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BIOGRAPHY OF THE SENIOR SCHOLAR, `ABDULLAH AL-KHALAF AD-DAHAYYAN

The authority of Al-Kuwait, the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan (1292-1349)

He is the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan Al-Harbi Al-Hanbali

Birth and upbringing

Ad-Dahayyan (sometimes read as Ad-Dahyaan) was born in Al-Kuwait in on 28 Shawwal 1292, his father being an imam, khatib and Qur’an teacher in the city of Al-Majma`ah in Najd. The father moved from the Najd to Kuwait in the year 1285 after which time the marja` and his son was born.

Shaikh `Abdullah learned Qur’an with his father and also learned the beginnings of reading, writing and math[1] and this made learning something beloved to him. After reaching a certain point, his father sent him to learn fiqh from the Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdullah Al-Faris, whom he accompanied and learned detailed matters of fiqh and Arabic.

Journey for `ilm

After this, in the year 1310, the Shaikh made his way to Az-Zubair[2] in Iraq to learn from the qualified scholars there, particular the Hanbali scholars. So while there he read to the following in fiqh:

The Shaikh, Salih ibn Hamad Al-Mabayyid

The Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn `Abdur-Rahman Al-Hamud

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdullah Ala `Iwajan[3]

The Shaikh, `Abdullah Ad-Dahayyan was well known for his intelligence and quick take up of knowledge and he was loved by his shaikhs and teachers. They were surprised by his quickness and what they saw him do.

Ad-Dahayyan also showed great traits of truthfulness, sincerity, humility, good etiquettes, great morals and calm demeanour. After more than two years, the Shaikh, `Abdullah Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan returned to Al-Kuwait and received more authorisations in the Noble Qur’an, Hanbali fiqh, the six books of hadith and the books of Ahkam. The did this from some of the premier scholars of his time, which included:

The senior scholar of Najd, the Shaikh, Ibrahim ibn Salih ibn `Isa (d.1343)

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdul Karim Ash-Shibl Al-Qassimi (d.1343)

In the year 1323, the Shaikh travelled to fulfill the obligation of Hajj and was able to go along with a caravan of many scholars, taking authorisations from them and also teaching others and giving authorisations. He spoke to them and they spoke to him. And it would be here while on Hajj that he would receive his marja`iyyah.

After he completed his Hajj, he travelled by sea to India, then to Musqat in Oman and then returned to Al-Kuwait and with the knowledge he had gained begun to put himself to the service of his people.

Being a humble man, he often conferred with different scholars to discuss matters and these are preserved in books. Those who corresponded with include:

The Shaikh, the senior scholar, Ibrahim ibn Salih ibn `Isa

The Shaikh, the senior scholar, `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran (d.1346)

The Shaikh, Muhammad Al-Amin Ash-Shanqiti

The Shaikh, Mahmud Shukri Al-Alusi

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn Mani` and others, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

The Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf Ad-Dahayyan then had turned over to him the post of imam and khatib at the Central Masjid established by Nasir ibn Yusuf Al-Badr. Many people came from all around the area, not just Al-Kuwait, in order to hear the Shaikh’s khutbahs and lessons.

He had to be forced into a position (as he did not want it) to act as sentencing qadi which he reluctantly accepted after the death of the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalid Al-`Adasani (d.1348). When he relented, he went forward to look after the people’s affairs and refused any wage or gifts given by people for the work that he did. He even refused admin fees for printing documents and the like.

His gatherings and students

Every morning the Shaikh, may Allah have mercy upon him, would read from Tafsir ul-Qur’an il-`Azim by Imam Ibn Kathir (d.774) and then he would read Imam Al-Bukhari’s Al-Jami` us-Sahih along with Imam Ibn Hajar’s (d.852) Fath ul-Bari.

In between the salahs of Maghrib and `Isha’, he would read in other sciences and branch fields of study. Whenever he completed a text, he would move on to the next one. He had a high level of insight into the books of Hanbali fiqh and taught regularly from the books of the latter-day Hanbali scholars.

