Category Archives: Question and Answer

SUFI BROTHERHOODS, TARIQAHS, LODGES AND TASAWWUF pt.2

This strange and grotesque form of religion is increasingly being marketed to Islam as some sort of valid expression of Islam and Tasawwuf.

The following query was sent to a marja`:

ما رأيكم يا مولانا في الطرق بفروعها في مصر مثل العشيرة المحمدية والجعفرية والنقشبندية الكردية والجودية والخلوتية والبرهانية والأحمدية وغيرها هل تزكي السلوك على إحداها ومتى يكون ذلك؟؟ أثنا الطلب أم بعده أرجو الإفادة.

Our teacher, what is your statement regarding the Sufi Tariqahs and their branches in Egypt, such as Al-`Ishirah Al-Muhammadiyyah, Al-Ja`fariyyah, An-Naqshabandiyyah Al-Kurdiyyah, Al-Judiyyah, Al-Khalwatiyyah, Al-Burhaniyyah, Al-Ahmadiyyah and others besides that? Is the way of suluk mandated upon one of them and when was that inaugurated? Does one seek out one of these at the beginning of the studies or afterward? I am just trying to get some benefit in this regard.

Imam Muhammad As-Sayyid[1] said the following:

تصوف سيد الطائفة الجنيد وتصوف سيدي عبد القادر الجيلاني ومن سار على دربهنا هذا هو الممدوح وهو سنة الحبيب صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وقد قال الشيخ زروق انقطعت التربية  بالإصطلاح ولم يبق إلا الإفادة، بالهمة والحال

The Tasawwuf upon the way of the master of the way, As-Sayyid Al-Junaid Al-Baghdadi[2] and the Sayyid, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani[3] and whoever travelled the way of these two is indeed praiseworthy and the Sunnah of the Beloved One, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his family and followers. The Shaikh, Ahmad Zarruq mentioned that these ways of tarbiyyah were ceased by self-rectification and nothing remains but aspiration and the states of the heart.[4]

فعليكم بالكتاب والسنة دون زيادة ونقصان، أما الآن فكثير من الطرق إما دجاجلة وإما جهال لا يعرفون ما السنة وإن كان أهل الله لا يخلو منهم زمان فإن وجت واحدًا من أولئك فالزمه حتى يفتح عليك وإلا فأكثر من الصلاة على سيد الخلق صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم

You are thus to hold to the Book and the Sunnah without addition or subtraction. As for this era, many of these tariqahs are dajjals, ignorant without knowing what the Sunnah is. And the People of Allah are present and no age is absent of them. And if you find one of these, then cling to him until the benefit results. And if you do not find one of them in your area, then send abundant peace and blessings upon the Master of the Creation, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, his family and followers.

Fatwa taken: 20 Dhul Hijjah 1443


[1] He is the Imam of the Hanbalis at Al-Azhar

[2] 221-298 (AD835-910). He is Abul-Qasim Al-Junaid ibn Muhammad Al-Khazzaz Al-Qawariri. Hailing from Nahawand in today’s Kurdistan, this Baghdad born luminary was a scholar of high regard and one of the key scholars of Iraq, preacher of salvation and missionary. He was known to have passed the ruling in favour of the death penalty being exercised against Mansur Al-Hallaj (d.309 (AD922), who called himself ‘The Truth’, a title with which Allah describes Himself in His Word. Please see Az-Zirkili’s Al-A`lam, vol.2, pp.119-121; vol.2, pp.258-260.

[3] 470-561 (AD1078-1166). He is Abu Muhammad Muhy ud-Din `Abdul Qadir ibn Abi Musa ibn `Abdullah Al-Jilani Al-Baghdadi. Direct descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, on both his father and his mother’s side, he was one of the premier scholars of his time and one of the greatest saints the Muslim world ever produced. Although an accomplished marja`, his greatest written legacy was ihsan and theology. Please see Ibn Rajab’s Adh-Dhail, vol.3, pp.244-253

[4] And this runs in line with what was said by the late Imam, `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran (d.1346), may Allah have mercy upon him, in showing that these are little more than places for freemasons, sexual deviants, perverts, cultists, effeminate thrill seekers and men that would nullify the very doctrines of our theology and jihad. And these movement have been swept away in every era by the renewers, quality checkers and researchers. And now we ask again that they swept away again by those same people and if not, then by the Mahdi to come in the same capacity as we done by the first Mahdi, peace be upon all of them.

GOOD TEXTS FOR GROUNDING IN FIQH AND THE STUDENT’S GUIDE

The Shaikh, Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al-Maqdisi’s (d.1091), may Allah have mercy upon him, Sharh Dalil it-Talib

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله،

As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

للشيخ محمد السيد، أوّلًا أنا أحبكم في الله لأنكم وأتقرب إلى الله بحبكم لكن لدي أكثر من سؤال الأول: أنا أدرس متن دليل الطالب عند شيخ، هل أقرأ في حاشية ابن عوض أو في نيل المارب مع حاشية اللبدي،

This is a message for the Shaikh, Muhammad As-Sayyid. Firstly, I would like to say that I love you for the Sake of Allah and I use my love of you as a means of gaining nearness to Allah.[1] I have just a few questions to ask. Firstly, I am learning the text of the Student’s Guide[2] from a shaikh. Shall I read the Cliffnotes[3] of Imam Ibn `Awad [4] or Obtainment of the Long-Term Objective[5] by Imam At-Taghlabi [6] with Cliffnotes of Al-Lubadi? [7]

ثانيًا: كما تعلم في المذهب التفويض هو المشهور ولكنني سمعت من أحدهم أن إثبات المعنى وجه معتبر ومشهور.

Secondly, you know that this way of ours is one of tafwid and it is well-known and clear but I have heard someone from the people saying that affirming the meaning of the attribute of Face is obvious and all people know that. Where does the truth lie in the matter? [8]

قال الشيخ محمد السيد الحنبلي الأزهري: أحبك الذي أحببتني فيه،   اقرأن النيل، أما اللبدي فله اعتراضات كثير منها منقوض، حاشية المقدسي جميلة وكذلك ابن عوض فطالعهما.

