basri.

He was born in the great city of Basrah in today’s Iraq, but we have no details of his exact day, month or year of birth. At a young age, he set out to Egypt to learn knowledge and to teach. He had already by this time been known as a scholar of genealogy, sirah, grammar and even authored works on these subjects that are still in manuscript form.

He narrated from teachers such as Ziyad ibn `Abdullah Al-Bakka’ii, Wahb ibn Munabbih and many others. He died in Fustat in the year 213.[66]


[1] Surah TaHa (20), ayah 21

[2] Please see Imam Ibn al-Mandhur in Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.4, pp. 450-451

[3] Surat ul-Ahzab (33), ayah 21

[4] Collected by Imam Jalal ud-Din As-Suyuti in his Al-Jami` us-Saghir waz-Ziyadah, hadith #3341

[5] 51 BH-13 (AD573-634). Scholar, teacher, preacher and the first ruler of the Muslim world after the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he was the khalifah (11-13 (AD632-634) for only two years before his succumbing to poisoning by a Jew.

[6] 42BH-24 (AD581-644). Merchant, companion and ruler of the Muslim world, he was the second khalifah (13/4-24 (AD634-644) and brought in such inventions as street lights, hanging lamps and four month campaigns and pensions for soldiers. He was assassinated by a lone man while leading the Muslims in the daybreak prayer in the masjid.

[7] Collected by Imam Abu Dawud in his Sunan, Book of Tribulations under the chapter of the Mentioning of Basrah.

[8] AD 637

[9] AD 638/9

[10] d.63 (AD672). One of the great companions, he settled in Basrah and taught full time, many comparing him in knowledge to his most beloved contemporary Ibn `Abbas.

[11] 23BH-55 (AD584-664). One of the ten promised the Paradise by name, he was the first cousin of `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf and was known as one of the earliest converts to Islam.

[12] d.18 (AD639). One of the first seven Muslims, he was an outstanding teacher in Basrah and one of the most influential scholars of fiqh and creed. He stands as a giant amongst all the Companions. He had emigrated to Ethiopia, then returned and went to Madinah and was declared the governor of Basrah after he helped commission and build it.

[13] 19-93 (AD640-711). The jurist of Basrah, a scholar of such rank, some say he was greater than Imam al-Hasan al-Basri, he made hajj 40 times for the reward but also for the opportunity to meet more Companions and take knowledge from them. Ibn Zaid is reputed to have met 70 of the Badr fighters as well as `A’ishah, mother of the believers, may Allah be pleased with all of them. He learned further from `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, `Abdullah ibn `Abbas, `Abdullah ibn `Umar and others, who all praised his ability. Ibn `Abbas, when the Basrans used to debate with him or question him, would advise them to go back and ask Jabir ibn Zaid who would have the answer.

[14] 33-110 (AD653-728). A great scholar even though he was deaf, he learned from companions such as Abu Hurairah, Anas ibn Malik and `Abdullah ibn `Umar. He was such an authority, that Companions sometimes referred to him due to his deep piety and love for the sunnah.

[15] d.100 (AD718). A scholar who memorised the Qur’an at the age of twelve, her brother Muhammad ibn Sirin and her father, Sirin, used to seek her advice on matters of creed, tafsir and recitation of the Book of Allah. She is considered one of ‘the three greatest scholars who were students of the Companions,’ living to the noble age of 90 years.

[16] d.110 (AD729). One of the great saints, a top student of `Ali ibn Abi Talib and a writer on many subjects, he was the first to confront the Mu`tazilah cult by refuting its founder, Wasil ibn `Ata. He was famed for his beautiful black head coverings and noble demeanour.

[17] 96-187 (AD714-801). This great woman was a contemporary of Imam al-Hasan al-Basri, was a scholar of Ihsan, fiqh and other disciplines. It is from her that we know so much about the ways of teaching Ihsan utilised by women in the first three generations. We can see from her that in reality, female scholars of Ihsan had and have no tariqah as their state is more disposed to that than that of men.

[18] d.131 (AD753). A great scholar of the students of the Companions, he was a tireless campaigner in favour of righteousness.

[19] d. 59 AH (AD 680). One of the great scholars of Ihsan, he was given the responsibility by `Uthman of reciting and teaching the people from the standardised Arabic writing of the Qur’an sent to Basrah. Amir was one of the greatest reciters in the history of Islam but was humble to all those who met him.

[20] 168-230 (AD784-865). Historian, traveller and celebrated author, he was one of the greatest scholars that Basrah produced in the field and is a major source of knowledge about the scholars, culture and practices of the first three generations.

[21] c.161 (AD777). The grandson of a hadith scholar, he was one of the teachers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the leading Basran authority on history in his time. 

[22] d.58 (AD678). Mother of the believers and scholar par excellence, she was held as possessing half of all available knowledge on Islam, narrating 2,210 statements from the encyclopaedic knowledge on the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. There was no science she did not speak in and no area she did not have some expertise to rule on amongst men and women.

[23] 3-50 (AD625-670). The first grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, he was only the khalifah for six months before succumbing to poison put into his food by arch enemies. Even though he died  in his forties, he passed numerous rulings and was famous for his patience and reserve. His grave still stands today in Madinah.

[24] 4-61 (AD626-680). The second grandson of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, Al-Husain was fearless and a foremost scholar of hadith, creed and tafsir. He was martyred resisting oppression from tyrannical rule.

[25] 24 BH-40 (AD600-661). He is the fourth khalifah and at times known as the ‘Lion of Allah,’ the ‘Qadi of the Ummah’ and numerous other titles. In the beginning, he desired to marry Fatimah but was so poor, he could not muster the courage. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, received revelation of this and revealed it, then the marriage was contracted. He was martyred while entering into his masjid. He is buried in Iraq.

[26] d.105 (AD723). He is the son of `Uthman ibn `Affan, the third khalifah.

[27] 50 BH-36 (AD569-656). The third khalifah of the Muslims and the first to invent a unified postal system, he also made one unified script for the Qur’an, put a hard back case and cover on it and set in place the beginning of a vowelling system to enable non-Arabic speakers to read the text. He was martyred in his house while reading the Qur’an.

[28] 77 BH-36 (AD596-656).One of the ten companions promised the Paradise by name, he was married to Asma bint Abi Bakr and his son `Abdullah was the first child of the Muslims to be born in Madinah after the emigration. He was martyred in Iraq and the place where he fell is named after him today.

[29] d.94 (AD714). A student of `A’ishah, teacher of Az-Zuhri and many others, he is known as ‘one of the seven great fiqh scholars of Madinah’ and one of the greatest of all time.

[30] d.59 (AD678). He is `Abdur-Rahman ibn Sakhr, one of the greatest hadith narrators and one of the most popular of companions (particularly those hailing from Yemen). He began as an orphan and quickly became one of the greatest hadith scholars of Islam.

[31] 3 BH-66 (AD619-687). Lauded the world over as, ‘The Translator/Commentator of the Qur’an,’ he is the most famous source for Imam Ash-Shafi`ii’s fiqh and practice. Ibn `Abbas wrote books on tafsir, fiqh in different categories and was held in such esteem by the people of Madinah, they would often refuse rulings from any scholars coming from outside of Madinah due to him. His preaching to the Khawarij cult resulted in 5,000 of them coming back to Muslim Orthodoxy.

[32] 9 BH-91 (AD612-712). Among the last of the companions to die, he was one of the early Muslims and used to learn numerous ahadith as a child simply by just being present. He witnessed some of the worst atrocities committed by tyrants against the Companions but was able to continue teaching in Basrah and made the city his permanent residence until his death. In AD2006, Shi`ah members attacked and defiled his grave.

[33] d.107 (AD725). Originally coming from a family of Jewish scholars, his father, Munabbih ibn Kamil, converted to Islam and brought the whole family with him. Wahb went on to be tutored by his brother Hammam, Abu Hurairah, Anas ibn Malik, `Abdullah ibn `Umar, Jabir ibn `Abdullah and others.

[34] d.132 (AD750). He is the brother of Wahb ibn Munabbih and a scholar of comparative religion and theology. He compiled tracts on fulfilled prophecies in Judaism by the coming of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

[35] d.32 (AD653). Former Rabbi (his name means, ‘Capstone of the Temple Priests’), student of the Companions and commentator on prophesy and eschatology, he helped with the excavation of the site of Masjid al-Aqsa and learned from prominent Companions such as `Umar ibn Al-Khattab, `Uthman ibn `Affan and other great scholars. Ka’b’s coming from a family of Rabbis and former priests (Hebr. Cohanim) gave him unique insight when he studied fulfilled prophecies and preached to other Jews.

[36] Eng. The Book of Wars

[37] Eng. Healing by Means of the States of the Chosen One

[38] 476-544 (AD1083-1149). He is `Iyad ibn Musa ibn `Iyad ibn `Amr ibn Musa ibn `Iyad, one of the greatest scholars of Maliki fiqh and fought the Khawarij when they began destroying Spain and Portugal and killing Muslims. He became serious about his Islam at 43 and subsequently became a judge and leading preacher in the entire Iberian Peninsula. He was later poisoned by a Jew and died from the incident.

[39] Engl. The Enduring Gifts of Excellence from the Way of Muhammad.

[40] 851-923 (AD1448-1517). He is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr Al-Qutaybi, a great Shafi`ii scholar and considered one of the greatest latter-day authorities on the science of the sirah and history. He wrote commentaries on hadith collections, the sirah, fiqh works and was known for his humility and attention to detail.

[41] 209-279 (AD824-892). He is Muhammad ibn `Isa ibn Surat ibn Musa ibn Ad-Dahhak At-Tirmidhi. Considered by Imam al-Bukhari to be his successor in hadith memorisation and knowledge, he wrote nine voluminous works on hadith and sirah. He is one of the most trustworthy narrators all around according to scholars from his age up until our very own today.