Students of knowledge flocked to attend the gatherings of the Shaikh whenever he was there and many of the virtuous ones of Al-Kuwait were there. Some of the students of Ad-Dahayyan include:

The Shaikh, Yusuf ibn `Isa Al-Qana`ii

The Shaikh, `Abdul-`Aziz Ar-Rashid

The Shaikh, Yusuf Al-Hamud

The Shaikh, Ahmad Al-Khamis

The Shaikh, `Abdul Wahhab Al-`Abdullah Al-Faaris

The Shaikh, `Abdur-Rahman Ad-Dusari

The Shaikh, `Abdullah An-Nuri

The Shaikh, `Abdul Wahhab Al-`Abdur-Rahman Al-Faaris

The Shaikh, Muhammad ibn Sulaiman Al-Jarrah

The Shaikh, `Abdur-Rahman Al-`Ubaidan and others, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

His authored works

The works of the Shaikh do not fully demonstrate his knowledge as he was so busy looking after the people’s needs and affairs, he did not have time to put several books into print. In spite of this, he did leave behind a few works:

Al-Masa’il ul-Fiqhiyyah. This covers questions and answers from waters all the way to Hajj.

Diwan ul-Khutab il-Mimbariyyat il-`Asriyyah. This is a how to guide of giving khutbahs for people who are new.

Majalis Ramadan. This is a series of presentations on the virtues of Ramadan.

Mansak Saghir Fil-Hajj. A new Muslim’s guide to Hajj

Qasidah fi Rihlat il-Hajj. A poetic meter on Hajj and its virtues.

Risalah fi Du`a Khatam il-Qur’an. A selection of supplications for the one that has completed the Qur’an.

Al-Futuhat ur-Rabbaniyyah fil Majalis il-Wa`ziyyah. A series of admonitions to the Ummah about various topics, including neo-Platonist philosophy and the dangers of modernism, which he rightly linked to America.

And there were others besides this that were useful along with individual rulings he passed and these were hung up in the masjid or preserved in books.

The Shaikh, Ahmad Al-Khamis, nephew of the Shaikh

The rank of the Shaikh

The library of the Shaikh was quite extensive and he had some valuable books, especially manuscripts which were sent forth or bequeathed to him from Sham, Egypt, Baghdad, Al-Hijaz and Najd until it reached a sizeable amount.

After the death of the Shaikh, the library was given as inheritance to his nephew, Shaikh Ahmad Al-Khamis and then after that this vast body of manuscripts passed to the Kuwaiti Ministry of Endowments.

After this, it was then handed over to the Fiqh Enyclopaedia Library of Kuwait for preservation and publishing where it is now housed.

The praise the scholars have for him

The historian, `Abdul `Aziz Ar-Rashid, said of him, “The Shaikh, `Abdullah is one of the most noble of the scholars of Al-Kuwait and the most pious. So whenever harsh or rough people came to his gathering, he was patient and magnanimous with these affairs and trials in addition to being humble and generous”.

The student of the Shaikh, `Abdullah Al-Nuri, may Allah have mercy upon him, said of him, “Those that knew the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf, they knew that he was a man of piety and humble for Allah in and of Himself. He was of great rank in the eyes of the people and spent his days benefiting the people, acting as a mufti for them, worshipping Allah, going among the people as an assistant, visiting the ill, wishing them condolences in their difficult times, he had great love in the hearts of the people and exalting the laws of the Religion. He was never known to have laziness and waywardness, and neither was it mentioned of him that he wasted an hour of his time in frivolity and aimlessness”.

The senior scholar of Sham, the Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir ibn Badran Al-Hanbali, may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the Shaikh, “The noble and virtuous senior scholar, the Shaikh of the Kuwaiti corridor and Najd, the Shaikh, `Abdullah Khalaf ibn Dahayyan, the scholar and virtuous teacher of those areas”.

The luminary of `Iraq, the Shaikh, Mahmud Shukri Al-Alusi said of the Shaikh, “He is noble scholar, the complete human being, the reminder of the First Three Generations when people saw him. He is the Shaikh, `Abdullah ibn Khalaf and Allah strengthened the Religion through him and made him a coolness of the eyes for the Muslims”.

His death

After spending a life filled with good and striving in which he served the people with knowledge, the Shaikh developed an illness that rendered him in a position in which he was bedridden until his death on 27 Ramadan 1349, having not gone past the age of 57 years. And may Allah have mercy upon the Shaikh with an enveloping mercy and be pleased with him and expand his goodness with all honour and generosity.[4]


[1] Notice that his parents taught him the beginning knowledge. It would be after that when the parents don’t know that they send him to someone else. In the English-speaking countries, so many know nothing and then send their children to learn and the children return home to desolate houses. This is light painting on the waves of the ocean with a paint brush.