The Shaikh, Muhammad As-Sayyid Al-Hanbali Al-Azhari has said the following: “I love you for the sake of the One that caused you to love me. You should read Obtainment of the Long-Term Objective by At-Taghlabi. In terms of Imam Al-Lubadi, he has many contradictory rulings, many of them not accepted.[9] The Cliffnotes of Al-Maqdisi[10] are very good and likewise so is Ibn `Awad so make sure to review and go over and utilise both”.

Fatwa taken: 30 Shawwal 1443


[1] This is something that someone should not mention openly and directly to someone due to fear of what might enter into the individual’s heart that hears it. It is for this reason that in answering the question, the Shaikh almost completely avoided this part.

[2] Ar.Dalil ut-Talib

[3] Ar.hashiyah. Imam Ibn Manzur defined this, “So the hashiyah of anything is what is put on the side or end of something as a divider”. cf.Lisan ul-`Arab, vol14, pp.223-224. The translator chose the word “cliffnotes” as the closest English equivalent as the definition of them is “A summary of a much longer work designed to allow a student to quickly learn the key points of the longer work”. This was named after Clifton Keith Hillegas (AD1918-2001), a scholar of geology and physics from Lincoln, Nebraska in the United States. Please see Wuthering Heights: Notes for Private Study.

[4] d.1101 (AD1690). He is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Awad Al-Mardawi. Palestinian authority and sage, he was a main student of Imams Muhammad Al-Khalwati (d.1088 (AD1675) and `Uthman An-Najdi (d.1097 (AD1686). He wrote a number of works but his most popular was his Cliffnotes on the Student’s Guide. cf.Al-Makki’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp.99-100

[5] Ar.Nail ul-Maarib. This is a very brief commentary on the Student’s Guide. Al-Azhar has created a three-volume series that was used by the faqih, Sa`d An-Najjar to teach an online and in-person series of lessons.

[6] 1030-1135 (AD1634-1739). He is Abut-Tuqa `Abdul Qadir ibn `Umar ibn Abi Taghlab At-Taghlibi Ash-Shaibani. Born in Damascus, this authority and specialist was well grounded in math, fiqh, hadith, usul ul-fiqh, grammar and more. His teachers include Imams Muhammad Abul Mawahib (d.1126 (AD1767), Al-Balbani (d.1083 (AD1687) and others. He left behind a large body of able and elite students, the most famous of which being the Imam, Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini (d.1189 (AD1775). His two written works are his small commentary on the Student’s Guide and a selection of tafsir notes. cf.Al-Makki’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp.230-232

[7] 1262-1319 (AD1851-1900). He is `Abdul Ghani ibn Yasin ibn Mahmud ibn Yasin ibn Taha ibn Ahmad Al-Labadi An-Nabulsi. Palestinian authority, theologian and poet, he took from the premier scholars of his time such as his father and the Imams `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d.1331 (AD1912) and Yusuf Al-Barqawi (d.1321 (AD1902). He also witnessed the Stern Gang and militant kibbutzim that would later erect the modern state of Israel. He left behind two large books and written rulings on various topics and particularly modern topics that are just as relevant today as they had been at the time. Please see Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar, pp.209-210

[8] Notice that the Shaikh did not answer this question. This is a common method used when either (1) it is known that no benefit would come in answering the said question at that time or (2) the answer has been given so many times that the inquirer needs to refer back to that.

[9] This is to do with his many ijtihad points in that text. So one should not be reading that as a primer but rather comparative. The primer texts establish what is the depended upon rulings while the others, such as Al-Lubadi, give additional statements, manuscript comparison and contemporary problems and matters.

[10] d.1091 (AD1695). He is `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi Al-Maqdisi. Faqih, astronomer, mathematician and specialist in inheritance, he is a relative of the Imam, Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi (d.1033 (AD1637). He left behind three books, a commentary on the Student’s Guide and two others connected to astronomy, in particular study of the constellations and the influence it has on time keeping and the length of the night. cf.Al-Ghazzi’s An-Na`t ul-Akmal, pp.254-255

23 RAMADAN 1443: TAHIYYAT UL-MASJID AND ITS APPLICATION

الحالات التي لا يسن فيها تحية المسجد:

Times in which it is not the Sunnah to make the Tahiyyat ul-Masjid[1]

١- أن لا يكون في وقت نهي إلا إذا دخل والإمام يخطب الجمعة فيسن ويوجز فيهما.

One: When it is a forbidden time of salah the exception to this rule being when he has entered the Masjid and the Imam is giving the khutbah for the Jumu`ah. In this case it is the sunnah for him to make them.[2]

٢- بعد شروع في الإقامة فإن صلى ثم شُرع في الإقامة لم يقطعهما وأوجز.

Two: After the Iqamah has been made. If he is making the tahiyyat ul-masjid and then the Iqamah begins, he should not break these two rak`ah but instead continue and complete them in a timely manner.[3]

٣- من دخل لصلاة العيد.

Three: Whoever came into the Masjid for Salat ul-`Eid.[4]

٤- أن يسهو فيجلس ويطول الفصل فإن لم يطل الفصل قام فأتى بهما.

Four: If he forgot to do them and sat and a long period of time has passed. If this was not the case, then he should stand and make them.

٥- أن لا يكون المسجد الحرام لأن تحيته الطواف..

Five: The worshipper is in Al-Masjid ul-Haram. This is because the Tahiyyat ul-Masjid for Al-Masjid ul-Haram is to carry out the tawaf.[5]

٦- أن لا يكون قيم المسجد ويتكرر دخوله لمصلحة. وقياسه كل من يتكرر دخوله لحاجة كمن يدخل لتصليح شيء .

Six: He is not established in the Masjid for a fixed time, but rather he has to come in and out for some affair of rectification. The analogy on this is that this individual is obliged to come in and out of the masjid in one day for some need to rectify something. This one need not repeat tahiyyat ul-masjid.[6]

٧- أن لا يكون حال الأذان لأن السنة أن يردد معه..