[42] Eng. The General Traits of Muhammad and the Specific Characteristics of the Chosen One

[43] Eng. The Prophetic Life

[44] Eng. Understanding the Sirah

[45] b.1348 (AD1929). He is Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan Al-Buti. One of the greatest scholars of this age, this ‘Jewel of the Kurds’ followed in his father’s footsteps by studying the religion since adolescence and became an expounder, a jurist and finally a judge. He teaches to this day at his seminary in Damascus, attended by thousands. 

[46] Surat ul-Fath (48), ayah 27

[47] AD704

[48] 16-94 (AD637-715). A student of many companions, he particularly benefited from `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan and Abu Hurairah, whose daughter he married. He was an accepted Basran authority in creed, fiqh, tafsir and other sciences.

[49] d.108 (AD726) Al-Qasim was the grandson of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and together with Imams Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib, `Urwah ibn Az-Zubair, Abu Bakr ibn `Abdur-Rahman, `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah ibn `Utbah ibn Mas`ud, Sulaiman ibn Yasar and Kharijah ibn Zaid ibn Thabit is classed as one of the seven greatest fiqh scholars of all time and one of the seven fuqaha’ of Madinah.

[50] 57-114 (AD676-743). He is the great grandson of `Ali ibn Abi Talib. Widely considered one of the most knowledgeable in his time, Imam Al-Baqir was one of the two teachers of Imam Abu Hanifah, may Allah be pleased with both of them.

[51] 122 (AD740) This is the son of `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Awf, a great teacher and historian.

[52] d.148 (AD765). He is Abu Bakr ibn Yazid Al-Asamm. He was known for his quiet manner and was taken by Imam Malik ibn Anas as a personal role model.

[53] d.117 (AD735). A freed slave and student of `Abdullah ibn `Umar, he was known for his piety, knowledge of the sunnah and wisdom.

[54] d.124 (AD742). He is Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn `Ubaidullah ibn ash-Shihab az-Zuhri. This Imam was a star pupil of Imams Sa`id ibn al-Musayyib and `Urwa ibn az-Zubair and was reputed to have memorised some 500,000 ahadith from this travels and studies.

[55] Eng. The Life of the Messenger of Allah

[56] Eng. The Book of Wars

[57] Eng. The Book of the Beginning of Things and the Stories of the Prophets

[58] Eng. The Book of the Successors of the Prophet

[59] d.161 (AD778). Theologian, judge and jurist, this scholar was sought by the authorities consistently, but always eluded them and rejected their offers and favours. He even refused to give them advice when they sought it as he knew how corrupt they were in reality. He was a close friend of Abu Ayyub as-Sakhtiyani and spent much time in Basrah.

[60] d.150 (AD767). Imam Ibn Juraij was known for his knowledge of hadith, sirah and many other subjects. He is counted by hadith scholars as reliable and is numbered among one of the greats.

[61] d.198 (AD814). One of the teachers of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Imam Sufyan narrated from over 80 students of Companions and wrote several books on the topic of the sunnah and its application.

[62] d.199 (AD721). He was one of the great scholars of the time and noted for his piety and voluminous writing.

[63] d.183 (AD799). He was one of the teachers of Imam Ibn Hisham and a tireless scholar of hadith, sirah, fiqh, creed and ihsan. Imam Al-Bakka’ii was known for his charity, constant prayer and contemplation.

[64] AD768.

[65] 80-150 (AD700-767). One of the greatest of students of the Companions and one of the greatest scholars of Kufah, he had 40 Qadis under his tutelage.

[66] AD828

THE CLEAR AND CONCISE WAY OF MUSLIM ORTHODOXY IN THEOLOGY


وقال الإمام شيخ الإسلام موفق الدين ابن قدامة في قاعدة التفويض:

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said just this on the topic:

والصحيح: أن المتشابه: ما ورد في صفات الله سبحانه مما يجب الإيمان به ويحرم التعرض لتأويله كقوله تعالى:

“The authentic position is that the allegorical ayat are what was narrated about the Attributes of Allah, Glorified be He, in what is compulsory to believe in and it is impermissible to seek its meaning. This includes examples where the Exalted One has said:

ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱسْتَوَىٰ)  (بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ( (لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلْعَالِينَ) (وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلْجَلاَلِ وَٱلإِكْرَامِ) (تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا) ونحوه.   

(The Most Merciful is above the Throne),[1] (But both of His Hands are outspread),[2] (to the one I created with My Two Hands),[3] (The Face of your Lord shall remain forevermore),[4] (They float under Our Gaze).[5]

فهذا اتفق السلف رحمهم الله على الإقرار به وإمراره على وجهه وترك تأويله.

“And this is what the First Three Generations – may Allah have mercy upon them – agreed in that they would affirm it, pass it by as it was and abandon seeking the meaning.

فإن الله سبحانه ذم المتبعين لتأويله وقرنهم في الذم بالذين يبتغون الفتنة وسماهم أهل زيغ.

“This was on account that Allah, Glorified be He, cast blame upon those who sought its meaning and joined between the blameworthiness of what they did with those who are seeking tribulation and he named them people of division and rancour.

وليس في طلب تأويل ما ذكروه من المجمل وغيره ما يذم به صاحبه بل يمدح عليه إذ هو طريق إلى معرفة الأحكام وتمييز الحلال من الحرام.

“And in seeking out the meaning of what they mentioned before of general ayat and others, there is no blame on someone doing that. In fact it is the opposite. When it comes to the decisive ayat, one is praised for seeking the meaning is this is a way to know the judgements set in the Revealed Law and distinguishing the permissible from the impermissible.

ولأن في الآية قرائن تدل على أن الله سبحانه منفرد بعلم تأويل المتشابه وأن الوقف الصحيح عند قوله تعالى:

“However in the allegorical, it is in this ayah indicators that establish that Allah only has knowledge of the meaning of the allegorical and that a complete stop should be exercised at the place where the Exalted One says:

(وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللهُ) لفظًا ومعنى.

And no one knows its meaning but Allah.[6] This means both the wording and the meaning.

أما اللفظ: فلأنه لو أراد عطف (وَالرَّاسِخُونَ) لقال: (وَيَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ) بالواو

“As for the wording, then if it was intended that those well grounded in knowledge [7]also knew the meaning, it would have mentioned and they say, ‘We believe in it’. [8]

وأما معنى: فلأنه ذم مبتغي التأويل ولو كان ذلك للراسخين معلومًا: لكان مبتغيه ممدوحًا لا مذمومًا.

“In terms of the meaning, this is on account of the fact that the one seeking the meaning is considered blameworthy. If the meaning of it had been known to those well grounded in knowledge, then seeking it would have been praiseworthy and not blameworthy.

ولأن قولهم: (آمَنَّا بِهِ) يدل على نوع تفويض وتسليم لشيء لم يقفوا على معناه.

“And also due to their statement (We have believed in it) proves this is a type of tafwid and submission to something that they did not know its meaning.

سيما إذا أتبعوا بقولهم (كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا) فذكرهم ربهم ههنا يعطي الثقة به، والتسليم لأمره وأنه صدره منه وجاء من عنده كما جاء من عنده المحكم.

“This is especially when the statement is followed up with their words (all of it is from our Lord). Thus their mentioning their Lord hear confirms trusting in Him, submission to him and that it came from Him, from His Presence just as the other decisive ayat had come.

ولأن لفظة (أَمَّا) لتفصيل الجمل فذكره لها في (الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ) مع وصفه إياهم بابتغاء المتشابه وابتغاء تأويله يدل على قسم آخر يخالفهم في هذه الصفة وهم (الراسخون) ولو كانوا يعلمون تأويله لم يخالفوا القسم الأول في ابتغاء التأويل.

“As for the statement (as far as) [9] this is to differentiate the sentences and He mentioned the matter regarding the others when he said (those who have a disease in their hearts) [10] with His Description of them in seeking the allegorical and seeking its meaning and that served as proof on another matter that He mentioned the well grounded in knowledge opposed those who had a sickness in their hearts. So if the well grounded in knowledge had known the meaning, they would not have been differentiated from the first group in their seeking the meaning.

وإذ قد ثبت أنه غير معلوم التأويل لأحد: فلا يجوز حمله على غير ما ذكرناه لأن ما ذكر من الوجوه لا يعلم تأويله كثير من الناس.

“Thus when it has been established that the meaning of it is not known to anyone, it is not permissible to bear the ayah on anything other than what we mentioned as it has not been mentioned that any narratives that many people do not know its meaning as has been said in some narratives.

فإن قيل: فكيف يخاطب الله الخلق بما لا يعقلونه أم كيف ينزل على رسوله ما لا يطّلع على تأويله؟

“If it should be said, “How could Allah speak to the creation in a way that they don’t understand? How could He send down on His Messenger something that one cannot ascertain the meaning?”

يجوز أن يكلفهم الإيمان بما لا يطّلعون على تأويله ليختبر طاعتهم كما قال تعالى: (وَلِنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ) (وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ) الآية، (وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِلنَّاسِ)

“It is possible that He would make them responsible for having iman in what they don’t know its meaning in order for them to be tested in their obedience. Like when he said, (So that He might test you as We know the mujahidin from those among you that are patient) [11] (We did not make the Qiblah which you were upon except so that We might know) [12] and also (We did not make the vision which We showed you except as a test to the people). [13]

وكما اختبرهم بالإيمان بالحروف المقطّعة مع أنه لا يعلم معناها والله أعلم.

“And just as He can test them in iman regarding the surahs that begin with the disconnected letters while the fact is that none knows their meaning. And Allah knows best”. [14]


[1] Surah TaHa (20), ayah 5

[2] Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 64

[3] Surah Sad (38), ayah 75

[4] Surat ur-Rahman (55), ayah 27

[5] Surat ul-Qamar (54), ayah 14

[6] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[7] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[8] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[9] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[10] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[11] Surah Muhammad (47), ayah 31

[12] Surah ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 143

[13] Surat ul-Isra’ (17), ayah 60

[14] Rawdat un-Nazir wa Junnat ul-Munazir, vol.1, pp. 213-217

THE RANK, VIRTUE AND SALVATION OF THE FIRST THREE GENERATIONS

The Masjid dedicated to the Companion, `Amr ibn Al-`As in Egypt.