[2] And it is a custom there that when someone has finished memorising the Zad and studying the commentary with comprehension, he then has a black `imamah wrapped around his head and he is commanded to teach.

[3] These three scholars were also the chief marja` people over the UAE and wrote a book of fiqh with countless fatawa on modern issues there as well as Iraq and the surrounding environs.

[4] Al-Masa’il ul-Fiqhiyyah, pp. 15-22

1 RAMADAN 1442: BIOGRAPHY OF IMAM SHAMS UD-DIN IBN `ABDUL HADI AL-MAQDISI

1 Ramadan 1442

محمد بن أحمد بن عبد الهادي بن عبد الحميد بن عبد الهادي بن يوسف بن محمد بن قدامة المقدسي، الجماعيلي الأصل، ثم الصالحي،

He is Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdul Hadi ibn `Abdul Hamid ibn `Abdul Hadi ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad ibn Qudamah Al-Jamma`ili As-Salihi

ثم المقرئ الفقيه المحدث، الحافظ الناقد، النحوي المتفنن، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله بن العماد أبي العباس: ولد في رجب سنة أربع وسبعمائة. وقرأ بالروايات، وسمع الكثير من القاضي أبي الفضل سليمان بن حمزة، وأبي بكر بن عبد الدايم، وعيسى المطعم، والحجار، وزينب بنت الكمال، وخلق كثير.

Referred to as the Muqri’, the Faqih, the Muhaddith, the Hafiz, the insightful grammarian, Shams ud-Din Abu `Abdillah ibn Al-`Imad Abul `Abbas. He was born in Rajab in the year 704 and recited with numerous narratives in ahadith. He heard much knowledge from Al-Qadi Abul Fadl Sulaiman ibn Hamzah, Abu Bakr ibn `Abdud-Da’im, `Isa Al-Mut`im, Al-Hajjar, Zainab bint Al-Kamal and countless others.

وعنى بالحديث وفنونه، ومعرفة الرجال والعلل. وبرع في ذلك. وتفقه في المذهب وأفتى. وقرأ الأصلين والعربية، وبرع فيها. ولازم الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية مدة. وقرأ عليه قطعة من الأربعين في أصول الدين للرازي.

He specialised in hadith and its subsciences, the knowledge of the narrators and flaws in ahadith and excelled in the subject. He studied in the Madhhab intently and gave rulings. He read and recited from the two principles and Arabic language and excelled in that. He regularly attended the gatherings of the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah for a period of time. He recited a portion of the 40 principles of Usul ud-Din by Ar-Razi.

قرأ الفقه على الشيخ مجد الدين الحراني، ولازم أبا الحجاج المزي الحافظ، حتى برع عليه في الرجال، وأخذ عن الذهبي وغيره. وقد ذكره الذهبي في طبقات الحفاظ، قال: ولد سنة خمس- أو ست- وسبعمائة.

He also recited fiqh to Majd ud-Din Al-Harrani and regularly attended the gatherings of Abul Hajjaj Al-Mizzi the Hafiz until he excelled in the knowledge of narrators of hadith. He then took from Imam Adh-Dhahabi and others. Imam Adh-Dhahabi mentioned him in Tabaqat ul Huffaz by saying, “He was born in the year 705 or 706”.

واعتنى بالرجال والعلل، وبرع وجمع، وتصدى للإفادة والاشتغال في القراءة والحديث، والفقه والأصلين، والنحو. وله توسع في العلوم وذهن سيال.

وذكره في معجمه المختص، وقال: عنى بفنون الحديث، ومعرفة رجاله، وذهنه مليح، وله عدة محفوظات وتآليف، وتعاليق مفيدة. كتب عني، واستفدت منه.

The Faqih, Ibn `Abdul Hadi sufficed himself in the matter of knowledge of narrators and flawed transmissions in hadith and excelled in it and gathered together many different principles, sought and give benefit while also busying himself in the recitation of Qur’an, Fiqh and Creed and its subdiscipline along with grammar. He had vast knowledge in the sciences and a very sharp mind. It was said of him in Mu`jam ul-Mukhtass that he had an acuity in the area of Hadith, good acquaintance with the narrators and a sharp mind. He also had a number of things that he had memorised in addition to authoring works and writing beneficial marginalia. He wrote and I have also benefited from it.