Seven: The Adhan is being made. At that time, he should be repeating the words of the Adhan with the mu’adh-dhin.[7]

حاشية الخلوتي على المنتهى

And this was mentioned by Imam Al-Khalwati in his Cliffnotes on the Uttermost Boundary.[8]

مصطفى عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] Two Rak`ah of Greeting the Masjid. These two rak`ah are made when one first enters the masjid and before he sits down.

[2] Imam Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti (d.1051), may Allah have mercy upon him, explains in detail, “It is permissible to make qada’ of compulsory prayers in the forbidden times due to the general nature in the statement of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘Whoever slept and passed by a prayer or he forgot it, let him pray it when he remembers’. This is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim. It is also permissible to make any prayers where he made an oath as this is something that is wajib to complete and must be done, irrespective of the time. One may also make the two raka`ah after tawaf of the Ka`bah as the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘No one of you has been forbidden from from tawaf around this Sacred House and prayer in it at any hour that he wills to pray, whether that be in the night or the day’. This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi and classed by him as authentic. One may also repeat a prayer in congregation that has bene established when one is in the masjid due to what has been related by Yazid ibn Al-Aswad, ‘I prayed Fajr with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and upon his completetion of the prayer, there were two men that had not prayed with him. He said: What kept you from praying with us? They remarked: Messenger of Allah, we already prayed in our homes. He said, Do not do that. If you have prayed in your homes, then you come to the masjid while there is a congregational prayer in progress, then pray with them as this will be a nafl for you’. This is collected by Imam At-Tirmidhi and classed by hims as authentic”. cf. Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp.105-106.

Further information was supplied by the same Imam when he said, “It is permissible to pray the Funeral Prayer after Fajr and `Asr besides the forbidden times mentioned as long as there is no fear upon the individual who might be doing it. This fear could lead to delay. It is impermissible to make optional prayers in the forbidden times – but this excludes repeating a congregational prayer, the two raka`ah after tawaf, the two raka`ah that are prayed before the fajr – as this is what we have explained previously. There are other prayers that one may make that are not connected to any time and would thus not be forbidden, such as the Greeting of the Masjid, the Sunnah of Wudu,’ the Sajdah of Recitation, prayer at a grave in the Funeral Prayer or the Absent Funeral Prayer, the Eclipse Prayer or even making qada’ of the ratibah. This is also the case for making up the ratibah of Zuhr after `Asr or when praying them after one has combined Zuhr and `Asr. All nafl outside of the exceptions mentioned cannot be considered valid in this time as none have been stipulated, even if someone did it out of ignorance. Again, the only exception to this is the Greeting of the Masjid when he has come in at the time of the khutbah of Jumu`ah, as this is permitted in all circumstances, as well as the two raka`ah when one enters Makkah and other associated prayers connected with these places and times that shall be covered”. Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` bi Sharhi Zad il-Mustaqni`, pp. 105-106.

[3] Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620), may Allah have mercy upon him, “If the congregational prayer is about to be established, the worshipper should not engage in any optional prayers. This is based upon the words of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘When the prayer is about to be established, then there is no prayer except that of the compulsory.’ This is collected by Imam Muslim. If the prayer is established and he is in an optional prayer, then he should continue on and complete his prayer unless he fears that the congregational prayer will come to an end before he completes it. In that case, he should break from his optional prayer and join the congregation. This is due to the fact that the compulsory prayer in congregation is more important than the optional prayer”. Al-Kafi fi Fiqh il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.1, pp.207-208.

[4] Imam Baha’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi (d.624), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked: “This is based upon the narrative of Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, came out on the day of `Eid ul-Fitr and made two rak`ah of Salat ul-`Eid and made no salah before or after them”. And this is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim. And there is no harm in making two rak`ah after he has returned from the `Eid salah as per the narrative of Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri who said that the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, made no salah before Salat ul-`Eid. And then when he returned home, he would make two rak`ah. And this is collected by Imam Ibn Majah in his Sunan”. cf.Al-`Uddah Sharh ul-`Umdah, pp.148-149

[5] Imam `Abdul Ghani Al-Lubadi (d.1319), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following: “The greeting of the Ka`bah is tawaf while the greeting for the masjid is the two rak`ah prayer. It is permissible to make the two raka`ah of greeting in the form of the two raka`ah after tawaf. Thus he does not begin with anything before tawaf as long as prayer is not being established in Al-Masjid ul-Haram. If the prayer is in progress, he is to pray and then thereafter start the tawaf”. cf.Dalil un-Nasik, pp.111-112

[6] This is due to the fact that entrance into the Masjid the one time and making tahiyyat ul-masjid suffices.

[7] This is taken from the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, when he said, “And when the caller to prayer says, ‘Come to prayer,’ you should say, ‘There is no power or might except in Allah.’ And when the caller to prayer says, ‘Come to success,’ then you are to say, ‘There is no power or might except Allah’.” Collected by Imam Muslim in his Al-Jami` us-Sahih, Book of Prayer, under the chapter of the Praiseworthiness of Saying the Same Thing as the Caller to Prayer to Whoever Heard Him, Then Sent Peace and Blessings on the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, Then Asked the Means for Him and classed by him as authentic.

[8] Ar.Hashiyat ul-Khalwati `al al-Muntaha.

16 RAMADAN 1443: WITR AFTER TARAWIH OR MAKING WITR LATER?

فتاوى رمضانية (18)

Ramadan Fatawa #18

سألني شخص: هل أصلي معكم الوتر وأنا أريد القيام في الليل؟ أم أجعل الوتر بعد قيامي؟

Someone asked me the following: If I pray witr with you while I want to make Qiyam ul-Lail later after Tarawih? Or should I delay it and make witr after I finish the Qiyam ul-Lail?

قلت: يجوز الأمران، فإن صلى مع الإمام الوتر فلا ينقض وتره عند القيام ويصلي مثنى مثنى، ويجوز له أن يصلي الوتر مع الإمام ثم يقوم بعد تسليم إمامه فيشفعها بواحدة.