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو خَيْثَمَةَ زُهَيْرُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ ، وَأَحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدَةَ الضَّبِّيُّ – وَاللَّفْظُ لِزُهَيْرٍ – قَالَا : حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ ، قَالَ : سَمِعَ عَمْرٌو جَابِرًا ، يُخْبِرُ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، قَالَ:

It was collected by Abu Khaithamah Zuhair ibn Harb and Ahmad ibn `Abdah Ad-Dabiyy – while the wording belongs to Zuhair – and they both said: It was narrated to us by Sufyan ibn `Uyainah who said: `Amr and Jabir both heard a narrative from Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri who narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him who said,

يَأْتِي عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ يَغْزُو فِئَامٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ فِيكُمْ مَنْ رَأَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ نَعَمْ

“A time shall come upon the people in which a group of people shall go out for offensive campaign. Then it will be said to them, ‘Is there among you anyone who saw the Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – and they shall answer in the affirmative’.

 فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ ثُمَّ يَغْزُو فِئَامٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ فِيكُمْ مَنْ رَأَى مَنْ صَحِبَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ نَعَمْ 

“Then victory will be given over to that group. Then a group from the people shall go out for an offensive campaign. Then it will be said to them, ‘Is there among you anyone who saw someone who was a Companion to the Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – and they shall answer in the affirmative.’

فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ ، ثُمَّ يَغْزُو فِئَامٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ ، فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ : هَلْ فِيكُمْ مَنْ رَأَى مَنْ صَحِبَ مَنْ صَحِبَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ فَيَقُولُونَ

نَعَمْ فَيُفْتَحُ لَهُمْ

“Then victory shall be given over to that group. Then a group from the people shall go out for an offensive campaign. Then it will be said to them, ‘Is there among you anyone  saw someone who kept companionship with someone who kept companionship with the Messenger of Allah – peace and blessings of Allah be upon him – and they shall answer in the affirmative.’ Then victory shall be given over to that group”.[1]

Imam An-Nawawi (d. 676) said of this hadith:

“This hadith has a portent in it that belongs to the miracles to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as well as the favour of the Companions, the Followers and the Followers of the Followers while that which is being sent forth for offensive campaign is the army”.[2]

Imam Salih Ash-Shami said of this hadith:

“This hadith refers to the fact that victory will be granted to the Companions due to their virtue and goodness as well as for the Followers and their Followers”.[3]

[1] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.4, Section 9: At-Tarikh, pp. 397-398

[2] Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh in-Nawawi, vol.15, pp. 83-84

[3] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` Bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.4, Section 9: At-Tarikh, pp. 397-398

Preventative Violence as a Necessity to Protect Muslim Artifacts

Figure 1A: The new gravesite of Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi after hoodlums damaged it.

I was sat here reflecting one day over the great Imam, Ibn Al-Jawzi (d. 597), when an article popped back up. In the aftermath of American invasions, the emboldening of the Twelvers and the rise of the Khawarij (read Salafiyyah) yet again, the grave suffered damage and was destroyed by explosives. There was an enormous outcry that led to the re-dedication of the grave and a marker places so that the people never forget.

This article on the Imam just provoked me to thinking about the situation more deeply and how Muslims have to protect our intellectual and cultural artifacts.

I often stared bug eyed at different libraries in NYC, New York, Ann Arbor, MI UW, Washington, UO, OR, St. Pancras in England and Chester Beatty in Ireland and the cache of manuscripts they stole and looted from the Muslim world. I copied and took as much as I could to share with the world. Had it been up to me, I would have brought 50 people in there and day after day taken the manuscripts back surreptitiously.

And it’s not enough that the wicked attack our intellectual repository. They even go for the physical artifacts. I often see some Muslims on the topic shrug their shoulders when the matter should be greater than that. Thus, preventative violence is a necessity to protect Muslim artifacts. Without this, there is no deterrent to people who would otherwise ravage them.

Masjid Ibn Qudamah in the town of Jamma`il, not far from the birthplace of Shaikh ul-Islam, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah.

Attempted threats came regarding the house of the Imam, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620) and violence followed. The threat subsided.

The resting place and masjid of the grand-shaikh, the Hanbali theologian, Imam `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani

Attempts were made on the masjid of the Shaikh, `Abdul-Qadir Al-Jilani (d. 561) and yet violence made the disrespect cease.

The same thing came to the graves of countless other saints and violence was the marker that stopped it. And we ask Allah that more people will step up and use preventative measures to stop any further disrespect.

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

FINAL ADDRESS OF THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD IN THE YEAR 10 AH

خطبة الرسول صلى الله عليه و سلم في حجة الوداع

Khutbah of the Messenger, صلى الله عليه و سلم, on the Farewell Hajj

 

الحمدُ لله نحمدُهُ وَنَسْتَعِينُه، ونَسْتَغْفِرُهُ، ونَتُوبُ إليه، ونَعُوذُ باللهِ مِنْ شُرورِ أنْفُسِنا ومِنْ سيّئآتِ أعْمَالِنَا مَن يَهْدِ اللهُ فَلا مُضِلَّ لَهُ،
ومَنْ يُضَلِلْ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ .

Praise be to Allah. We praise Him, seek His Aid, Forgiveness and turn to Him in repentance. We seek refuge in Allah from evil of our own selves and from the evil of our actions. Whoever guides then there is no one that can lead him astray. Whoever He leads astray, then there is no guide for him.

وأشهد أن لا إله إلاّ الله وحْده لا شريك له، وأنّ محمداً عبدُه ورسولُه. أوصيكُم عبادَ الله بتقوى الله،وأحثّكم على طاعته!

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah. He is One and Unique without any partner for Him. And I bear witness that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger. I advise you, Slaves of Allah, to have piety in Allah. I enjoin you to obedience to Him!

وأستفتح بالذي هو خير. أَمَّا بعد، أيّهَا النّاس،

I open and start with that which is best. People, I address you with the following:

اسْمَعُوا منّي أُبّينْ لَكُمْ، فَإنّيَ لاَ أَدْرِي، لعَليّ لاَ أَلْقَاكُمْ بَعْدَ عَامي هَذَا، في مَوْقِفي هذا، أَيُهَا النَّاس، إنّ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَأمْوَالَكُمْ وَأَعْرَاضَكُمْ عَليكُمْ حَرَامٌ إلى أنْ تَلْقَوْا رَبَّكُمْ، كَحُرمَةِ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا في شَهْرِ كُمْ هَذَا في بَلَدِكُم هَذَا

Listen well of what I say so that I might clarify matters for you. People, I do not know if I will be with you after this year on this side of life. Your blood, wealth, honour are sacred and should be preserved by yourselves until you meet your Lord. All of what was mentioned is sacred, just like this day of yours, in this month of yours in this land of yours.

وإنكم ستلقون ربكم فيسألكم عن أعمالكم وقد بلغت ، فَمَنْ كَانَتْ عِنْدَهُ أَمَانةٌ فليؤُدِّها إلى مَنْ ائْتمَنَهُ عَلَيها، وإن كل ربا موضوع ولكن لكم رءوس أموالكم لا تظلمون ولا تظلمون ، و قضى الله أنه لا ربا ، وإن ربا عمي العباس بن عبد المطلب موضوع كله

Indeed you will meet your Lord and He will ask you about your deeds. I have already conveyed the message, so whoever has a trust, let him discharge it to its rightful recipient. All riba is laid bare but you may have the principle of your wealth. Do not oppress and you will not be oppressed. Allah has declared that there be no riba and the riba of my uncle, Al-`Abbas ibn `Abdul Muttalib, is laid bare.

وأن كل دم كان في الجاهلية موضوع وإن أول دمائكم أضع دم عامر ابن ربيعة بن الحارث بن عبد المطلب ، فهو أول ما أبدأ به من دماء الجاهلية ، وإن مآثر الجاهلية موضوعة غير السدانة والسقاية والعمد قَوَدٌ ،

All blood feuds that were begun in the Age of Ignorance are laid bare. Indeed the first of your blood laid bare in that was `Amir ibn Rabi`ah ibn Al-Harith ibn `Abdul Muttalib. It is the first incident of what began of the blood feud of the Age of Ignorance. All traces of the Age of Ignorance are laid bare except giving food and drink to the pilgrims and execution for the offense of murder.

وشبه العمد ما قتل بالعصا والحجر وفيه مائة بعير فمن ازداد فهو من الجاهلية. أما بعد أيها الناس فإن الشيطان قد يئس من أن يعبد بأرضكم هذه أبدا ولكنه إن يطع فيما سوى ذلك فقد رضي به بما تحقرون من أعمالكم فاحذروه على دينكم أيها الناس

Wrongful death in the case of one killed by staff, stick and rock or boulder has the expiation of 100 camels. Whoever increases that amount, such is from the affairs of the Age of Ignorance. People, Shaitan has lost all hope of his being worshipped in this land of yours but he takes delight in the small things besides that that you commit. So beware and safeguard your Religion, people!

إِنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ يُضَلُّ بِهِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُحِلُّونَهُ عَاماً وَيُحَرِّمُونَهُ عَاماً لِيُوَاطِئُوا عِدَّةَ مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَيُحِلُّوا مَا حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ 
Intercalation in the calendar is only an addition of kufr. Those who are unbelievers lead astray people on account of it. They declare one year to be licit and then another to be sacred and forbidden for fighting. This is so that they might come towards that which Allah has forbidden and commit violation. 

إن الزمان قد استدار كهيئته يوم خلق الله السموات والأرض و

Indeed time has come back to its original form like the way Allah had created the skies and the Earth in the first place, as when He said,

 إِنَ عِدَّةَ الشهور عند اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْراً 
The number of months in the sight of Allah is twelve in number.

منها أربعة حرم ثلاثة متوالية ورجب مضر ، الذي بين جمادى وشعبان. أما بعد أيها الناس ، إن لِنسَائِكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ حقاً،

There are four months that are holy, three of them are consecutive: Rajab of Mudar – which comes between Jumada and Sha`ban. People, as for the next matter, your women have right over you.

