Category Archives: Theology

THERE IS NO AGE DEVOID OF A MUJTAHID

The Faqih, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

في الاجتهاد:

On the topic of Ijtihad in every age

ذهب الجمهور إلى جواز خلو العصر من مجتهد مطلق أو منتسب، وقال الحنابلة ووافقهم الأستاذ أبو إسحاق من الشافعية والقاضي عبد الوهاب من المالكية وغيرهم: بعدم جوازه.

The vast majority hold the position that it is possible for an era to be devoid of an absolute mujtahid or mujtahid inside the madhhab. And this was said by the Hanbalis, agreed with by Abu Ishaq from the Shafi`iis. Al-Qadi `Abdul Wahhab from the Malikis and others say that it is not possible. 

والخلاف بينهم غير حقيقي فإن الجمهور أرادوا الجواز العقلي ، والحنابلة أرادوا الجواز الشرعي فلا يجوز شرعا خلو عصر من فقيه يجيب عن النوازل ويحل المعضلات؛ لأن هذا من فروض الكفايات.

The difference of opinion between them is no difference at all in reality. Indeed the vast majority intend by saying it is possible in the intellectual or theoretical sense while the Hanbalis are referring to the real sense and in the Revealed Law. So it is not permitted according to the Revealed Law to have an era is devoid of a faqih to answer affairs regarding new tribulations and lift doubtful or detailed matters that have occurred.

وشذ الشيعة الإمامية فقالوا بعدم إمكان خلو الأرض من حجة قائمة وبنوا على ذلك نظريتهم في الإمامة وغيبة المعصوم..

The Imami Shi`ah are divergent in their view when they say, “It is not possible that the Earth be devoid of a Hujjah and Establisher of Justice and Truth”. Keep in mind they have built this understanding upon their theory about Imamah and occultation of the Infallible Imam.

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

MAKING UP MISSED SALAH REVISITED

Those who fail to understand the holiness and righteousness of our Lord shall bring nothing upon themselves but destruction on a Day when there is no salvation from Him. Anyone that understands this is dutybound to render unto Him the rights He deserves.

Someone asked the marja`:

السلام عليكم قبل ما ربنا سبحانه وتعالى يمن عليا بالهداية مكنتش بصلى وللأسف لسنوات طويلة من فترة بلوغي حتى هداني الله ينفع أخذ بالفتوى اللي بتقول أن تكفي التوبة مع الإكثار من النوافل ولا لازم أصلي السنوات دي كلها هم كتير للأسف

As-Salaamu `Alaikum, before our Lord, Glorified and Exalted be He, favoured me with guidance, I did not make salah and with great regret this was the case for many years extending into my adulthood. This remained the case until Allah guided me to something that I read of a fatwa[1] with the statement that it is sufficient for me to make tawbah while making many optional salah[2] but it is not required for me to make qada’ of all those years of salah that I regrettably missed.

قال الإمام محمد السيد الحنبلي الأزهري

Imam Muhammad As-Sayyid Al-Hanbali Al-Azhari[3] responded:

لا بد من قضاء ما فات، وأبدأ فورًا مستعينًا بالله وصل قدر استطاعتك حتى تنتهي مما عليك، يعني إذا انتهيت من صلاة فائتة شرعت في غيرها وهكذا ولكن على قدر طاقتك ثم استرح وأكمل وهكذا حتى تنتهي مما عليك.

You are dutybound to make up that which was missed and begin doing so as soon as possible with the Help of Allah. Make the salahs according to what you are able until you have completed what is upon you. What this means is that you should make up some salahs at a certain time when you are able but do so according to your ability. So make some up, then rest. Then when able, make up some more and continue in this way until all of what was written for you is made up.

Fatwa given: 29 Shawwal 1443


[1] There is no legitimate fatwa for this as this is all coming from a rejected ruling from the Imam, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728), may Allah have mercy upon him.

[2] Why would it be legitimate to make optional salah (Ar.nafl) in place of compulsory salah, which are wajib but one is not dutybound to make up those compulsory salah?! There has not and there will not ever be any text presented to establish this divergent understanding.

[3] He is the Imam of the Hanbalis at Al-Azhar

CURSING THE COMPANIONS AND THE RULING REGARDING THE AFFAIR

The burnt out wreck of the grave of the Companion, Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, seven years ago that had to be repaired. Wimps, cowards, religious indifferentists and fake sufis that engage in child and couple six rituals can’t understand the cults or the necessary physical combat needed to harm or repel them from these dastardly acts so their hearts would never be moved by images like this or the names of the Companions.