My response is that either of these two ways is permitted. If he made witr with the imam, then he does not break his witr at the time of his making Qiyam ul-Lail while he makes it two raka`ah by two rak`ahs. And it is permitted that he make witr with the imam, then after the imam of salah has made taslim, he makes the witr even by making one rak`ah after it with the intent of joining it together and thus making it two rak`ah. Then he can make witr later.

قال في كشاف القناع: ” 1- إن أحب من له تهجد متابعة الإمام في وتره قام إذا سلم الإمام فشفعها أي ركعة الوتر بأخرى ثم إذا تهجد أوتر فينال فضيلة متابعة الإمام حتى ينصرف، وفضيلة جعل وتره آخر صلاته.

Imam Al-Buhuti, may Allah have mercy upon him, said in Kash-shaf ul-Qina`: “One option is that if he would like to make tahajjud after following the imam in his witr, then let him stand up after the imam has made taslim from the witr and make one rak`ah to join with that witr. This then makes it two rak`ah. Then when he gets up to make tahajjud, he makes witr upon completion of it. So in this way he gets the virtue of following the imam in salah until he has finished and the virtue of making the witr the last salah he makes in the night.

2- ومن أوتر في جماعة أو منفردا ثم أراد الصلاة تطوعا لم ينقض وتره أي لم يشفعه بركعة؛ لقول عائشة وقد سئلت عن الذي ينقض وتره – ذاك الذي يلعب بوتره رواه سعيد وغيره .

“Another option is that the one making witr in congregation or alone does so, then when he makes an optional salah afterward, this does not break his witr. And this is based upon the statement that `A’ishah made when someone asked about the one who broke his witr, ‘This one plays with his witr’. And this is collected by Imams Sa`id ibn Mansur and others.

وصلى شفعا ما شاء إلى طلوع الفجر الثاني؛ لأنه قد صح عن النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أنه «كان يصلي بعد الوتر ركعتين» ولم يوتر اكتفاء بالوتر الذي قبل تهجده لقوله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – «لا وتران في ليلة» رواه أحمد وأبو داود”.

“So he makes even numbered raka`at as much as he so wants up until the time of the Fajr salah begins. And this is so as it is authentically narrated from the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, used to make two raka`ah after witr. And he does not make witr to complete his tahajjud after he has already made witr before his tahajjud in the Tarawih or after `Isha’ beforehand. This is due to the statement of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, ‘There are no two witr to be made in one night.’ And this is collected by Imams Ahmad and Abu Dawud”.

As said by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

IMAM AT-TUFI EXPLAINS THE SIMPLICITY OF THE THEOLOGY OF THE MUSLIMS

جامع الخلفاء في بغداد

للإمام الطوفي – رحمه الله – كلمة جامعة يقول فيها:

Imam Najm ud-Din At-Tufi (d.716), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

“النقل يميل إلى الإثبات والعقل يميل إلى النفي”.قلت: مصداق ذلك أن الأديان اليهودية والنصرانية والوثنية كلها أديان يشيع فيها التجسيم شيوعا فاحشا،

The handed down texts incline towards affirmation of matters while the intellect inclines towards negation of matters. I would like to say that in consideration of that, the religions of Judaism, Christianity and idolatry are all in totality religions that lead one towards open, crass and perverted idolatry regarding the Names and Attributes.

وأن الفلسفات العقلية يشيع فيها التعطيل واستبعاد أن يتصف الخالق بالصفات،

As for the intellectual philosophical exercises, these lead one to negation of matters such as the Names and Attributes of Allah, as they believe it to be far-fetched and below rank that the Creator be described with Attributes.  

وأما العقيدة الإسلامية فتتميز بالإثبات من غير تشبيه وبالتنزيه من غير تعطيل.

In terms of the doctrine of Islam on the matter, it clearly affirms the Names and Attributes without likening in any way and declares the Names and Attributes to be without shortcoming while not negating them.

As cited from the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan.

THE UDHIYYAH AND TRIMMING THE HAIR AND CLIPPING NAILS? tHE RULING ON THE MATTER

Do those non-Hujjaj get reward for their slaughtering like those Hujjaj? Please read below for more details

مسألة: من أرد أن يضحي حرم عليه أخذ شعره وظفره وبشرته اذا دخل عشرة ذي الحجة

Fiqh Issue: Whoever desires to make the Udhiyyah slaughtering, it is impermissible for him to cut any hair away from himself or clip any nails – on the fingers or toes – when there comes to him the slaughtering until he has completed it.

قال البهوتي في كشاف القناع : (ومن أراد التضحية) أي: ذبح الأضحية (فدخل العشر، حرم عليه وعلى من يضحي عنه أخذ شيء من شعره وظفره وبشرته إلى الذبح، ولو بواحدة لمن يضحي بأكثر) لحديث أم سلمة مرفوعا «إذا دخل العشر وأراد أحدكم أن يضحي، فلا يأخذ من شعره، ولا من أظفاره شيئا حتى يضحي» رواه مسلم وفي رواية له ” ولا من بشره .

Imam Al-Buhuti (d.1051), may Allah have mercy upon him, said in Kash-shaf ul-Qina`: “The expression (whoever so desires to make the Udhiyyah) refers to the slaughtering on the day of the Udhiyyah on 10 Dhul Hijjah. Then the expression (so when the 10th Dhul Hijjah arrives, it is impermissible for the one making the udhiyyah to take any hair away from his person or clip his finger and toe nails until the slaughtering has been done and it is fine for the one to slaughter for the group) this is based upon the hadith of Umm Salamah that is marfu` in which the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said, ‘When the 10th of Dhul Hijjah arrives and one of you desires to make the Udhiyyah slaughterings, then he should not take any hair away from his person or cut any of his finger or toenails until he has done the slaughtering’.” As collected by Imam Muslim. And in another narration, he said, ‘Nor should he take away any hair from his body’.

