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3 RAMADAN 1442: IS THE JUMU`AH NIGHT OR LAILAT UL-QADR GREATER IN RANK? PT.1

3 Ramadan 1442

In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate

And it is in Him that my success is realised.

It was narrated in the handwriting of Al-Qadi, the blessed father Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain Al-Farra’ Al-Hanbali Al-Baghdadi[1] – may Allah envelop him in His Mercy – who made the following statement:

Question

Our companions mentioned that the Jumu`ah night is more virtuous than Lailat ul-Qadr.

This was narrated by Al-Qadi Abu `Ali[2] who stated that Abul Hasan At-Tamimi[3] used to say, “Lailat ul-Qadr in which the Qur’an was sent down in is more virtuous than the night of Jumu`ah. As for the rest of the nights before or after the Lailat ul-Qadr, then the Jumu`ah night is surely more virtuous than them”.[4]


[1] d. 458 (AD1063). He is Abu Ya`la Muhammad ibn Al-Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Farra’ Al-Baghdadi. Grand marja` and spiritual father to 40 other grand maraji`, he was the first to catalogue the rise of the Ash`ari jama`ah. The Imam’s extensive teaching record and written legacy gave us a number of classics. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.2, pp. 166-198

[2]  d. 428 (AD1042). He is Abu `Ali Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Abi Musa Al-Hashimi. Scholar of creed, fiqh and other disciplines, he wrote a text on basic creed for students. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp. 335-341

[3] d. 371 (AD985). He is `Abdul `Aziz ibn Al-Harith ibn Asad. Faqih, Qadi and master of many sciences, he narrated three creed texts and countless fiqh rulings. Please see Abul Hussain’s Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.3, pp.347-348

[4] cf. Al-Maqdisi’s Al-Furu`, vol.5, pp.128-129

ETIQUETTE WITH THE QUR’AN

The following question was asked of a marja`:

As-Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullah,

Is it permitted to place the Noble Qur’an in the bedroom, i.e. on a table while the husband and the wife are having sexual intercourse in that room? Does this not constitute a lack of etiquette with the Book of Allah? May Allah reward you with good for answering this question.

The marja, Imam Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, may Allah preserve him, answered with what follows,

Yes, what you have said is indeed true. To have sex in the same room where the Qur’an is on the table is lack of etiquette with the Qur’an. What you should do if possible is place the Qur’an in another room.

VISITING GRAVES AND SHRINES

Figure 1A: the place where Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d. 241 AH (AD 855) lies in state.

The following is a direct quote (including the relevant end notes) from Imam Mustafa ibn Ahmad Ash-Shatti’s (d. 1348 AH), may Allah be pleased with him, The Divine Texts: Answering Muhammad ibn `Abdul Wahhab’s Movement , pp. 65-71 (1st edition):

Ar. Mashahid (MESHA-HID), sing. Mashhad (MESH-HEAD). Imam Ibn Mandhur defined a mashhad as: “A mashhad is a place where people gather for something.” Lisan ul-`Arab, vol.3, pp.296-297. In general, when the scholars use the term, mashhad, they are referring to the place where a saint or great figure died and people come to visit him or her. It is for that reason that it is sometimes referred to as a mashhad.

A believer reading this may ask why I have chosen to translate mashhad as ‘shrine’ and not choose another term. There are a number of reasons why this is the case. Firstly, the word ‘shrine’ used in English captures adequately the meaning that the Arabic conveys and what the scholars intend. The Concise Oxford English Dictionary, pp.977-978 reads:

Figure 2A: The resting place of the Imam, `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (561 AH (AD 1166), may Allah have mercy upon him, the great Hanbali sage.

shrine n. , & v.t. 1. n. casket, esp. one holding sacred relics; tomb (usually sculptured or highly ornamental) of saint, etc; alter or chapel with special associations; Shinto place of worship; place hallowed by some memory. 2. v.t. (poet.) enshrine. [OE scrin, =OHG scrini, ON skrin, Gmc f. L scrinium case for books etc.]

Thus, the Muslim using this expression would intend sentences one and five of the first definition. This would in no way mean that the Muslim holds shrines erected to Buddha, Zoroaster, Confucius or other unbelievers as places to set out to for visitation and reverence.

When using the word ‘saint’, the author, the scholars who preceded him and the translator mean ‘believers’, those who have salvation and have testified to the words of, There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. It is these people who are saints and whom we would take steps to visit.