التفريق بين لعن الصحابة ووصفهم بالأوصاف السيئة التي لا تقدح في دينهم وعدالتهم

The Difference between cursing the Companions and describing them with bad attributes that do not negate from their Religion and trustworthiness.

قال العلامة الرحيباني الحنبلي في مطالب أولي النهي

The senior scholar, Mustafa As-Suyuti Ar-Ruhaibani[1] mentioned in Those in Authority’s means in accessing the Evidence:[2]

[تَتِمَّةٌ سَبَّ الصَّحَابَةَ سَبَّا لَا يَقْدَحُ فِي عَدَالَتِهِمْ وَلَا دِينِهِمْ]

Closing Point on abusing the Companions with words that neither negate their trustworthiness nor their Religion.

تَتِمَّةٌ: وَإِنْ سَبَّ الصَّحَابَةَ سَبَّا لَا يَقْدَحُ فِي عَدَالَتِهِمْ وَلَا دِينِهِمْ مِثْلُ مَنْ وَصَفَ بَعْضُهُمْ بِبُخْلٍ أَوْ جُبْنٍ أَوْ قِلَّةِ عِلْمٍ أَوْ عَدَمِ زُهْدٍ وَنَحْوِهِ؛ فَهَذَا يَسْتَحِقُّ التَّأْدِيبَ وَالتَّعْزِيرَ، وَلَا يُكَفَّرُ،

The closing point is that if someone abused the Companions in a way that neither negated their trustworthiness nor their Religion – such as someone describing one of them as stingy, cowardly, of little knowledge, lack of zuhd and such – then this individual deserves corporal punishment or a deterrent punishment but does not receive takfir.[3]

وَأَمَّا مَنْ لَعَنَ وَقَبَّحَ مُطْلَقًا، فَهَذَا مَحَلُّ الْخِلَافِ أَعْنِي هَلْ يُكَفَّرُ أَوْ يُفَسَّقُ؟ تَوَقَّفَ أَحْمَدُ فِي كُفْرِهِ وَقَتْلِهِ، وَقَالَ: يُعَاقَبُ وَيُجْلَدُ وَيُحْبَسُ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ أَوْ يَرْجِعَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ”

In the case of the one that cursed[4] the Companions or described them with ugly attributes that belong to the affair of cursing, this is a point of dispute. What I mean by this is that the question arises: Is the one that perpetrated this act deserving of tafsiq[5] or takfir? The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal,[6] hesitated regarding the kufr of such a one or his being killed.[7]  He said, “This individual should be punished, flogged or detained until he either dies or turns back from that behaviour”.

ويظهر في ذلك توسط الإمام أحمد في المسألة.

So from this it becomes clear the balanced response of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal in the matter.

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] 1165-1243 (AD1752-1828). He is Mustafa ibn Sa`d ibn `Abduh As-Suyuti Ar-Ruhaibani Al-Hanbali. Master of fiqh and hadith, he was fortunate to learn from the great scholar, Shaikh Ahmad Al-Bali and also was a contemporary with Shaikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini. Shaikh Ar-Ruhaibani left behind many books but only one complete work, a commentary on fiqh. Please see Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti’s Mukhtasar Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, pp.179-180; Rawd ul-Bashar, pp.240-243 and Muntakhabat ut-Tawarikh Li-Dimashq, pp.670-678.

[2] Ar.Matalib Uwl in-Nuha

[3] This is when someone is declared a kafir. Please see The Divine Lighting, in which the author lays out these and more on the topic of takfir.

[4] Ar.la`nah. Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi said this of la`nah: “Ibn Qutaibah mentioned that the root of the word la`n is that of remoteness and to be distant from good, to be far away. So the la`ah of Allah upon Iblis is that he is cast out of His Presence and remote from any good. So from this point in the Arabic language, the word came to be associated with that”. cf. Zad ul-Masir, pp.96-97. Imam Ibn Manzur also said, “So la`n refers to punishment and wrath to come. So whoever Allah has made distance from Himself shall never have His Mercy come to him and he shall be eternally in the Fire under judgement. As for Al-La`een, this is the name of Ash-Shaitan and it is a overarching description as he was made distant and remote from the sky after exile. And it is also said that it is on account of his being far from the Mercy of Allah. La`nah is used as a supplication against him”. Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.13, pp.476-477  

[5] Imam Ibn Manzur has remarked, “So fisq is the disobedience and the abandonment of the Command of Allah, Mighty and Majestic and exiting from the Path of the Truth”. cf. Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.6, pp.369-370

[6] 164-241 (AD780-855). He is Abu `Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. The Imam of the Hanbali School. He learned from some of the premier students of the Companions and their students, such as Imams Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, Abu Yusuf ibn Ibrahim, Muhammad ibn Idris Ash-Shafi`ii and Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan Ash-Shaibani.  In addition having memorised one million ahadith, he was a tireless campaigner for the Orthodox faith, suffering torture as well as incarceration for preaching against the cults.  Muhammad ibn Muhammad As-Sa`di’s Al-Jawhar ul-Muhassal fi Manaqab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, pp.5-17; 58-124

[7] As it is based upon circumstance as la`nah is not a constant affair or something constant. Some scholars even disagree upon sending la`nah on Shaitan as it is not narrated concurrently, let alone a human being.