قلت : فيه مسائل :

I would like to say that on this fiqh issue there are a number of points to consider:

الاولى : قوله من يضحي عنه اي : من أراد أن يضحي عن شخص أخر فهو داخل في عموم الخطاب .

Firstly, the statement about the one slaughtering means the one who is slaughtering for himself or another besides himself, thus he would fit into the rubric of the general statement.

الثانية : اذا لم يرد التضحية عند دخول العشرة ثم أراد التضحية أثناءها فليمسك عن ذلك كله .

Secondly, if the individual did not intend the slaughtering at the time of the entrance of the 10th Dhul Hijjah and then decided to at the time, then he needs to refrain from all the above listed things.  

الثالثة : قال البهوتي : وهذا إذا كان لغير ضرورة وإلا، فلا إثم كالمحرم وأولى .

Thirdly, Al-Buhuti remarked, “And this is when it is for other than a dire necessity. And if this is not the case, there is no issue. So there is no sin upon this one like in the case of the one in ihram and in the case of the one not in ihram and doing the slaughtering, it is even more the case”.

(لا يدخل في ذلك الطيب ولا المخيط ولا النساء)

So for the prohibition listed, using fragrance, stitched clothing and avoiding sexual intercourse and intimacy with women does not fall under the ruling.

قال في مطالب أولي النهى : عدم كراهة مسه الطيب والمخيط والنساء اتفاقا. قاله المنقح.

Imams Mustafa Ar-Ruhaibani (d.1243) and Hasan Ash-Shatti (d.1274), may Allah have mercy upon both of them, both said in Matalib Uwl in-Nuha: “Someone preparing for carrying out the Udhiyyah slaughtering is not forbidden and nor is it disliked for him to use fragrance, wear stitched clothing or have sexual intercourse and intimacy with women and this is agreed upon. And this stated by Imam `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d.885) in At-Tanqih”.

(حكم من أخذ من شعره وظفره وبشرته)

The Ruling on the one who removed some hair from his person or clipped some finger and toenails

قال في كشاف القناع : (فإن فعل) أي: أخذ شيئا من شعره أو ظفره أو بشرته (تاب) إلى الله تعالى لوجوب التوبة من كل ذنب

 Al-Buhuti said further, “(so if he did that) means if he took some hair or nails from his person (he is to make tawbah) to Allah, Exalted be He, as per the necessity of repentance from every sin”.

(لا فدية على المضحي اذا اخذ من شعره وظفره وبشرته)

There is no fidyah due from the one making Udhiyyah who happened to take some hair from his person or finger or toenails

قال في مطالب أولي النهى : فمن فعل شيئا من حلق شعر أو غيره مما ثبت تحريمه قبل أن يضحي، استغفر الله منه، ولا فدية عمدا فعله أو سهوا أو جهلا

It is further stated in Matalib Uwl in-Nuha: “So whoever did any of that, such as shaving the hair or other things that are established as being impermissible before the slaughtering, should make repentance to Allah but there is no fidyah due for the one who did so, whether this is on purpose, forgetfully or in ignorance”.

(متى يحل الاخذ من الشعر والظفر والبشرة)

So when is it permitted to take off hair, clip finger and toe nails?

قال في المنتهى : حرم عليه وعلى من يضحي عنه أخذ شيء من شعره وظفره وبشرته إلى الذبح .

Imam Taqi ud-Din Al-Futuhi (d.972), may Allah have mercy upon him, said in Al-Muntaha: “Whoever intended to slaughter the Udhiyyah for himself or on behalf of someone else is forbidden to take away any hair from himself, clip his finger or toenails until the slaughtering has been done”.

(من عنده أكثر من أضحية يحل له الأخذ بعد ذبح الاولى ولا يشترط ذبج الجميع)

Whoever possesses more than the Udhiyyah with him is permitted to take from it after the first slaughtering and is not conditioned to slaughter it all

قال في شرح المنتهى : قال (المنقح: ولو ضحى بواحدة لمن يضحي بأكثر) منها، فيحل له ذلك. لعموم حتى يضحي

Imam Al-Buhuti (d.1151), may Allah have mercy upon him, said in Sharh ul-Muntaha:

(حكم الأخذ من الشعر والظفر والبشرة بعد الذبح)

Ruling on removing hair, toenails after the slaughtering is complete

( ويستحب حلقه بعد الذبح ) قال أحمد على ما فعل ابن عمر تعظيما لذلك اليوم

“(And it is praiseworthy to shave the hair after the slaughtering) and Imam Ahmad said, ‘This is according to what was done by Ibn `Umar out of respect for the grandeur of that day’.”

ولأنه كان ممنوعا من ذلك قبل أن يضحي فاستحب له ذلك بعده كالمحرم .

And due to this, he is like the one in ihram in which he is forbidden from all of the above before he makes the Udhiyyah slaughtering and upon completion of that, it is praiseworthy for him to do all the above.

(الحكمة من منع الأخذ من الشعر والظفر والبشرة)

The wisdom and the prohibition of taking away any hair and toe and fingernails

قال في مطالب أولي النهى : فائدة: الحكمة في منع أخذ من يريد التضحية شيئا من شعره أو ظفره أو بشرته، لتشمل المغفرة والعتق من النار جميع أجزائه، فإنه يغفر له بأول قطرة من دمها، وتوجيهه بالتشبيه بالمحرمين فاسد، لعدم كراهة مسه الطيب والمخيط والنساء اتفاقا. قاله المنقح.

It is further mentioned in Matalib Uwl in-Nuha: “A beneficial point here is that the wisdom on the prohibition – meaning taking hair from the body or clipping the toe and fingernails – for the one intending the Udhiyyah is due to the nature of the general affair of forgiveness, manumission from the Fire in all of his body. So forgiveness is given to the slaughterer at the first drop of blood spilled. To make an exact comparison between the one making Udhiyyah and the one in ihram is not correct as it is not prohibited for the Udhiyyah maker to use fragrance, wear stitched clothes and have sexual intercourse with women as is agreed upon and uttered by Imam `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi in At-Tanqih”.