قال: وقد سمعت منه حديثاً يوم عرسه بالصدرية.ثم قال: أخبرنا المزي إجازة أخبرنا أبو عبد اللّه السروجي أخبرنا ابن عبد الهادي- “فذكر حديثاً هذا لفظه: درس ابن عبد الهادي بالصدرية”، درس الحديث وبغيرها بالسفح. وكتب بخطه الحسن المتقن الكثير. وصنف تصانيف كثيرة بعضها كلمات، وبعضها لم يكمله، لهجوم المنية عليه في سن الأربعين.

I heard one hadith from him on the day of his wedding at As-Sadariyyah. It was narrated to us by Al-Mizzi by way of ijazah: it was narrated to us by Abu `Abdullah As-Suruji: It was narrated to us by Ibn `Abdul Hadi. This was the narrative and he taught it at As-Sadariyyah. He taught hadith and other things as well at the foot of Mount Qasiyun. He wrote with good handwriting and authored many works. Some of them were just a few words while others he did not finish on account of the onset of an illness that started in his forties.

فمن تصانيفه “تنقيح التحقيق في أحاديث التعليق” لابن الجوزي مجلدان “الأحكام الكبرى” المرتبة على أحكام الحافظ الضياء، كمل منها سبع مجلدات “الرد على أبي بكر الخطيب الحافظ في مسألة الجهر بالبسملة” مجلد “المحرر في الأحكام” مجلد “فصل النزاع بين الخصوم في الكلام على أحاديث:

So from his works is (1) Clarification of the Data in the Ahadith in the work At-Ta`liq which is a summary on Ibn Al-Jawzi’s work by the same title that covers two volumes, (2) Al-Ahkam ul-Kubra which is based upon the said work by Al-Hafiz Diya’ ud-Din Al-Maqdisi that was completed in seven volumes, (3) Refutation of Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi on the topic of Reciting the Basmalah Aloud which was one volume, (4) The Clarifier in Hadith and Rulings which is one large volume, (5) Clarifying the Dispute in the topic of Ahadith

“أفطر الحاجم والمحجوم” مجلد لطيف الكلام على أحاديث مس الذكر جزء كبير “الكلام على أحاديث: “البحر هو الطهور ماؤه” جزء كبير “الكلام على أحاديث القلتين” جزء “الكلام على حديث معاذ في الحكم بالرأي” جزء كبير، الكلام على حديث “أصحابي كالنجوم” جزء، الكلام على حديث أبي سفيان “ثلاث أعطينهن يا رسول الله” والرد على ابن حزم في قوله: إنه موضوع. كتاب “العمدة” في الحفاظ، كمل منه مجلدان “تعليقة في الثقات” كمل منه مجلدان، الكلام على أحاديث “مختصر ابن الحاجب” مختصر ومطول، الكلام على أحاديث كثيرة فيها ضعف من “المستدرك” للحاكم، أحاديث الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، جزء منتقى من “مختصر المختصر” لابن خزيمة، ومناقشته على أحاديث أخرجها فيه، فيها مقال، مجلد،

(6) The Blood Letter and his client which is a slim volume, (7) Statement on the Hadith of Touching the Penis which is a large volume, (8) Statement on the Ahadith on the Animals of the Water being Purified by the Water which is a large text, (9) Statement on the Hadith of the Qullatain, (10) Statement on the Hadith of Mu`adh in giving a ruling with opinion which is one large volume, (11) Statement on the Hadith, My Companions are like the stars of the sky which is a small volume, (12) The Statement on the Hadith of Abu Sufyan, We were given three things, Messenger of Allah and the refutation on Ibn Hazm who graded it fabricated, (13) The Supporting Pillar on the Memorisers of Hadith which covers two large volumes, (14) Note on the Reliable Transmitters which is two volumes, (15) Statement on the Ahadith in Mukhtasar Ibn Hajib which is short but has large notes covering subjects, (16) Statement on the numerous ahadith in Al-Mustadrak by Al-Hakim that are da`if, (17) Ahadith of the Salah sent upon the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, which is a small portion taken from the Mukhtasar of the Mukhtasar of Ibn Khuzaimah and his discussion on the ahadith mentioned therein that are discussed. This is one large volume.     