ولَكُمْ عَلَيْهِنّ حقّ، لَكُمْ عَليِنّ ألا يُوطْئنَ فُرُشَكُمْ غيرَكم وَلا يُدْخِلْنَ أحَداً تكرَهُونَهُ بيوتَكُمْ، ولا يأتينَ بِفَاحِشَة

And you likewise have right over the women. You have as right over them that they take no man into the marital chamber besides you. Nor should they allow anyone to enter your homes that you dislike. None of them should commit perversion while under your care.

فإن فعلن فإن الله قد أذن لكم أن تهجروهن في المضاجع وتضربوهن ضربا غير مبرح فإن انتهين فلهن رزقهن وكسوتهن
بالمعروف واستوصوا بالنساء خيرا ،

If they should do so, then indeed you have permission to abandon them in the marital bed and to discipline them but without leaving a mark. If they should abstain, then they have a right to their sustenance and clothing with righteousness. Show righteousness to the women and heed.

فإنهن عندكم عوان لا يملكن لأنفسهن شيئا ، وإنكم إنما أخذتموهن بأمانة الله واستحللتم فروجهن بكلمات الله فاعقلوا أيها الناس قولي ،

These women in your presence as wives are helpmates and advisors and they do not have any dominion over themselves. You indeed only take these women as wives but they area trust that Allah has allowed you so that you might also have sex with them by the Word of Allah. People, understand my words very well.

أَيهَا النّاسُ، إنّما المُؤمِنُونَ إخْوةٌ ، فَلاَ يَحِلُّ لامْرِىءٍ مَالُ أَخيهِ إلاّ عَنْ طيبِ نفْسٍ منهُ، أَلاَ هَلْ بلّغْتُ، اللّهُم اشْهَدْ، فلا تَرْجِعُنّ بَعْدِي كُفاراً يَضرِبُ بَعْضُكُمْ رقابَ بَعْض فَإنّي قَدْ تَركْتُ فِيكُمْ مَا إنْ أخَذتمْ بِهِ لَمْ تَضِلُّوا بَعْدَهُ، كِتَابَ اللهِ وَ سُنَّة نَبيّه،

People, only the believers are brothers. One brother is not permitted the wealth of his brother except from a sound transaction or an allowance. Have I not conveyed the message? Allah! Bear witness. Do not become ungrateful after me, striking the necks of one another in combat. I have left among you something that if you take hold of it you will never go astray after me: Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet.

أَلاَ هَلْ بلّغتُ، اللّهمّ اشْهَدْ. أيها النّاسُ إن رَبَّكُمْ وَاحِدٌ، وإنّ أَبَاكُمْ واحِدٌ ، كُلكُّمْ لآدمَ وآدمُ من تُراب، إن أَكرمُكُمْ عندَ اللهِ أتْقَاكُمْ وليس لعربيّ فَضْلٌ على عجميّ إلاّ بالتّقْوىَ، أَلاَ هَلْ بلَّغْتُ، اللّهُمّ اشهد”

Have I not conveyed the message? Allah! Bear witness. People, your Lord is One, your father and Ummah is One. All of you are linked to Adam and Adam is from the dust. The most noble of you in the sight of Allah is the most pious. An Arab does not have a virtue over a non-Arab except in the case of piety. Have I not conveyed the message? Allah! Bear witness.

قَالُوا: نَعَمْ

The people said, “Yes, you have conveyed the message.”

قَال: فلْيُبَلِّغِ الشاهدُ الغائبَ والسلامُ عليكم ورحمة الله!

So as the message has been conveyed, let the one present here today convey it to the one that is not here. Peace be upon you and the Mercy of Allah.

Source: As-Sirat un-Nabawiyyah, vol.4, pp.185-187

note: There are a few narrations of this particular Khutbah in the sirah. Different Companions arrived at the beginning, middle and end and some were there for the entirety of the Khutbah so all the variations are sound.

ANNOUNCEMENT: THE WELL BALANCED WAY IN CREED IS CURRENTLY UNDER PRODUCTION

Dear readers,

Another breakthrough has come. We are currently under production and our second to last read through and cover design for the text The Well Balanced Way in Creed, authored by the grand Imam `Abdul Ghani ibn `Abdul Wahid Al-Maqdisi (d. 600), may Allah have mercy upon him, which shall have both Arabic and English text. We hope that this will be of benefit to readers. Again, this is not the final but the run up to it.

Until next time,

brother in Islam,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

1 SHAWWAL 1440 AH MESSAGE: WHAT ARE YOU FIGHTING FOR?

محراب الشيخ الإمام أبي عمر المقدسي

I would like to extend a warm greeting to all the readers that visited us and read from us this Ramadan. Nothing but good came from all that was in this month of Ramadan. Zakat ul-Fitr has come and gone with the month, fasting has come and gone with the month, lessons learned in this month have come and gone and hopefully we will have removed whatever plaguing and regular sins we had in this month.

We now look forward into our tenth month, Shawwal. And more precisely it is 1 Shawwal 1440 AH. This month of Ramadan and the days after reminded me of one principle that kept being emphasised.

Just what exactly are we fighting for? We are fighting for the theology of our ancestors that has been passed down infallibly to us from the beginning to now. Nothing else matters if you do not have that.

After all of Arabia fell in submission to Islam around 10AH, it was crucial that this principle was preserved. The Khawarij attempted to raise their hands but were stamped back down. They would not manifest until some time later.

In the time of the Imam of Muslim Orthodoxy, the cults were the challenged that asked us to confirm what we were fighting for…it was our theology. The cults were fine with a watered down theology that allowed coexistence with an agreement of peaceful acknowledgement of each other’s sects. This was rejected.

If truth is truth, then people must suffer for it. At the end of all of this, only one true theology appeared, namely that agreed upon from the Companions in the time of Ahmad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, to the final Ahmad and the second Siddiq, namely Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

The Christian invasions that brought the Crusaders to us made us ask: What are we fighting for? It was the theology of our ancestors that we are fighting for and with this as the basis we would not compromise with Christianity. It was a false religion and that was it.

They would finally be expelled from the area around the late 600s by Baybars. The area would not suffer another invasion and ravaging until some 800 years later by General Allenby from England.

The Tatar invasion from 656-660 AH upon until their being rebuffed and retarded by the armies of Islam brought the following question to us: what are we fighting for?

It was the theology of our ancestors. The Tatar were fine with a religion that agreed with their own or an Islam in which they could practice the old gods and also this one that they would add as long as we stopped calling their religion false.

This was denied. And out of the ashes of the ruins of Baghdad and selected cities across Sham and Afghanistan, Imams fought against them along with the laity, physically and with words in books. There is but one theology and no compromise would be made.

Names such as Yahya As-Sarsari (d. 656 AH), Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 AH), Ibn ul-Qayyim (d. 754 AH), Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali (d. 795 AH) and many others rejected and rebuffed the ecumenism of the Tatars and called it what it truly was: falsehood.

We would face the Catholic Inquisition from the 800s on in the Iberian Peninsula and many of us – rather than compromise – left or faced certain death. The theology of our ancestors was at stake and we would not retreat from the principle. And this is the truth of the matter.

Then came the Great Afghanistan War in 1400 onwards in which 2 million and more people shed their blood to repel at the time the godless, unsightly and bestial Russian army. What were we fighting for? It was nothing more than the same theology that had been before. It was the theology of the laity and nothing more or less.

Spokesman for Islam in the West laying a wreath at a Holocaust memorial that also serves as a memorial and worship location.

We face the same kufr in this day and age and it is the same desire for ecumenism and religious indifferentism that has always been. And we reject this kufr, atheism, ecumenism and the like with the same gusto as we did previous.

Spokesman for Islam in the West at the Kotel, the most sacred spot in Judaism for worship. Why were they they? Who gave them the authority to be there? Why are they in a place of worship of another religion?

If you find yourselves compromising on your most fundamental principles or you don’t know the difference between your theology and false religions or cults, you have to ask yourself: What are you fighting for? If nothing, you have nothing.

If you are fighting for something, make sure you are on the right side of the conflict. Everything, including eternity is on the line.

Until next time,

 

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

VIRTUES OF JERUSALEM BY IMAM DIYA’ UD-DIN AL-MAQIDISI D. 643 PT.3

Figure 1A: The Dome of the Rock complex.

The Chapter Explaining that the Victorious Group will be in Jerusalem and the Shadows of Jerusalem

These matters have been discussed in our other work – which is volume one of the series – entitled Fada’il ush-Sham (The Virtues of Sham).

 

The Chapter of the Night Journey of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him to Jerusalem

Hadith #45: It was narrated to us by Abu `Ali Diya’ ibn Abul Qasim ibn Abu `Ali an-Nasri according to what I read to him from dictation in Baghdad. I said to him: It was narrated to you by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn `Abdul Baqi al-Ansari who it was recited to him and you heard it: It was narrated to us by Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Jawhari by dictation who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ja`far ibn Hamdan who recited to him and I was listening: It was narrated to us by Bishr ibn Musa al-Asadi who said: It was narrated to us by Hudhah ibn Khalifah who said: It was narrated to us by `Awf from Zararah ibn Awfa who mentioned that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him and his father, quoted the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, as saying,

“When the night journey came and I woke up in Makkah suddenly and I knew that the people would reject and belie me.”

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, went out and was very sad and unhappy and was isolated.

Abu Jahl passed by him and came close enough and could be near to him when he asked mockingly, “Anything new today?” The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, “Yes, as a matter of fact there is something new.” Abu Jahl responded, “So what do you have?” He answered him, “I was taken from my bed and travelled by night.” Abu Jahl asked, “Where to?” He was answered, “To Jerusalem.” Abu Jahl then asked, “Then you came back to us after that?” He replied, “Yes.” No one heard this statement except that he denied that it had been said out of fear that someone would call his people to the faith and then it would be said to him, “Do you stand by the statement of your people and do you tell me to affirm that which I am to call them to?”