28 RAMADAN 1443: BRANCH ISSUES AND AVOIDING DEBATE AND TAKFIR

القول بالكلام النفسي وبصفة التكوين وبالصوت والحرف = ليس من الأصول:

The Discussion[1] about Kalam Nafsi,[2] the Attribute of At-Takwin (Creation)[3] and Harf[4] and Sawt[5] is not an issue of Foundational Religion[6]

قال العلامة المرجاني الحنفي في حاشيته على شرح العقائد العضدية للدواني ص19:

The senior scholar, Al-Marjani Al-Hanafi,[7] mentioned in his Cliffnotes on Ad-Dawwani’s[8] Commentary on the Detailed Doctrines of `Adud ud-Din,[9] p.19:

“وأما الاختلاف في جواز تقسيم الصفات إلى صفات الذات وإلى صفات الأفعال وجواز تسمية صفة الكلام القائمة بذاته تعالى بالكلام النفسي والنظم المخصوص المتلو المعجز بالكلام اللفظي كما ذهب إليه الأشاعرة أو عدم جواز هذه الإطلاقات كما ذهب إليه الحنفية وتسمية الصفات التي يسميها الأشاعرة بصفات الأفعال باسم التكوين كما ذهب إليه حنفية ما وراء النهر من أتباع أبي منصور الماتريدي أو منعها كما ذهب إليها جمهور الحنفية من العراقيين وغيرهم .. وأمثال ذلك = فهي مخالفة غير معتد بها في الأصول”.

As far as the difference of opinion in the permissibility of categorising the Attributes into Attributes of Essence and Attributes of Action, the permissibility of naming the Attribute of Speech as being established in the Essence, Exalted be He, as kalam nafsi and the recited words being incompatible with kalam nafsi and similar things to that. This is a difference of opinion that is not numbered as Foundational Matters of the Religion.[10] The position that the kalam nafsi is established in the Essence and is incompatible with recited words is held by the Ash`aris while the Hanafis do not consider these classifications as permitted. The Hanafis also have named the Attributes referred to as Attributes of Action by Ash`aris to be Creation. And this is also held by all the Hanafis beyond the two rivers[11] from the followers of Abu Mansur Al-Maturidi.[12] The vast majority of Hanafis from Iraq and other places forbid these classifications.

قلت: وكذا القول بالصوت والحرف عند الحنابلة.. والله أعلم.

And I would say that the same thing holds for the discussion around harf and sawt according to the Hanbalis. And Allah knows best.

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] The discussion around this topic, when texts are not being denied or Attributes explained away or the like, is not one in which people should understand is from the Foundational Matters of the Religion. And the Foundational Matters (Ar.Usul ud-Din) or the theology (Ar.I`tiqad) And yet in the English speaking world, those that would call themselves “shaykhs” or “following the real Islam” would have us see it as just that, opening fire with the machine gun of takfir on the rank and file of Muslim Orthodoxy and insisting that those who did not make takfir are likewise eligible to receive the same takfir.

[2] This is the understanding that the Attribute of Speech (Ar.kalam) is indeed an Attribute of Allah in His Essence and thus cannot be grasped. Therefore, the advocates reason, the letters and sounds of the Revelation are not this speech but rather the speech is behind or under that. And this is heavily advocated by the Ash`aris.

[3] Thus there are fourteen Attributes that Allah has mentioned in the Qur’an more than the others that differentiate Him from false gods. Creating out of nothing (Ar.At-Takwin or Al-Khalq) in one of the fourteen. Some would consider creating out of nothing as part of the Power of Allah (Ar.qudrah) and thus part of this Attribute. While the numerous of the 14 Attributes is the understanding of the vast majority, 13 is also fine as all involved are affirming the same attributes, the only distinction being the classification. This is not an issue of Kufr and Iman, in spite of what sandal wearing “shaykhs” and “akees” with their rotten teeth and miswaks might say.

[4] This is the understanding that Allah indeed spoke the Revelation to those he sent it to.

[5] This is the understanding that the one that received the Revelation indeed heard it.