(تحريم الأخذ من الشعر والظفر والبشرة من المفردات)

The Impermissiblity of taking hair from the person and clipping the toe and finger nails and this is from the special characteristics of the Hanbali madhhab

قال في النظم

In the poetic meter, the following was uttered:

في عشر ذي الحجة أخذ الظفر … على المضحي حرموا والشعر

In the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah, the time is there,

It is impermissible to take away from the nails – feet and hands – as well as the hair!

كتبه

أبو الأمين آل جراح الحنبلي

٦/ ذي الحجة/١٤٤٠ هجرية

As was written by Abul-Amin Al Jarrah Al-Hanbali

6 Dhul Hijjah 1440

THE KNOWLEDGE OF IMAM MUHAMMAD SA`ID RAMADAN AL-BOUTI

The late Imam, Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan Al-Bouti (1346-1434)

ايه رأي حضرتك في الشيخ البوطي (علميا).

Question: What is your opinion regarding the Shaikh, Al-Bouti, with respect to the knowledge.

الشيخ عالم من كبار علماء العصر وكتبه نافعة والله تعالى أعلى وأعلم

Imam Muhammad As-Sayyid responded: The Shaikh is one of the senior scholars of the era and his books are indeed beneficial. And Allah, Exalted and High be He, knows best.

الإمام محمد السيد الأزهري

As quoted on 14 Dhul Qa`dah 1440

FALSE TEACHERS TESTIFY TO THE RELIABILITY OF IMAM AHMAD AND HIS SCHOOL

Pope Francis, right, meets with Iraq’s leading Shiite cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani in Najaf, Iraq, Saturday, March 6, 2021. The closed-door meeting was expected to touch on issues plaguing Iraq’s Christian minority. Al-Sistani is a deeply revered figure in Shiite-majority Iraq and and his opinions on religious matters are sought by Shiites worldwide. (AP Photo/Vatican Media)

[درء شبهة التجسيم والنصب عن الامام أحمد والحنابلة من كلام الشيعة والمعتزلة ]

The main Shi`ah and Mu`tazilah groups negate from Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the Hanbalis any charge of likening Allah to the creation

قال ابن أبي الحديد الشيعي المعتزلي في شرح نهج البلاغة: وأما أحمد بن حنبل فلم يثبت عنه تشبيه ولا تجسيم أصلا …وأكثر المحصلين من أصحابه على هذا القول …

Ibn Abil Hadid, the Shi`ii and Mu`tazili said in his Commentary on Nahjul Balaghah: “In terms of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, there is no nothing at all transmitted from him regarding likening the creation to Allah or Allah to the creation. And most of those from his companions are also free of this charge”.

قال ابن الوزير الزيدي في العواصم والقواصم : هذا دليل على شدة مولاته -أي أحمد بن حنبل- لأهل البيت وقيامه بحق القرابة وقد وصفه بذلك الإمام المنصور بالله -الشيعي الزيدي- حيث نقل عن أحمد انه قريء عليه إسناد مسلسل بأئمة أهل البيت فقال: لو قرئ هذا على مجنون لبرء من جنونه …”

Ibn Al-Wazir, the Zaidi Shi`ah mentioned in Al-`Awasim wal-Qawasim: “This is evidence on the stringency of his attachment – meaning Ahmad ibn Hanbal – to the Ahl ul-Bait and his standing by the right of nearness. Al-Imam Al-Mansur Billah – the Shi`ii Zaidi – described him with that as well and narrated from Ahmad ibn Hanbal that he read to him a chain of transmission with successive Imams from the Ahl ul-Bait and then said, ‘Had this been read to a demon possessed or insane individual, it would have cured him of his illness’!”

كما ذكر ابن أبي الحديد أن المذاهب الأربعة تعود في حقيقتها إلى الإمام علي كرم الله وجهه

And this is just as what was mentioned by Ibn Abil Hadid and he also said that the Four Madhhabs in reality all returned to Allah, may Allah ennoble his face.

As written by Shaikh Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan.

WHAT ARE THE SOURCE TEXTS FOR AL-IQNA`?

A good print of the text, Al-Iqna`

السُّؤَالُ أحسَن اللهُ إِلَيكم سَيِّدي إذا كان أصل كتاب (المنتهى) لابن النجار هو كتاب (المقنع) و(التنقيح المشبع)…

The question I would like to ask sir, may Allah put the best in your affair, is about books. So the foundation of Al-Muntaha by Imam Ibn An-Najjar Al-Futuhi (d.972) is Al-Muqni` [by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620)] and also At-Tanqih ul-Mushbi` [by Imam `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d.885) may Allah have mercy upon both of them].

فما هو أصل كتاب(الإِقناع) للحجاوي؟ وجزاكُم اللهُ خَيراً

So then what is the source of Al-Iqna` by [Imam Musa ibn Ahmad] Al-Hajjawi (d.968)? And may Allah reward you abundantly for the answer.

الجَوابُ مرْحَباً بِكُمْ عَزِيزِي

In answering this question, I would like to start by welcoming you, dear writer.

ج/لم أَجِد له تَصرِيحاً بذلك،لكنْ قال الشَّيخ مَنصور رحمه الله في:”شَرح الإِقناع”(1/11):”وتَتَبَّعتُ أُصولَه التي أَخَذ مِنها-كِتابَه <الإِقناع>-؛ كالمُقنِع والمُحرَّر والفُروع والمُستَوعِب”انتهى المُراد.

To proceed with the point, I did not find an explicit answer with regards to that point but the Shaikh Mansur [Al-Buhuti (d.1051)], may Allah have mercy upon him, said in his commentary on Al-Iqna`, vol.1, p.11: “I have taken recourse to the sources in which this book, Al-Iqna` rests upon, like Al-Muqni` [by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620)], Al-Muharrar [by Imam Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.652)], Al-Furu` [by Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih Al-Maqdisi (d.762)] and Al-Mustaw`ib [by Ibn Sunainah (d.616)]”.