Figure 3A: the resting place of the great Companion, Az-Zubair ibn Al-`Awwam

Imams Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 620 AH (AD 1223) and Shams ud-Din Ibn Qudamah (d. 682 AH (AD 1285) (who left the citation in place as tacit approval), may Allah have mercy upon both of them, when discussing visiting graves and shrines, added:

“So it is valid for a traveler to shorten his prayers on visitation of the graves and shrines. Imam Ibn `Aqil, may Allah have mercy upon him, said, ‘It is not permissible to shorten the prayers when visiting these places, as he has been forbidden from visiting them. The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him said, You should not set out on a journey except to three masjids, as this hadith is agreed upon by Imams Al-Bukhari and Muslim’.

The authentic position is that such visitations are permissible and it is valid to shorten the prayers on these visits. This is because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, when he came to Quba’, did so walking as well as riding, and he used to visit the graves.

He said, Visit them, for they remind you of the Hereafter. As far as his words, peace and blessings be upon him, ‘You should not set out on a journey except to three masjids…’ the meaning is referring to negating preferring another masjid to these but the ruling is not that it is impermissible. The virtue of the place is not a condition for the permissibility of shortening prayers on travel, so there is no harm in doing so.”  [Al-Mughni wash-Sharh ul-Kabir, vol.2, pp.104-105, mas’alah #1343]

1B: The Umayyad Family Central Masjid in Damascus, Syria

Imam `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d. 885 AH (AD 1481), may Allah have mercy on him, mentioned:

“It is praiseworthy for men to visit the graves and this is the absolute position in the madhhab as narrated from Imam Ahmad, and the clear majority of the school agree with this point. Imam Muhy ud-Din An-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, has even narrated Consensus on the issue. Imam Sham ud-Din said in his Sharh, ‘We know of no difference of opinion between the people of knowledge in it being praiseworthy for men to visit the graves’.

As for Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din in Al-Mughni, he said, ‘We know of no difference of opinion regarding men visiting the graves being praiseworthy’. The author of Majma` Al-Bahrain stated that this was praiseworthy in the most dominant position of the school. Imam Az-Zarkashi (d. 774 AH (AD 1372) said that there are well known and explicit texts about this given from the scholars of the school. The same has been narrated from Imam Al-Kalwadhani in AlHidayah, Al-Madhhab, Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdullah As-Samuri (d. 610 AH (AD 1213) in Al-Mustaw`ib, Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din in Al-Kafi, Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdul Qawi ibn Badran Al-Maqdisi (d. 699 AH (AD 1299) in An-Nazam ul-Mufid, Al-Hasan ibn Yusuf Ad-Dujaili (732 AH (AD 1331) in Al-Wajiz and others besides them.

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has mentioned, ‘There is no harm in men visiting the graves’. This is the dominant understanding of Imam Al-Khiraqi and other companions in the school. His position of permissibility has been taken as evidence by Imams Abul Mu`ali, Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 652 AH (AD 1254), Az-Zarkashi and others. They say that it is reported to be permissible but not praiseworthy and this is the dominant position of Imam Al-Khiraqi. This is due to the fact that the order for visitation had come after its prohibition – but the majority in the school have maintained that it is praiseworthy due to it reminding one of the Hereafter – as that was mentioned in the order.” [Al-Insaf fi Ma`rifat ir-Rajihi min al-Khilafi `ala Madhhab il-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, vol.2, pp.560-561]

Figure 2B: The resting place of Imam Jalal ud-Din As-Suyuti. (d. 911 AH (AD 1505).

Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d. 1051 AH (AD 1656), may Allah be pleased with him, said of setting out to travel to shrines and graves:

“There are different types of travel. There is necessary travel, such as for hajj or a specific jihad. There is the travel established by the sunnah, such as for visiting brother and sisters, the ill and infirm as well as parents. Permissible travel includes recreation, visiting, commerce or attending a shrine or grave of a prophet, or even a masjid besides the three.” [Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matn il-Iqna`, vol.1, pp.476-477]

Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti (d. 1051 AH (AD 1656), may Allah be pleased with him, says in conclusion:

“The traveler may take a dispensation when intending to travel to a shrine, or a masjid, even if it is other than the three. He may attend the grave of a prophet or other than a prophet, as in the case of a friend of Allah. As far as the hadith, ‘Do not set out on a journey except to three masjids. They are my masjid, Masjid ul-Haram and Masjid ul-Aqsa’, (1) there are points to it. It means that this should not be sought out. It is not forbidden from setting out on a journey to them, which is the opposite position to those scholars who oppose this view.

This is because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, came to the masjid in Quba’, riding and walking. He also used to visit graves, and said to people, ‘Visit them, for they are a reminder of the Hereafter.’ ” [Kash-shaf ul-Qina` `an Matn il-Iqna`, vol.1, pp.478-480. ]

(1) This hadith is collected by Imams al-Bukhari in his Jami` us-Sahih, Book of Reward of Hunting, under the chapter of the Hajj of the Women; Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj in his Jami` us-Sahih, Book of Hajj, under the chapter of The Virtues of the Three Masjids; at-Tirmidhi in his Sunan, Chapters on the Prayer of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him under the chapter of Which masjid is the most virtuous, and classified by them as authentic.