He said, “Indeed this is what I say.” So Abu Jahl then said, “Gathering of Banu Ka`b, come here one moment.” So the people finished their talking in small groups and gathered around  and then Abu Jahl asked the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, “Now tell your people again what you just told me.” So the Messenger of Alalh, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, responded, “I was taken on a journey in the night.”

The people asked, “Where to?” He said, “To Jerusalem.” The people then asked, “Then after that you came back to us?” He said, “Yes, indeed that is the case.” There were some who clapped their hands in derision while others in the gathering placed their hands on their heads while laughing at what he had said. They said, “Are you able to describe to us the Masjid that is there in the city?”

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, went on to say that he described it to them until that he had finished all the details that had been shown to him. The image on the Masjid was shown to him and he was looking at it as if he was looking at the house of `Aqil or the house of `Iqal. So I described while I was looking at it and the people say, “By Allah, the description that he gave is indeed correct. He has told the truth.”

This is collected by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, from the transmission of Muhammad ibn Ja`far and Ruh ibn `Awf.

Hadith #46: It was narrated to us by the Imam, Abu Bakr Al-Qasim ibn `Abdullah ibn `Umar ibn as-Saffar at Naisabar that Wajih ibn Tahir ash-Shahami narrated to them by way of dictation: It was narrated to us by Abu Hamid Ahmad ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Azhari by way of dictation to him: It was narrated to us by Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Makhlidi who said:

It was narrated to us by Abul `Abbas Muhammad ibn Ishaq ath-Thaqafi who said: It was narrated to us by `Ali ibn Muslim at-Tusi who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Dawud who said: It was narrated to us by Ibn Abi Salamah from Abu Hurairah who mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“I was at the chamber of the Ka`bah when the Quraish were asking me about my Night Journey to Jerusalem. They asked me a number of things about Jerusalem  and I was stricken about getting any details wrong. So Allah manifested it to me so that I could look at it and whatever they asked me I informed them. I had been in a group of the prophets and I saw Musa standing up in his grave while praying. He was a man with curly hair and brown like the man from the Shanu’ah tribe. I then saw `Isa who was standing and praying and he most resembled `Urwah ibn Mas`ud ath-Thaqafi out of all the people. I saw Ibrahim who was standing and praying and he most resembled your friend currently speaking out of the all the people. So when I prayed and finished, it was said to me, ‘Muhammad, This is Malik. He is the of the guardians of the Fire.’ The speaker then greeted him. I then turned to greet him but he greeted me first.”

This was collected by Muslim from Zuhair ibn Harb from Juhain ibn Al-Muthanna from `Abdul `Aziz ibn Abi Salamah from `Abdullah ibn al-Fadhl. There was a portion of the narration in which it was said that, “So Allah manifested it to me and I looked upon the buildings.”

Hadith #47: It was narrated to us by Abu Muslim al-Mu’ayyid ibn `Abdur-Rahim ibn al-Ikhwah according to the recitation that I narrated to him in Isfahan. I said to him: It was narrated to you by Zahir ibn Tahir ibn ash-Shahami according to how it was read to him: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Mansur ibn Khalaf al-Maghribi who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Ahmad al-Makhlidi who said: It was narrated to us by Abul `Abbas Muhammad ibn Ishaq as-Siraj who said: It was narrated to us by Qutaibah ibn Sa`id who said: It was narrated to us by Al-Laith ibn Sa`d from `Aqil from Az-Zuhri from Abu Salamah ibn `Abdur-Rahman from Jabir ibn `Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“When the Quraish belied me, I stood up at the chamber of the Ka`bah and Allah showed me a vision of Jerusalem and I started describing to them the details and its’ proofs as I was looking right at it.”

This was collected by Imams al-Bukhari in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih from the narration of Ibn Bakir; Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj from Qutaibah while both narrations originate at Al-Laith ibn Sa`d. Both narrations also have, “When the Quraish belied me.” Allah knows best about this matter.

Hadith #48: It was narrated to us by Abul Majd Zahir ibn Ahmad ibn Hamid ath-Thaqafi at Isfahan that Abu `Abdullah Al-Hussain ibn `Abdul Malik the teacher informed them by way of recitation that: It was narrated to us by Ibrahim ibn Mansur Sibt at Harwih: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim the reader who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Ya`la Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn al-Muthanna al-Muwsali who said: It was narrated to us by Shaiban who said: It was narrated to us by Hammad who said: It was narrated to us by Thabit al-Bunani from Anas ibn Malik that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“I was brought the Buraq. It was a beast that was white in colour and larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule. Wherever it would place its’ hooves and gaze is as far as it would go in the blink of an eye. I rode it until I came to Jerusalem. I then disembarked and tethered it at the place wthere all the prphets before had tethered it. Then I entered the Masjid and prayed two raka`ah, then came out.”

This is collected by Imam Muslim in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih in a long narration from Ghaiban ibn Farukh.

Hadith #49: It was narrated to us by the Imam, Abu Bakr al-Qasim ibn `Abdullah ibn `Umar ibn as-Saffar at Naisabur that Abu Bakr Wajih ibn Tahir ash-Shahami informed them of that which had been read to him: It was narrated to us by Abu Hamid Ahmad ibn al-hasan ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Azhari who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Muhammad al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Makhlidi who said: It was narrated to us by Abul `Abbas as-Siraj who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Rafi` who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdur-Razzaq who said: It was narrated to us by Ma`mar from Qatadah from Anas ibn Malik who said that the Ptophet, peace nad blessings of Allah be upon him:

When he was brought the Buraq on the Night Journey, he prepared to ride it and when he came forward to mount it, the beast moved away and was startled. Jibril said to it, ‘What is wrong with you! By Allah, No one more noble in the sight of Allah has mounted you before him.’ Then the best calmed down.

This is collected by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad from the narration of Muhammad ibn Yahya an-Naisaburi from `Abd ibn Humaid and others from`Abdur-Razzaq; At-Tirmidhi from Ishaq ibn Mansur from `Abdur-Razzaq who said: “The hadith is strange and I do not know this wording except from the hadith of `Abdur-Razzaq.” I would say for the record that he may mean that Ma`mar having narrated it is strange in narration. This was also narrated by Sa`id from `Arubah from Qatadah.

Hadith #50: It was narrated to us by Zahir ibn Ahmad th-Thaqafi at Isfahan that al-Hussain ibn `Abdul Malik al-Adib narrated to them by way of recitation to him: It was narrated to us by Ibrahim ibn Mansur who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Ya`la al-Muwsali who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdur-Rahman ibn Al-Mutawakkil the reader who said: It was narrated to us by Yahya ibn Wadih who said: It was narrated to us by Az-Zubair ibn Janadah from `Abdullah ibn Buraidah from his father that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“On the Nighty Journey, I carried on until I reached Jerusalem. Then the Angel Jibril, peace be upon him, approached the foundation stone and rent it with his finger and then had me tether the Buraq.”

This was collected by at-Tirmidhi from the narration of Ya`qub ibn Ibrahim from Abu Thumailah – who is actually Yahya ibn Wadih.

Hadith #51: It was narrated to us by Zahir ibn Ahmad ibn Hamid ath-Thaqafi that Al-Hussain bin `Abdul Malik al-Khallal informed them by way of recitation: It was narrated to us by Ibrahim ibn Mansur who said: It was narrated to us by Zahir by way of my recitation that Isma`il ibn al-Ikhshid informed them by way of written authority:

It was narrated to us by Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdur-Rahman, who both said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim who said: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Muwsali who said: It was narrated to us by Hadabah ibn Khalid who said: It was narrated to us by Hammad ibn Salamah who said: It was narrated to us by Thabit from Anas ibn Malik who said:

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, came to the Buraq and it was a beast that was white in colour and was larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule. Whereever t placed its’ hoof and looked was where it went in the blink of an eye. He said, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him,

“So I mounted it and travelled until I came to Jerusalem. I then disembarked and tethered the beast at the place where all the prophets had tethered it in the past. Then I ented the Masjid and prayed two raka`ah. Then I came out and Jibril came to me with a vessel filled with wine and another vessel with milk.

I took the vessel of milk and drank. Jibril then said to me, ‘You chose the natural disposition.’ Then I went out to the lower sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’ He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there was Adam and I greated him and he prayed for me that I would have good.

Then I ascended to the second sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’ He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there were Yahya and the son of his aunt (Maryman) `Isa ibn Maryam and they both greeted me and he prayed for me that I would have good.Then I ascended to the third sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’

He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there was Yusuf – the one who had been given half of all the beauty – so he greeted me and he prayed for me that I would have good.

After that I ascended to the fourth sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’ He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there was Idris who greeted me and he prayed for me that I would have good.  Allah, Mighty and Majestic said, And We raised him to a high station.[1]

Then from there I ascended to the fifth sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’ He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there was Harun who greeted me and he prayed for me that I would have good.

Shortly after I ascended to the sixth sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’ He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there was Musa, peace be upon him, who greeted me and he prayed for me that I would have good.

Once I finished there I ascended to the seventh sky. Then Jibril sought entry and it was said, ‘Who are you?’ He answered and said that it was Jibril but then he was asked, ‘And who is with you?’ He answered, ‘It is Muhammad.’ The voice that came back asked, ‘Has he been sent for?’ So it was opened up for us and when I came in there was Ibrahim, peace be upon him.

He had his back facing The Frequented House, a place in which 70,000 angels enter in and go out and never repeat. I then went to the Lote Tree of the Utmost Boundary and the leaves on the tree were like the ears of elephants. The fruit of the tree was larger than water jugs used for travel and it was covered with things from the command of Allah that were willed. There is no one from the creation of Allah that can describe its’ goodness. So we revealed to him what was to be revealed. 

Then after that fifty prayers a day were made compulsory for me to do so I went down and saw Musa, peace be upon him, on the way and he said, ‘What was made compulsory for your Ummah?’ I said, ‘Fifty prayers a day.’ He said, ‘Your Ummah will not be able to do that. Go back to your Lord and ask for a reduction.’ So I returned back and said, ‘Lord, I ask for a reduction so he took five away from the number.’ So I returned to Musa and he said, ‘So what did you do?’ I said, ‘I had five prayers taken off the number.’