[6] Ar.Usul ud-Din

[7] 1233-1306 (AD1818-1889). He is Shihab ud-Din ibn Baha’ ud-Din ibn Subhan ibn `Abdul Karim Al-Marjani Al-Qazani. Historian, scholar of his time, Ash`ari scholar and fiqh scholar, at the age of 33 he was given Imamate and Qadiship in Qazan. He left behind a number of works on diverse topics, including a commentary on Nasafi’s Creed. cf.Az-Zirikli’s Al-A`lam, vol.3, pp.175-178

[8] 830-918 (AD1427-1512). He is Jalal ud-Din Muhammad ibn As`ad Ad-Dawwani. Persian poet, theologian, Sufi, philosopher, Shafi`ii fiqh scholar, he is the author of numerous works, in particular works connected to theology. cf.Ibn ul-`Imad in Shadharat udh-Dhahab, vol.7, pp.159-160

[9] 708-756 (AD1307-1356). He is `Adud ud-Din Abul Fadl `Abdur-Rahman ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul Ghaffar Al-Ieji Ash-Shirazi. Theologian, Shafi`ii fiqh teacher, commentator on the Qur’an, he was one of the great scholars of his time and a teacher to Sa`d ud-Din At-Taftazaani (722-792). He is one of the senior scholars of the Ash`aris of his time and wrote works on theology. cf.Ibn ul-`Imad’s Shadharat udh-Dhahab, vol.6, pp.173-174

[10] Ar.Usul ud-Din

[11] lit. “land between two rivers” (Eng.Mesopotamia), which is an old name for undivided `Iraq.

[12] 238-333 (AD852-944). He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Al-Maturidi As-Samarqandi Al-Hanafi. Referred to down the ages as the Leader of Guidance, the theologian and other titles, he was a direct descendant of the Companion, Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him. He studied in Central Asia’s finest seminaries and was persecuted constantly when he began preaching against the Mu`tazilah cult. His message stood the test of time and he left behind some ten books that are studied in seminaries to this day. Please see Al-Maturidi’s Kitabut-Tawhid: Muqaddimah, pp.9-26

20 RAMADAN 1443: TAWBAH AS EXPLAINED BY THE COMPANIONS

قال أبو العالية: سألت أصحاب محمد عن هذه الآية:

Abul-`Aliyah said: The Companions of Muhammad were asked about the ayah:

إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِنْ قَرِيبٍ﴿

Tawbah to Allah is only for those who did sin in ignorance and then made tawbah not long after.[1]

 فقالوا: كل من عصى الله فهو جاهل، وكل من تاب قبل الموت، فقد تاب من قريب.

They said, “Whoever disobeyed Allah is indeed ignorant. And everyone who made tawbah before death has indeed made tawbah not long after”.

وعن قتادة، قال: أجمع أصحاب رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – عَلَى أن كل من عصى ربه، فهو جهالة عمدًا كان أو لم يكن، وكل من عصى الله فهو جاهل.

Qatadah mentioned: “The Companions of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, made Consensus on that each and every one that disobeyed his Lord – purposely or not – is indeed ignorant. And whoever disobeyed Allah is indeed ignorant”.

*مجموع رسائل الحافظ ابن رجب

As taken from the collected texts of Al-Hafiz Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali[2]

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As said by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] Surat un-Nisa’ (4), ayah 17

[2] d.795 (AD1398). He is Abul Faraj Zain ud-Din `Abdur-Rahman ibn Shihab ud-Din Ahmad Al-Baghdadi. Known as Ibn Rajab, he is also called He is the Shaikh, the Imam, the Well Grounded Peg, the Scholar, the Worker, the Carrier of Light, the Complete Man, the Role Model, the Cautious, the Possessor of Zuhd, the Hafiz, He is the Proof, the Trustworthy, Shaikh ul-Islam and Shaikh of the Muslims, Beauty of the Way of Faith and Religion, Preacher to the Muslims, Benefit to the Hadith Scholars, Beauty of the Authors. He came from Baghdad to Makkah with his father and started listening to scholars early on before settling in Damascus for a period to study. also frequented the gatherings of the Shaikh, Shams ud-Din Ibn ul-Qayyim until the latter’s death. Imam Ibn Rajab was one of the senior Imams and Memorisers, Scholars, People of Zuhd and narration. The gatherings of the Imam were times for remembrance of the hearts and for the people at large a beneficial blessings. People gathered for his sake and hearts inclined to him with love and respect. The zuhd of the Imam was of a high calibre. Imam Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali – may Allah have mercy upon him – did not care to know anything about the personal scandals of the people nor concern himself with the back and forth of the governors of his time. He later died in the city of Damascus on the night of Monday, 4 Ramadan 795 in Sham at a garden he maintained. Janazah was made upon him in the early portion of the day and interred at Bab us-Saghir.cf.Al-Makki’s As-Suhub ul-Wabilah, pp.197-198

13 RAMADAN 1443: SAWM AND THE ONE THAT ABANDONED SALAH?

فتاوى رمضانية (8)

Ramadan Fatawa #8

هل يصح الصيام ممن يترك الصلاة ؟

Is siyam valid from the one who abandons the salah?