الكلام على “أحاديث الزيارة” جزء، مصنف في الزيارة مجلد، الكلام على أحاديث “محلل السباق” جزء، جزء في “مسافة القصر” جزء في قوله تعالى: “لمسجد أسس على التقوى” الآية. “التوبة: 108″، جزء في أحاديث “الجمع بين الصلاتين في الحضر”، “الإعلام في ذكر مشايخ الأئمة الأعلام”، أصحاب الكتب الستة. عدة أجزاء، الكلام على حديث “الطواف بالبيت صلاة”، “جزء كبير في مولد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم” تعليقة على “سنن البيهقي الكبرى” كمل منها مجلدان، جزء كبير في “المعجزات والكرامات” جزء في “تحريم الربا” جزء في “تملك الأب من مال ولده ما شاء”

(18) Statement on the Ahadith of Visitation of the Graves which is a slim volume on the topic, (19) Statement of the Ahadith of Late Comers to Salah and Marriage Matters which is a small volume, (20) Travel Rulings and what constitutes Travel which is small volume, (21) small volume on the Masjids are established upon Piety which is a number of volumes, (22) Short tract on the Ahadith on Joining between Prayers while one is resident, (23) Notice on making mention of the Shaikhs of the Imams of Guidance and Luminaries, (24) The Narrators of the Six Books which is in a number of volumes, (25) Statement on the hadith, Making Tawaf around the House is salah, (26) a large tract on the Mawlid o the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, (27) Short notes on As-Sunan ul-Kubra by Al-Baihaqi which is in two large volumes, (28) Miracles and Wonders which is in one large volume, (29) Prohibition of Riba which is a small tract and (30) The Father taking ownership of the wealth of his son according to what he so wills which is a small text.

جزء في “العقيقة” جزء في “الأكل من الثمار التي لا حائط عليها”، “الرد على ألْكيا الهِرَّاسي” جزء كبير، قي ترجمة الشيخ تقي الدين ابن تيمية” مجلد “منتقى من تهذيب الكمال للمزي كمل منه خمسة أجزاء” إقامة البرهان على عدم وجوب صوم يوم الثلاثين من شعبان” جزء، جزء في “فضائل الحسن البصري” رضي الله عنه “جزء في حجب الأم بالإخوة، وأنها تحجب بدون ثلاثة” جزء “في الصبر” جزء “في فضائل الشام” “صلاة التراويح” جزء كبير،

(31) A text on the topic of Al-`Aqiqah, (32) Statement on eating fruit from trees which have no boundary wall for them, (33) Refutation of Al-Kiya Al-Hirrasi in one large volume, (34) Biography of the Shaikh, Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah, which is a volume, (35) Critique of the Summary of Al-Kamal by Al-Mizzi which is five volumes, (36) Establishing the proof on the non-compulsory nature of fasting on the thirtieth day of Sha`ban, which is one portion, (37) Virtues of Al-Hasan Al-Basri, may Allah be pleased with him, which is one volume, (38) The case where the woman does not inherit when brothers are involved, (39) tract on Sabr, (40) a tract on the Virtues of Sham, (41) a tract on Salat ut-Tarawih, which is a large volume.

الكلام على أحاديث “لبس الخفين للحرم” جزء كبير، جزء في “صفة الجنة” جزء في “المراسيل” جزء في مسألة “الجد والأخوة”، “منتخب من مسند الإِمام أحمد” مجلدان “منتخب من سنن البيهقي” مجلد “منتخب من سنن أبي داود” مجلد لطيف “تعليقه على التسهيل في النحو، كمل منها مجلدان، جزء في الكلام على حديث “أَفرَضَكم زيد” أحاديث “حياة الأنبياء في قبورهم”

(42) speaking on the ahadith of the one in ihram wearing khuffs, which is a large volume, (43) Description of the Paradise, which is one volume, (44) a selection on mursal ahadith, (45) tract on grandparents and brothers, (46) a selection of ahadith of the Musnad of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, which is two volumes, (47) a selection of ahadith from the Sunan of Imam Al-Baihaqi, which is one volume, (48), a selection of ahadith from the Sunan of Abu Dawud, which is a slim volume, (49) note on easy text on grammar which is two volumes, (50) selection from a statement on the hadith, The most knowledgeable of you in inheritance is Zaid, (51) the life of the prophets in their graves.  