He said, ‘Your Ummah will not be able to do that. Ask for a reduction.’ So I went back and asked for a reduction and kept going back and forth between my Lord and Musa until he said, ‘Muhammad, It is five prayers in every day and night but each prayer shall be counted as ten and this will be fifty. So whoever intended to do a good deed but did not, then this is counted as one good deed. If he did the deed, it is written for him as ten good deeds. Whoever intended to do a bad deed and did not do it, nothing is written down. If he did it, one bad deed is written.’ I then returned to Musa and informed him of the situation and he told me, ‘Go back and ask for a reduction.’ I said that I had already gone back to my Lord so many times that I felt shy to do so again.”

This narration is collected by Imam Muslim in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih in a long narration from Shaiban ibn Farukh from Hammad ibn Silamah from Thabit from Anas.

Hadith #52: It was narrated to us by Abul Majd Al-Fadl ibn Al-Hussain ibn Ibrahim ibn Sulaiman ibn al-Baniyasi who read to him and we were listening in the gathering in Damascus in the year 577 after Hijrah. It was said to him: It was narrated to you by Abul Hasan `Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Hussain al-Salami al-Mawazini according to what was read to him in the year 513 after Hijrah who said: It was narrated to us by Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn `Abdur-Rahman ibn `Uthman ibn Abi Nasr according to what was read to him in the year 443 after Hijrah:

It was read to the Qadi, Abu Bakr Yusuf ibn Al-Qasim ibn Yusuf ibn Faris Al-Mayanji in the year 374 after Hijrah while I was present and listening and it was said to him: It was narrated to you by Abu Ya`la Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Al-Muthanna at-Tamimi al-Muwsali according to what was read to him: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Wasawisi who said: It was narrated to us by Damrah ibn Rabi`ah from Yahya ibn Abi `Amr as-Saybani from Abu Salih – the freed slave of Umm Hani – from Umm Hani who said: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, came to me very late one night while I was reclining upon my bed and said,

“I wanted to go and sleep in al-Masjid ul-Haram one night but then Jibril, peace be upon him, came to me and he took me to the gate of the Masjid. It was there I found a beast that was white in colour, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule. Its’ ears were lowered and I stood forth to mount it. Wherever it placed its’ hooves and put its’ gaze, it would go there in the blink of an eye.

When he took me from low to high elevation he would pump his legs upward and move the back legs downwards and when he took me down he would stretch his back legs and curl his front legs. Jibril, peace be upon him, did not have me disembark until we stopped at Jerusalem. Once there, I tethered the beast at the same place where the prophets had tethered it in the past. I then found an open space where the prophets were gathered.

Among them were Ibrahim, Musa, `Isa, peace be upon them all. I prayed with them and spoke to them. I was then brought two vessels bearing liquid. One had a read liquid and one had a white liquid. I drank the white liquid and Jibril, said to me right after, ‘You have drank milk and left the wine. If you had drank wine, your Ummah would have been led astray.’ I then rode on the animal thereafter until I came to Al-Masjid ul-Haram.”

I prayed in the morning with him and even held onto his cloak when I heard the news. I said, ‘I implore you by Allah, dear son of my uncle! Do not tell the Quraish about this as they are sure to belie you and those who believe in you may belie you.’ He took his hands and moved his cloak until he was able to remove himself from my grasp and removed my hands which were around his belly.

I looked at the flesh that was above his izar and it was like the rolled up page of scroll with the marks of the izar. When the light of his skin was seen and it was known that he was going to carry through with his desire, I looked away and fell down in prostration. When I raised my head I saw that he had already left from the house. I said to my servant girl by the name of Nab`ah, ‘May Allah have mercy on you. Follow him and look at what he will say and what is going to be said to him.’

When Nab`ah returned to me she informed me that the Messenger of Allah had set out to a group of the Quraish gathered at the Hatim of the Ka`bah and among those present were: al-Mut`am ibn `Adi ibn Nawfal, `Amr ibn Hisham, Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah. The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, then addressed them, “I prayed `Isha’ last light in this Masjid and also prayed there the Fajr prayer but between that time I prayed at Jerusalem and with the prophets in their numbers. Among them were Ibrahim, Musa, `Isa, peace be upon them all. I prayed with them and spoke to them.”

`Amr ibn Hisham asked in derision, ‘Describe them to me!’ He was told, “`Isa, peace be upon him, was of medium height and not very tall, having a wide chest, very red features, wavy hair and somewhat resembled `Urwah ibn Mas`ud ath-Thaqafi. As for Musa, peace be upon him, he was brown and tall, resembling one of the tribesman of the Shanu’ah. He had much hair and evenly spaced eyes and well spaced teeth and large lips, bearing a strong and fierce look, stern in expression. As for Ibrahim, peace be upon him, by Allah, I resemble him most in his looks and actions.”

They looked at him in wonder and animation, with al-Mut`am ibn `Adi ibn Nawfal saying, ‘All of your situation before today was easier to bear than what you have just claimed now. I bear witness that you are a liar! We take caravans of camels to Jerusalem and it is a month long journey to get there and you are claiming that you have gone in one night. I swear by Lat, `Uzza that I do not believe you and what you are saying could never be true.’

Al-Mut`am had a station at the well of Zamzam that had been given to him by `Abdul Muttalib and he destroyed and swore by Lat and `Uzza that he would not take a single drop from it ever again. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said to him, ‘Mut`am, You have said evil to the son of your brother and belied him. I bear witness that this man is truthful.’

Al-Mut`am said, ‘Muhammad, Describe Jerusalem to us.’ He answered him, ‘I arrived there by night and left by night.’ Then Jibril, peace be upon him, came to him and showed him the vision of the city. He remarked, ‘The gate of the city that I came through was in the following fashion and the location was in the following location…’ then he described the matter. Abu Bakr, who was present at the time for the exchange said, ‘You have spoken the truth. You have spoken the truth.’

Nab`ah then said, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saying that day: Abu Bakr, Indeed Allah, Mighty and Majestic, has named you As-Siddiq.’

The people in the gathering then said, ‘Mut`am, Let us ask him something regarding the city that we would know about Jerusalem. Muhammad, tell us something about our caravan of camels that came back from there recently.’ He replied, “I came to one of the camels of a specific tribe at ar-Ruha’ and one of them had strayed and they set out looking for it. I came to their area while everyone was gone and there was a drinking cup that had water in it and I drank from it.”

The people went and asked about an empty cup that they found after the lost camel was found and this was confirmed. They said, ‘This is a sign.’ He carried on, “Then I went to the caravan of a specific tribe and the camel of that caravan went away from me and there was a red camel with distinctive spots of white and I did not know whether the camel had departed from the caravan or not. Now go ask them about the situation.”

So the people went and asked them and they said, ‘By the One Lord, this is a sign.’ He then said, “Then I went to a specific tribe at at-Tan`im and thay had a grey camel and it raced ahead away from the group at ath-Thaniyyah.” At hearing this Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah said, ‘This man is a magician.’ The people went and looked and found exactly as they had been told. They then thought that Al-Walid had told the truth and that it indeed was magic. They said, ‘Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah has told the truth and this is indeed magic.’

Allah, Mighty and Majestic, sent down the following,

We did not make the vision which We revealed to you except as a tribulation for the people and the cursed tree as mentioned in the Qur’an.[2]

I then said, ‘Umm Hani’, ‘What is the cursed tree that was mentioned in the Qur’an?’ She remarked to me, ‘Those who were not given the ability to fear, then they will not have anything of fear except for great wrong doing indeed.’ ”

Hadith #53: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Abul Qasim at-Tamimi the teacher according to the recitation I made to him at Isfahan. I said to him: It was narrated to you by Abul Khair Muhammad ibn Raja’ ibn Ibrahim ibn `Umar ibn al-Hasan ibn Yunus according to what was recited to him and you hear in the gathering: It was narrated to us by Abul Hussain Ahmad ibn `Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad adh-Dhakwani who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Musa ibn Mardawaih who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Malik who said: It was narrated to us by Al-Ahwas Muhammad ibn al-Haitham who said: Ibn Mardawaih said: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim who said: It was narrated to us by Ibrahim ibn al-Haitham, both of whom said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Kathir as-San`ani who said: it was narrated to us by Ma`mar ibn Rashid from Az-Zuhri from `Urwah from `A’ishah who said:

The Prophet was taken on the Nighty Journey to Al-Masjid al-Aqsa and when he came back and mentioned this to the people, some of the those who had believed in him apostated due to that and they were put to trial on account of what was mentioned. The men from the idol worshippers made their way in haste to the house of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq. They remarked, “You know that your friend claims that he was taken last night to Jerusalem.” Abu Bakr asked, “He definitely said that?” They answered, “He most assuredly did say that.”

He then answered them, “If he did indeed say that then he has spoken the truth.” The people asked in surprise, “You believe that he went to Sham in one night and then returned before the Fajr prayer came?” Abu Bakr said, “I testify and believe him in something that is greater than that. I believe that he receives news from the sky in the morning and the evening.” So because of Abu Bakr was referred to as As-Siddiq.

Hadith #54: It was narrated to you by Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Nasr as-Saidalani at Isfahan that Fatimah bint `Abdullah al-Jawzdaniyyah narrated to them according to what he had read back in dictation: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Raidhah who said: It was narrated to us by Sulaiman ibn Ahmad at-Tabarani who said: It was narrated to us by `Amr ibn Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Zabriq al-Humsi who said: It was narrated to us by our father who said: It was narrated to us by At-Tabarani who said: It was narrated to us by `Ammarah ibn Wathimah al-Masri who said: It was narrated to us by Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Zabriq who said: It was narrated to us by `Amr ibn al-Harith who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Salim from Az-Zubairi who said: It was narrated to us by Al-Walid ibn `Abdur-Rahman that Jabir ibn Nufair said: It was narrated to us by Shaddad ibn Aws who said:

I said one day, “Messenger of Allah, How were you taken on the Nighty Journey?” He said, “I prayed at night along with my Companions in Makkah and then not long after Jibril, peace be upon him, came to me with a beast that was white in colour, larger than a donkey but smaller than a mule. So he said to me, ‘Ride this.’ So I saddled it and with its’ permission carried on and it carried me on its’ back and it had incredible reach where if it looked in a direction wherever its’ hoof stretched it would go there in an eye blink.