يصح صيامه على المذهب من حيث الجملة، ومن حيث التفصيل: يبطل صومه حيث كفرناه بالترك بشرطه، وحيث لم نكفره بالترك: لم يبطل، ولكن يأثم، وهذا المذهب، لأن الصحيح: أن لا يكفر بمجرد ترك الصلاة، ولو ترك صلوات كثيرة، بل لا بد من دعائه إلى فعلها.

This siyam of this one in general is valid but in specifics it would be invalid when we have made takfir[1]upon him with its conditions. In the circumstance that this has not been established, then the sawm is not nullified but this individual is sinful. And this is the ruling in the School. This is the correct ruling as he does not fall into kufr by the abandonment of the one salah alone but if he had abandoned an abundance of salah, it is necessary that he be called to perform it in the run up to the matters connected to takfir and the like.

مصطفى عليان.

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan


[1] These are the detailed rulings surrounding the apostate (Ar.murtadd) and they can be found in the Divine Lighting in full.

6 RAMADAN 1443: A FIRM WARNING FROM IMAM `ABDUL QADIR AL-JILANI

تحذير الشيخ عبد القادر من التجسيم والمجسمة:

Shaikh `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (d.561) warns against likening Allah to the creation and the Mujassimah

قال الإمام عبد القادر الجيلاني في كتابه الغنية :” واتفقت فرق المشبهة على أن الله جسم وأنه لا يجوز أن يعقل الموجود إلا جسما، والذي غلب عليهم التشبيه فرق الروافض والكرامية”.

The Imam, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani, may Allah have mercy upon him, mentioned in his work, Al-Ghunyah: The Mushabbihah groups have agreed on that Allah possesses a body, that it is not possible that something exists unless it is a body. And many people that transgress in the realm of likening Allah to the creation include the Rawafid and Karramiyyah sects.

ثم حكى من مقالتهم: أنه تعالى جسم من لحم ودم وله جوارح وأعضاء وأنه في جميع ذلك لا يشبه الأشياء والأشياء لا تشبهه.

Then one of the statements that they have said, “Indeed the Exalted One is a body of flesh and bone, limbs and parts; but even with all of that, He does not resemble things and things do not resemble Him”.

كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

Let us take heed from the narrative about these hideous groups and may Allah protect us.

THE ATTRIBUTES OF “ARRIVING” AND “DESCENT”

The Imam, `Abdullah Khalaf Ad-Dahyaan (d.1349), one of the great marja` people of Kuwait’s Bedouins. He despised cults and Neo-Platonist philosophy.

[عقيدة الحنابلة في النزول والمجيء]

Doctrine of the Hanbalis on “Descent” and “Arrival”

الإثبات مع التفويض ونفي لوازم التجسيم كالحركة والزوال والتركيب والمكان وحرمة التأويل إلا في رواية صحيحة السند في تأويل المجيء

The position on this matter is affirmation of the Attributes while making tafwid – and negating what would necessarily mean likening Allah with the creation in matters such as movement, changing, moving parts and place – and considering it impermissible to interpret except when there is a sahih chain of transmission that validates interpretation on the topic of “coming”.

قال ابن الزاغوني في الإيضاح في أصول الدين: “المعمول به عند عامة المشايخ من أصحابنا في النزول والمجيء ونحوهما : التسليم للنقل كما ورد ودفع التشبيه لعدم الموجب ومنع التأويل لارتفاع النسبة ولا نلحقه بنزول الآدميين الذي هو زوال وانتقال” أبو الحسن ابن الزاغوني.

Imam Ibn Az-Zaghuni said in his work The Clarification in the Foundation Principles of the Religion: “The affair that is adopted by the overwhelming majority of the Shaikhs of our Companions on the topic of “descent,” “arrival” and such is (1) submission to the text as has been narrated, (2) negating any resemblance to the creation as this is not required from the words, (3) forbidding interpretation as it is a means to taking away the Attribute mentioned and (4) and we do not compare or put the Attribute alongside of the attributes of creation such as the descent of men with regard to moving and change of location”.

As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan

Dated 1 Sha`ban 1443