مع أَنّ ابن بَدْران رحمه الله في:”المَدخَل”(ص/430-التُّرْكيّ) عند حَدِيثه عن كِتاب:”المُستوعِب”لابن سُنَينَة رحمه الله=قد قال:”وقد حذا حَذْوه الشيخ مُوسى الحَجَّاوِيّ في كتابه:”الإِقناع لطالِب الإِنْتِفاع”، وجعَلَه مادَّةَ كتابِه، وإِنْ لم يَذكُر ذلك في خُطبتِه، لكنْ عند تَبيُّن الكِتابَين يَتَبيِّن ذلك”انتهى.

And in consideration of that we also have [Imam `Abdul Qadir] Ibn Badran [d.1346], may Allah have mercy upon him, stating in Al-Madkhal, p.420 (with the editing of At-Turki) when discussing Al-Mustaw`ib by Ibn Sunainah, “The Shaikh, Musa Al-Hajjawi in his text Al-Iqna` Li-Talib il-Intifa`, follows the said work step by step and has made it the bulwark of his text. And even if he did not mention that in the introduction of his work, it becomes clear to the reader that examines it that this is the case”.

إِلّا أَنَّ ما ذكرَه ابن بَدران يُعارِضُه شيئان:

I would only say that this point by [Imam] Ibn Badran may be contested on two grounds[1]:

-أَولهما: أَنَّ ابن بَدران لمّا أَتى في كتابه:”المَدخَل”(ص/434) للحديث عن كتاب:”الإِقناع”قال:”حذا به -يَعنِي:حَذا الحَجَّاوِيُّ بكتابه:<الإِقناع>- حَذْوَ صاحِب:<المُستَوعِب>، بل أَخَذ مُعظَمَ الكتابِ مِنه ومِن:<المُحرَّر> و <الفُروع> و <المُقْنِع>.وجَعَلَه على قَولٍ واحِدٍ”انتَهى المُراد.وهو ظاهرٌ في عدَم قَصْر استِمْداد “الإِقناع” مِن “المُستَوعِب”.

Firstly, when we refer back to Al-Madkhal, p.434, we find another statement from [Imam] Ibn Badran for clarification when he discussed Al-Iqna`, “So Al-Hajjawi in his book here follows step by step the work Al-Mustaw`ib. In fact he has taken most of his work from that and also from Al-Muharrar [by Imam Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.652)], Al-Furu` [by Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih Al-Maqdisi (d.762)] and Al-Muqni` [by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d.620)] and made the work to stand upon one statement”.

-الثاني:أَنّ المُقارِن بين “الإِقناع”و”المُستوعِب”[نَشرَه ابن دُهَيشٍ]=لا يَجِد مِصداقَ ذلك؛ لذا قال التُّركيّ في حاشية كِتابه:”المَذهَب الحَنْبَليّ”(2/483):

Secondly, comparison between Al-Iqna` and Al-Mustaw`ib [using the print of the Shaikh Ibn Duhaish (d.1434), may Allah have mercy upon him] does not completely render that understanding, a point that was brought out by At-Turki in the footnotes of his book, Al-Madhhab ul-Hanbali:

“لا يَسلَم قَوله -رحمه الله- مِن النَّقد، فالنّاظِر في الكِتابَين يَجد بينهما فُروقاً مُتعدِّدَة المَناحِي؛ ومِن ذلك:كَثرَةُ فُروع <الإِقناع>، ووُجود بَعضِ الفُروع في <المُستوعِب> ليستْ في <الإِقناع>، والإِختِلاف في التَّرْتيب والسَّبْك.وغير ذلك مِن وُجوه التَّفرِقة بين الكِتابَين.والله أَعلَم”.

“This statement [of Imam Ibn Badran (d.1346)] of his, may Allah have mercy upon him, is not completely free of some contradiction. Someone looking at the two books referred to will find a number of clear differences. One such example of that is the number of branch areas quoted Al-Iqna` with some being cited in Al-Mustaw`ib while some of them are not in Al-Iqna` at all. Then there is also the difference in layout of the text and organisation of topics. And there are also other matters of difference between the two books. And Allah knows best”.

ومِن ثَمَّ فإِنّ المُتأمِّل في “الإِقناع” يَجد “المُقنِع” للمُوفَّق ابن قُدامة رحمه الله مع تَنْقيحات العلاء المَرْداوِيّ رحمه الله=هِيَ الأَقرَب لجَعلِها أَصلاً له، مَع كَونه كِتاباً مُعتَمَداً في مَدارِس الحنابلة زَمَنه،ولشيخِه الشِّهاب الشَّوَيْكِيّ رحمه الله

So under consideration of the above, it should also be kept in mind that looking in Al-Iqna`, one may find Al-Muqni` by Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah be pleased with him, bearing some clarification and correction remarks by `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi, may Allah have mercy upon him. With this in mind, these two are closer to being a foundation of the book than the others. And keep in mind that these were the foundational source texts used in Hanbali schools in the author’s time as well as that of his Shaikh, [Ahmad] Ash-Shuwaiki, may Allah have mercy upon him.

مُصنَّفٌ جَمَع فيه بين “المُقنِع” و “التَّنْقيح”، يُسمَّى ب:”التَّوضيح في الجَمْع بين المُقنِع والتَّوضِيح”،قال ابنُ حُمَيدٍ النَّجْديّ رحمه الله في:”السُّحُب الوابِلة”(3/1134-العُثَيمين):

This same Imam, Ash-Shuwaiki, authored a text in which he joined between the texts of Al-Muqni` and At-Tanqih, entitled, At-Tawdih fil-Jam`ii bain al-Muqni` wat-Tanqih. [Imam] Ibn Humaid An-Najdi, [d.1295] may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked in As-Suhub ul-Wabilah [with `Abdur-Rahman ibn Salih Al-`Uthaimin editing] vol.3, p.1134:

“وأَقبل-يَعنِي الحَجّاوِيّ- على الفقه إِقْبالاً كُلِّيّاً، ثُمَّ ارتَحَل إِلى دِمشق فسَكَن في مَدرسة شيخ الإِسلام أَبي عُمَر، وقرَأَ على مَشايخِ عَصرِه.ولازَم الشُّويْكِيّ في الفقه إِلى أَنْ تَمَكَّن فيه تَمُكُّناً تامّاً”انتهى.