So it carried on with its’ journey until it reached a land that had date palms. Jibril said, ‘Disembark here.’ Then he said for me to pray and I did so and then mounted the beast again. He asked me, ‘Did you know where you just prayed?’ When I replied that Allah knew best he said, ‘You have prayed in Yathrib, also known as Taibah.’ It carried me on its’ back and it had incredible reach where if it looked in a direction wherever its’ hoof stretched it would go there in an eye blink.

This happened until I came to a land where the ground was white. ” Jibril said, ‘Disembark here.’ Then he said for me to pray and I did so and then mounted the beast again. He asked me, ‘Did you know where you just prayed?’ When I replied that Allah knew best he said, ‘You have prayed in Madyan at the site of the burning bush where Musa had stood.’ Then I mounted the creature and we carried on. It carried me on its’ back and it had incredible reach where if it looked in a direction wherever its’ hoof stretched it would go there in an eye blink.

This happened until I came to a land where the houses looked like castles to us. Jibril said, ‘Disembark here.’ Then he said for me to pray and I did so and then mounted the beast again. He asked me, ‘Did you know where you just prayed?’ When I replied that Allah knew best he said, ‘You prayed at Bethlehem, the birthplace of `Isa, peace be upon him, the Messiah, son of Maryam.’

So we carried on until I came to the city and I entred from its’ right facing gate and was facing the Masjid. I tethered the beast and entered the Masjid from the gate that would face the sun in the daytime. I prayed in the Masjid however long Allah willed me to do so. Then I felt thirst the like of which I had never felt before in my life. I was brought two drinking vessels, one filled with milk and the other honour that were both sent to me. I had to choose between them and Allah, Mighty and Majestic, guided me to chose the milk and I drank it until I had finished. There was no one present except myself and another man, an old man leaning on a stick. He said, ‘Yes, your companion has chosen the natural disposition and has been guided.’Then we set off until we came to the valley which was in the city. This was called the Valley of Gehenna.

We then carried on and passed by a caravan of the Quraish at a particular place and one of the camels had become lost. There was a group of people present and I greeted them. One of them remarked, ‘This sounds like the voice of Muhammad.’ I then came back to my Companions before the coming of the Fajr prayer and Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, came to me.

He said, ‘Messenger of Allah, Where were you tonighty as I did not find you in the normal place?’ I asked that did he know that I went to the Masjid in Jerusalem tonight and he said, ‘Messenger of Allah, That is one month’s journey. Please explain what happened.’ So when this was asked, I had opened to me the mirror of seeing the place and anyting they asked me about I answered as it was as if it was a mirror I was looking at it during the time.

Abu Bakr said, ‘I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah.’ The idol worhippers said, ‘Look at Ibn Abi Kabshah claiming that he has been to Jerusalem!’ So I said, ‘Indeed I will tell you the sign. When I was on the Night Journey, I passed by a camel in a particular place and it was grey with a black blaze bearing two black sacks.’ Once this was said the people waited and looked and at midday there was a caravan that came in matching the description and it was the very camel that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, had described.”

Hadith #55:  It was narrated to us by abu Tahir al-Mubarak ibn Abil Mu`ali at Baghdad that Hibatullah ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahid informed them by way of recitation: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn Ja`far who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Ahmad who said: it was narrated to us by my father who said: It was narrated to us by Bakr ibn `Isa Abu Bishr ar-Rasibi who said: I heard Abu `Awanah say: It was narrated to us by `Umar ibn Salamah  from his father from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“On the Nighty Journey my feet were placed in the spot where the prophets had walked at Jerusalem. So then after that I was approached by `Isa ibn Maryam, peace be upon him. When I saw him, I noticed that the one that he resembled most among the people was `Urwah ibn Mas`ud. Then Musa, peace be upon him, was brought to me. Among the people, the one who he resembled most was of the tribesman of Shanu’ah. Then Ibrahim, peace be upon him, was brought to me and the one who he resembled most among the people was your companion that is speaking right now.”

The is collected by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad.

The Chapter on the Place where the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, Prayed while in Jerusalem

Hadith #56: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Muhamamd ibn Abul Qasim ibn Abu Shakar at-Tamimi at Isfahan that Abul Khair Muhammad ibn Raja’ ibn Ibrahim ibn `Umar ibn al-Hasan ibn Yunus who informed them by way of recitation to them: It was narrated to us by Abul Hussain Ahmad ibn `Abdur-Rahman ibn Muhammad adh-Dhakwani who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Musa ibn Mardawaih the Memoriser who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad bin Ahmad ibn Ibrahim who said: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn `Amr who said: It was narrated to su by Al-Hasan ibn Sahl who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Usamah from `Isa ibn Sinan ash-Shami from Al-Mughirah from his father who said:

I prayed with `Umar in the place that was called: The Church of Maryam at the Valley of Gehenna. Then we came to the Masjid and `Umar mentioned that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

“On the Night Journey, I prayed at the foot of the Masjid and went from the place where the foundation stone was set to Jerusalem. As I stood there was an angel bearing three vessels for drinking. He said, Muhammad, Look at these and drink. So I took a small sip of the honey that was present.

Then I saw the other and I drank from it until I was satisfied and this was milk. Then I was then offered the other one but refused and it was wine. The angel said: If you had drank from this one, your Ummah would not have gathered on the natural disposition. Then he took me and I ascended past the sky and the prayer was made compulsory for me. Then I returned to Khadijah and nothing had changed from the time that I had left her.”

Hadith #57: It was narrated to us by al-Mubarak ibn Abul Ma`ali al-Harimi at Baghdad that Hibatullah ibn Muhammad informed them by way of recitation: It was narrated to us by Al-Hasan ibn `Ali who said: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn Ja`far who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Ahmad who said: It was narrated to me by my father who said: It was narrated to me by Aswad ibn `Amir who said: It was narrated to me by Hammad ibn Salamah from Abu Sinan from `Ubaid ibn Adam and Abu Maryam and Abu Shu`aib that `Umar ibn al-Khattab was wearing a tattered robe at the time of the conquest of Jerusalem.

Abu Salamah said: It was narrated to me by Abu Sinan from `Ubaid ibn Ahmad who said: I heard `Umar ibn al-Khattab saying to Ka`b, “Do you not see where I have prayed?” Ka`b remarked, “If you ask me, I remember that you prayed behind the foundation stone as all of Jerusalem is in front of you.” `Umar then said, “No, these are thoughts coming from Judaism. Rather I prayed when I saw the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, facing towards the Qiblah and he prayed in this fashion.”

This hadith was collected by the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad.

The Chapter on the Virtues of Putting on Ihram from Jerusalem

Hadith #58: It was narrated to us by Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Nasr as-Saidalani at Isfahan that Fatimah bint `Abdullah al-Jawzdaniyyah dictated to them: I twas narrated to us by Muhammad ibn `Abdullah ibn Raidhah who said: It was narrated to us by Sulaiman ibn Ahmad at-Tabarani who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr ibn Sadaqah who sadi: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Al-Qut`ii who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdul A`la from Muhammad ibn Ishaq who said: It was narrated to me by Sulaiman ibn Suhaim from Yahya ibn Abi Sufyan from Umm Hakim bint Abi Umayyah from Umm Salamah who narrated that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said,

“Whoever made Ihram for an `Umrah from Jerusalem, his sins are forgiven.”

This is collected by the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal by way of the transmission from Ya`qub from his father from Muhammad ibn Ishaq by way of his transmission and there is an addition at the end of it that reads:

“Umm Hakim was determined to carry out that hadith until finally she was able to get to Jerusalem, put on the Ihram and start her `Umrah from that point.”

Hadith #59: It was narrated to us by Zahir ibn Ahmad ibn Mahmud ath-Thaqafi that Al-Hussain bin `Abdul Malik ibn al-Hussain narrated to them by way of reading out: It was narrated to us by Ibrahim ibn Mansur who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Ya`la al-Muwsali who said: It was narrated to us by Harun al-Hammal who said: It was narrated to us by Ibn Abi Fudaik who said: It was narrated to me by `Abdullah ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Yuhannas who said: It was narrated to us by Yahya ibn Abi Sufyan ibn Sa`id al-Akhnasi from his grandmother Hakimah from Umm Salamah who mentioned that she heard the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, saying,

“Whoever puts on the Ihram for Hajj or `Umrah starting from Al-Masjid ul-Aqsa and ends up at Al-Masjid ul-Haram, then all of his sins from before and after are forgiven for him and the Paradise is given to him.”

However `Abdullah doubts which of the narrations was definitely stated.

This is collected by Abu Dawud from Ahmad ibn Salih from Ibn Ibi Fudaik in the same chain.

The Chapter of Making Special Mention of the Companions who Made Ihram from Jerusalem

Hadith #60: It was narrated to us by Abun-Najjah Isma`il ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hussain al-Hanafi according to what I read to him at Baghdad. I said the following: It was narrated to you by Abus-Sa`ud al-Mubarak ibn Khairun ibn `Abdul Malik ibn Khairun according to what was read to him: It was narrated to us by Abul Fadl Ahmad ibn Khairun who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu `Ali al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Shadhan who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Muhammad Da`laj ibn Ahmad ibn Da`laj who said: It was narrated to us by Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn `Ali ibn Zaid as-Saa’igh al-Makki who said: It was narrated to us by Sa`id ibn Mansur who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Ma`shar from Nafi` from Ibn `Umar who mentioned that he made Irham from Jerusalem in the year of the two judgements.