Remarriage for Wife Abandoned by Husband

Figure 1A: What is an abandoned wife to do? (Photo courtesy of crosswalk.com )

The following question was put to the marja`. 

In the case where the husband left the wife and the maintenance no longer comes – while the wife for the past five years has known nothing of his whereabouts – is it permitted for the woman to know re-marry as she has not heard from the husband since he left?

The marja`, Imam `Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, may Allah preserve him, gave the following reply,

The woman should raise her case to the Qadi of the area, seeking dissolving of the marriage on account of either 1) lack of maintenance or 2) her husband being absent for a long period of time.

It is then for the Qadi to make the decision on whether to dissolve the marriage or not. If he gives the ruling in favour of the dissolving, then she goes into her waiting period (Ar. `iddah) from the moment the marriage was pronounced dissolved. After this point, she may then re-marry.

If the woman in question has not done this, she still remains under the government of her husband, so she may not remarry until the marriage to the first husband is dissolved or ended.

If You Are Going to Follow Someone…

Figure 1A: Imam Diya' ud-Din Khalid Al-Baghdadi, one of the great marja` people of recent memory.
Figure 1A: Imam Diya’ ud-Din Khalid Al-Baghdadi, one of the great marja` people of recent memory.

I had first encountered the texts of the grand Imam, Diya’ ud-Din Khalid Al-Baghdadi (1193-1242 AH (AD 1779-1826) some 11 years ago through my brothers at Maktabat ul-Haqiqah by recommendation. I was thoroughly impressed by the layout, the diligence of the writing style and also his concern for other Muslims. It is for this reason that I wanted to give a biography of this man, who was a real warrior and a late marja` in the Ottoman period.

He is Khalid ibn Ahmad ibn Hussain Ash-Shahrazuri Ash-Shafi`ii An-Naqshabandi Al-Mujaddidi Al-Qadiri As-Suhrawardi Al-Kibrawi Al-Shishti. Born in the year 1193 AH (AD 1779) in Qurrah Taagh, some five miles from the city of As-Sulaimaniyyah and he was raised there. He was raised there under the authority of his father and recited the Qur’an in the local madrasah with the recitation of Hafs from `Asim.

Figure 2A: The crypt of the Imam in Damascus in Syria.
Figure 2A: The crypt of the Imam in Damascus in Syria.

He studied the texts of Ar-Rafi`ii, the rhyming text of Az-Zinjani in grammar and morphology and some other texts on the topic. He memorised countless texts even though he had not reached adulthood. After fifteen years of age, he traveled on to obtain knowledge. He learned from different Imams such as `Abdul Karim Al-Barzanji, `Ali Al-Manla Muhammad Salih, Al-Manla Ibrahim Al-Byari, `Abdullah Al-Kharbani.

Al-Baghdadi would later head to Damascus and also learn from such stellar Imams such as Muhammad Al-Kazbari and his student Mustafa Al-Kurdi and also took on the Qadiri Way. It was at this time that he also began writing his texts on theology. These would later be collected together in books such as Al-Iman wal-Islam.

Figure 3A: The grave of Imam Al-Baghdadi
Figure 3A: The grave of Imam Al-Baghdadi

By the time he died in the year 1242 AH (AD 1826), he had left behind some twenty texts or more in different languages and had also taken part in wars against colonists, cults and used the pen against them as well. If I was to tell anyone to follow someone or to attach someone to the Naqshabandis, attach yourselves to this one.

Figure 4A: The grave marker of the Imam along with his vital details. If only there was anyone worth their salt in the Anglo sphere that was worth their salt as was this Imam.
Figure 4A: The grave marker of the Imam along with his vital details. If only there was anyone worth their salt in the Anglo sphere that was worth their salt as was this Imam.

This Naqshabandi fought colonialism, preached the faith, recited the Qur’an accurately, broke the back of prostitution in Turkey, wrote extensively, built schools, learned from numerous scholars, left behind dozens of students.

This Naqshabandi made rulings against making people into eunuchs,  was fluent in several languages and used the language of Islamic thought (ARABIC) as the primary resource when he wrote. You should follow this man if you want to attach yourself to someone.

This Naqshabandi was pivotal in understanding the growth of fractional banking – along with another marja`, Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran (d. 1346 AH) – and assessing its’ rapacious impact on society and the bleak future this represents for all countries that indulge in that madness.

I hope that people will follow this man rather than the filth that they have been following in this present age in the Anglosphere. If you are looking for a role model from the past, then look no further.