“Imam Al-Hajjawi was met with complete acceptance in fiqh and then travelled to Damascus and resided there in the [Hanbali Central Masjid] School built by Shaikh ul-Islam Abu `Umar Al-Maqdisi [d.607] and there read to the Shaikhs of his time, keeping the company of [Imam] Ash-Shuwaiki in fiqh up until he completed his studies with him”.

واللهُ أَعلَم

And Allah knows best

As answered by Shaikh Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan.


[1] Look at the respect being shown to the Imams of Islam and Religion. This is what research, evidence, sourcing and other affairs look like among Muslim Orthodoxy. If you do not find you have cultivated these skills, you must do so as you are out of step with the main body of the Muslims and most certainly that of scholarship.  

WHEN MAY THE LAYMAN DEMAND PROOF FOR THE FATWA?

“Eww, sorry! No fatwas, please. I only follow Qur’an and Sunnah.”

هل للعامي أن يطلب من المفتي أن يذكر له الدليل ؟

So is it for the layman making a query to the mufti that he ask the mufti to mention the evidence to him?

قال الإمام محمد بن النجار الفتوحي رحمه الله : “ينبغي حفظ الأدب مع مفتٍ وإجلاله فلا يفعل معه ما جرت عادة العوام به […] ولا يطالبه بالحجة على ما يفتي به ولا يقال له : “إن كان جوابك موافقا فاكتب وإلا فلا.” [مختصر التحرير]

The Imam, Muhammad ibn An-Najjar Al-Futuhi (d.972), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the matter, “It is necessary to preserve etiquette with any mufti and show him due deference and the questioner should not conduct matters with him as he would normally do with the laity.[1] He does not seek to dispute with him regarding the evidence that he gave fatwa with and it should not be said to him, ‘So if your answer is in agreement with what I know, then write it. And if not, then do not write it’.”[2] [Mukhtasar ut-Tahrir]

وقال الإمام النووي رحمه الله : “ومن آداب المستفتي أن […] لا يقول إذا أجابه : “هكذا قلتُ أنا.” ولا يطالب بالدليل فإن أراد معرفته سأل عنه في وقت آخر.” [روضة الطالبين]

The Imam, Yahya An-Nawawi (d.676), may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “It is from the etiquettes of goodness that the one enquiring from the mufti not say when he receives an answer, ‘Oh, I say that as well’. And nor does he seek from him evidence. If he should so desire to know it, he should ask about it at another time”.[3]

وفي المسودة : “لا ينبغي للعامي أن يطالب المفتي بالحجة فيما أفتاه ولا يقول له لمَ ولا كيف.”

Imams Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.652), Shihab ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.682) and Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728), may Allah have mercy upon all of them, remarked, “It is not for the laymen to seek the proof from the mufti regarding what he gave the fatwa for and he is neither to say to him, ‘why’ nor ‘how’?” [Al-Musawwadah]

قال الإمام الشاطبي رحمه الله : “فتاوى المجتهدين بالنسبة إلى العوام كالأدلة الشرعية بالنسبة إلى المجتهدين والدليل عليه أن وجود الأدلة بالنسبة إلى المقلدين وعدمها سواء إذا كانوا لا يستفيدون منها شيئا فليس النظر في الأدلة والاستنباط من شأنهم. [الموافقات]

The Imam, Abu Ishaq Ash-Shatibi (d.790), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared, “The fatawa of the mujtahids with respect to the laity are like the evidences of the Revealed Law with respect to the mujtahids. The evidence to him – whether it is present or not – with respect to the people of taqlid is the same. In the case that those making taqlid would not benefit from it, then the mujtahid does not look into the matter for them with the evidences.[4] Extracting rulings is not from the matter of the laity but from the affair of the mujtahids”. [Al-Muwafaqat]

قال الإمام أحمد بن حنبل رحمه الله : “إذا كان عند الرجل الكتب المصنفة فيها قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم واختلاف الصحابة والتابعين فلا يجوز أن يعمل بما شاء ويتخير فيقضي به ويعمل به حتى يسأل أهل العلم ما يؤخذ به فيكون على أمر صحيح. [ذكره الإمام بن القيم في أعلام الموقعين والإمام الخلال في زاد المسافر]

The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “In the case of the man who possesses authored books containing therein statements of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, differences of opinion among the Companions and their Followers, it is not permitted for him to act by what he so wills, choose among the texts and make judgment by it and act by it. Such is not permissible for him to do until he asks the People of Knowledge what is to be understood from that and the authenticity of the matter is established”. [As cited from the Imam, Ibn ul-Qayyim in I`lam ul-Muwaqqi`in and the Imam, Abu Bakr Al-Khallal in Zad ul-Musafir]

(Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji


[1] Someone in the post of mufti is engaged in answering numerous questions and may have a short duration of time to answer them before seeing the next questioner. It is for this reason that the requester should not belabor the point.

[2] This is tantamount to quizzing or “checking up” if someone gives the “right answer”. And this is in deep error from two points: (1) if the questioner does not know the answer to the question, why is he cross examining the mufti, who’s responsibility it is to furnish him with the answer? (2) if the questioner already knows the answer, why is he then asking the mufti to rehearse to him the SAME information the questioner supposedly knows? This is time wasting and also a form of debate that in the English speaking world too many people derive ecstasy from in their daily lives.

[3] This is on account of the fact that the mufti in question may have a specific period of time dedicated only to answering queries for fatwa and then another time for answering questions with evidence. If this partition exists, the questioner should heed this while if he allows follow up, then the questioner may do so, mindful of the fact that if there is a line or a room full with people, he may need to be brisk in leaving and allowing others to take their turn.

[4] And this is from the assessment of the situation. If the common man only requests the ruling, then he should give it. If he requests more than that, he should allow it if he sees that he can comprehend the answer. This should be done on a case by case basis when looking at the questioner.