Hadith #61: It was narrated to us by my brother, the Imam Abul `Abbas Ahmad ibn `Abdul Wahid ibn Ahmad according to what I read to him. I said to him: It was narrated to you by `Ubaidullah ibn `Abdullah ibn Shatil who said: It was narrated to us by Al-Hussain ibn `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Busri who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Yahya ibn ibn `Abdul Jabbar as-Sukri who said:

It was narrated to us by Isma`il ibn Muhammad as-Saffar who said: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn Mansur ar-Ramadi who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdur-Razzaq who said: It was narrated to us by Ma`mar from Az-Zuhri from Salim from Ibn `Umar that he at one point put on the Ihram at Jerusalem and made intention for `Umrah.

Hadith #62: It was narrated to us by Abul Qasim Hibatullah ibn `Ali al-Busairi that Yahya ibn Al-Musharraf ibn `Ali ibn al-Khidr at-Timar narrated to them by way of what was read out to him: It was narrated to us by Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Ahmad al-Muqri’ that `Ali ibn al-Hussain bin Bandar ibn `Abdullah ibn Bandar – who was a Qadi – in Egypt who said: It was narrated to us that Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn Ibrahim who said: It was narrated to us by Al-Asadi who said:

It was narrated to us by Al-Hussain – who is Ibn al-Hasan who said: It was narrated to us by Ibn al-Mubarak from Ma`mar from Az-Zuhri who said: Mahmud ibn Ar-Rabi` informed me and stated that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used the water in the pail in their family house. He also said, “I heard `Utbah ibn Malik mention things as well.” Mahmud then said that he put on his Ihram at Jerusalem for the purpose of a hajj or `umrah.

The Chapter of Making Special Mention of the Companions who Lived in Jerusalem

Hadith #63: It was narrated to us by Hibatullah ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Muzaffar ibn as-Sabt at Baghdad that Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hussain ibn al-Farra’ informed them by way of what was read to him: It was narrated to us by `Abdul `Aziz ibn Ahmad ibn an-Nasibi by way of ijazah: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad – the Khatib – who said: It was narrated to us by `Isa ibn `Ubaidullah – the Scribe – who said: It was narrated to me by `Ali ibn Ja`far ar-Razi who said: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Salam who said: It was narrated to us by Musa ibn Sahl an-Naisaburi ar-Ramli who said: “I can name for you the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that were in the land of Palestine from those who lived there, those who stayed behind and died there and those who did not die there.

Those that were in Jerusalem included `Ubadah ibn as-Samit, Shaddad ibn Aws, Abu Abi ibn Umm Hiram – whose name is actually Sham`un – the ally of Hadramaut, Abu Raihanah, Salamah ibn Qaisar, Fairuz ad-Dailami, Dhul Asabi`, Abu Muhammad an-Najjari. These are the people that died at Jerusalem and were buried in the city.

Those who left behind progeny that lived there were `Ubadah ibn as-Samit, Shaddad ibn Aws, Salamah ibn Qaisar and Fairuz ad-Dailami.  These people left behind children and their children lived their lives in Jerusalem and their graves remain there up until today.

Those who did not stay behind or leave children include Abu Raihanah, Dhul Asabi` and Abu Muhammad an-Najjari.

The Chapter on the Virtues of the Mu’adh-dhins of Jerusalem

Hadith #64: It was narrated to us by Abul Majd Zahir ibn Ahmad ibn Hamid ath-Thaqafi at Isfahan that Zahir ibn Tahir ash-Shahani narrated to them by way of what was recited to him: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Muqri’ at-Tabari  by way of dictation who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Tahir Muhammad ibn al-Fadl ibn Muhammad ibn Khuzaimah who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Hamid Ahmad ibn Hamdun ibn `Ammarah ibn Rustum – the Hadith Memoriser – who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu Ja`far Ahmad ibn Sa`id ad-Darimi and Hammad ibn Al-Hasan Abu `Ubaidullah – the Scribe – who both said: It was narrated to us by `Abdus-Samad ibn `Abdul Warith who sadi: It was narrated to us by `Abdullah ibn Dhakwan who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir from Jabir ibn `Abdullah who said:

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, was asked: “Which of the people will enter the Paradise first?” He replied,

“The Prophets, then after that the Martyrs. After that it will be the mu’adh-dhins of the Ka`bah, then the Mu’adh-dhins of Jerusalem and then the Mu’adh-dhins of this Masjid of mine. Then the rest of the mu’adh-dhins according to their deeds.”

The Chapter on the Hadith of Makhshin ibn Makhashin ibn Mu`awiyah an-Numairi

Hadith #65: It was narrated to us by Abul Fath `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Abil Fath al-Hiraqi in his book that his father informed him by way of recitation to him: It was narrated to us by Abul Walid Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Balkhi who said: it was narrated to us by Abul Hussain Ahmad ibn `Ali ibn Muhammad ad-Dulabi who said: It was narrated to us by the Qadi, Abu Muhammad `Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn `Abdul Ghaffar ibn Ahmad ibn Dhakwan who said:

It was narrated to us by Abu Ya`qub Ishaq ibn `Ammar ibn Jash ibn Muhammad ibn Jash ibn al-Masisi who said: It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Mahdi who said: It was narrated to me by As-Saq`ab ibn Zahir from `Amr ibn Shu`aib and he mentioned some of the information regarding the conquest of Sham. The following was said:

Abu `Ubaidah had then come out and was waiting for the people of Jerusalem to come out and they refused to so so. He implored them to come out until finally he went down to them and blockaded them and they were closed in on every side. They came out to him one day and they fought the Muslims for one hour. The Muslims came to them from all sides until their might was broken and they entered into their castles. During that time the one who was in charge of discharging battle plans and fighting them was Khalid bin al-Walid and Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan. Both of them were on one side of the battleground and there were also men among the Musims from the Banu Numair like Makhshin ibn Makhashin ibn Mu`awiyah. He was very brave and the people saw him as upright and pious. His companions lost sight of him for some days and they were asking about him but they received no news back regarding him. Not long after they began to think that maybe some foul play had come to pass and that he had been killed.

They were sitting in a gathering when all of a sudden he came to them and he was bearing two leaves and the people had never seen anything like them. He was sought out greatly and what he had was longed for by the people. There was no better wait than awaiting him and no better smell than his own smell. His companions said to him, “Where were you?”

He said, “I had fallen into a ditch and was struggling to dig my way out until I came to a beautiful garden that had everything in it. My eyes had never seen the like of what was in the place before. I did not think that Allah had created the likeness of what I saw in this life. So I stayed a number of days in a state of felicity that had no likeness, in a state of repose with no likeness, in a wind that had no likeness and was pure.

So then when someone came to me, it was after some time and he took me by the hand and walked me out from that place and lead me back to you. I have taken these leaves from a tree that I had been sitting under and they have stayed in my hands every since I took them.”

The people came forward, took the leaves from his hand and smelled them. They found a fragrance the like of which they had never known. He said, “The people of Sham say that this was taken from the Paradise and that these two leaves are from it.” The people responded, “The Khulafa’ after that time took these leaves and kept them high in a cupboard for safe keeping and later generations.”

The name of the man narrating the hadith has been stated as being Sharik ibn Khabashah an-Numair. So Allah knows best.

Hadith #66: It was narrated to us by Abul Qasim Sa`id ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn `Attaf al-Hamdani by my recitation to him at Baghdad. I said to him: It was narrated to you by Abul Hussain Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn al-Farra’ by way of ijazah that Abu Muhammad `Abdul `Aizz ibn Ahmad ibn `Umar an-Nasibi al-Maqdisi informed them by permission:

It was narrated to us by Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Wasiti al-Maqdisi – the Khatib – in his house at Jerusalem: It was narrated to us by `Umar – he is Ibn al-Fadl ibn Al-Muhajir  ar-Rub`ii who said: It was narrated to us by my father who said: It was narrated to us by al-Walid – who has the name Ibn Hammad – who said: It was narrated to us by Muhammad ibn an-Nu`man who said: It was narrated to us by Sulaiman ibn `Abdur-Rahman who said: It was narrated to us by Walid ibn Muslim who said: It was narrated to us by my father Abu Bakr ibn Abi Maryam who said: It was narrated to me by `Atiyyah ibn Qais who said:

Sharik ibn Khabashah an-Numairi came to a ditch in Jerusalem and sought water for his companions. When he took a pail and brought it down into it to take the water a man came and said, “Come with me.” He then took him by the hand down into the ditch and they entered the Paradise and Sharik took some leaves from it and returned to the place he was originally and came back to his people that were waiting and informed them of what had happened. News of this reached `Umar ibn al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, and Ka`b said, “There is a man from this Ummah who will enter the Paradise while he is still alive among you.” So he said, “Look at these leaves. If they should wilt and change colour, they are not from the leaves of the Paradise. If they shold stay as they are and not change colour or wilt, then they are indeed from the leaves of the Paradise.” `

Atiyyah then said, “ Those leaves never did wilt or change colour.”

Al-Walid then remarked, “It was narrated to me by Abun-Najm, who was the Imam and Mu’adh-dhin of the people of Salamiyyah in Hamah from 400-450 after Hijrah the following:

I, Abun-Najm, had it narrated to me from many of the people of Salamiyyah from the tribes of the Arabs that knew Sharik ibn Khamashah and lived at Salamiyyah and we came to him and asked him about his situation. He informed us of the situation that he had entered the Paradise and that he had seen what was in it and then took some leaves from one of the trees and returned. He always kept one leaf with him and the people would say, ‘We used to ask him to show them to us and he could call for a mushaf and take them out and show them to us  and you could see them between the pages of the mushaf and these leaves were green and fresh. He used to taken them, kiss them and then place them on his eyes. After that he would then place them between the pages of his mushaf and he left as a will and testament that they should put on his chest after his burial shroud was wrapped around him. This would be the last time we would see him and he placed them on his chest, after he died they were placed on his burial shroud.’ ”

 

END OF THE TEXT

[1] Surah Maryam (19), ayah 57

[2] Surat ul-Isra’ (17), ayah 60