جزء تعليقة، على “العلل”، لابن أبي حاتم، كمل منها مجلدان. تعليقة على “الأحكام” لأبي البركات ابن تيمية لم تكمل “منتقى من علل الدارقطني”، مجلد، جزء في الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر “شرح لألفية ابن مالك” جزء. ما أخذ على تصانيف أبي عبد اللّه الذهبي الحافظ شيخه عدة أجزاء. حواشي على كتاب “الإلمام” جزء في الرد على أبي حيان النحوي فيما رعه على ابن مالك وأخطأ فيه،

(52) a note on the flows in hadith by Ibn Abi Hatim, which is two volumes (53) a note on the rulings of Abul-Barakat Ibn Taymiyyah, which he did not complete, (54) Critique from the flaws in the Book by Ad-Daraqutni, and this is one volume, (55) a note on enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong, (56) commentary on the Alfiyyah of Ibn Malik, which is one volume, (57) a narrative in refutation of Abu Hayyan the grammarian in what was brought together in Ibn Malik and the mistake he made in the dispute he rose. He also took a number of texts from Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdullah Adh-Dhahabi who was his shaikh.

جزء في “اجتماع الضميرين” جزء “في تحقيق الهمز والإِبدال في القراءات” وله رد على ابن طاهر، وابن دحية، وغيرهما، وتعاليق كثيرة في الفقه وأصوله، والحديث، ومنتخبات كثيرة في أنواع العلم. وحدث بشيء من مسموعاته. وسمع منه غير واحد، وقد سمعت من أبيه، فإنه عاش بعده نحو عشر سنين.

(58) a treatise on two indicating markers grouped together in one statement, (59) blending of hamzah and replacement in the different recitations, (60) rebuke of Ibn Tahir, (61) rebuke of Ibn Dihyah and others. He also wrote numerous notes in fiqh and Usul as well the hadith. He also has numerous summaries in the branches of knowledge. He narrated numerous live gatherings and texts and more than one body narrated from him. I heard texts from his father as he lived about ten years after him.

توفي الحافظ أبو عبد الله في عاشر جمادى الأول سنة أربع وأربعين وسبعمائة ودفن بسفح قاسيون، وشيعه خلق كثير، وتأسفوا عليه، ورئيت له منامات حسنة. رحمه اللّه تعالى.

Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdillah died on 10 Jumada Al-Uwla in the year 744 and was buried at the foot of Mount Qasiyun and his janazah procession was attended by a large gathering who mourned his passing. Many people afterwards saw visions of him in dreams that conveyed a good end. May Allah, Exalted be He, have mercy upon him.

BIOGRAPHY: IMAM YAHYA AS-SARSARI

Figure 1A: Dhul Kifl Masjid in Al-Kifl, Iraq. This entire complex is said to have on it the tomb of the Prophet Dhul Kifl.

The Poet Preacher [1]

He is the Insightful Linguist, the Zahid Jamal ud-Din, the Poet of the Age, Possessor of the Most Sublime Poetry in Praise of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, the Blind Faqih as well as the fact that he was the Perfected Man of his Age.

Titled as Jamal ud-Din Abu Zakariyyah, he is Yahya ibn Yusuf ibn Yahya ibn Mansur ibn Al-Mu`ammar ibn `Abdus-Salam Al-Ansari As-Sarsari Az-Zarirani. Born in the year 588 AH in Baghdad, he recited the Qur’an to many teachers. He started with the students of Ibn `Asakir Al-Battaihi.

Imam As-Sarsari also listened to hadith from Shaikh `Ali ibn Idris Al-Ya`qubi the Zahid and learned a great deal. He was also a long time student of Shaikh `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani, accompanied him and travelled with him and became a successor. He took the oath and the khirqah from him.

Shaikh `Abdul Mughith Al-Harbi and others also gave Imam As-Sarsari permission to teach fiqh. When As-Sarsari completed with him, he also memorised the fiqh and the Arabic grammar and syntax.

Possessing great intelligence and composing poetry at a nearly daily rate, it is said that his poetry in praise of the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, exceeds some 20 leather bound volumes or more.

Upon completion of Imam Al-Khiraqi’s Al-Mukhtasar, he then created a poetic rhyming text to summarise the text and also provide a few words of commentary. Imam As-Sarsari also created another metre known as Zawa’id ul-Kafi, which gave further details on fiqhi issues.

Besides this, he wrote metred poetry concerning the Arabic language and the other sciences as well. He was known for his grand piety, his immense exertion in deriving rulings and personal righteousness along with his constant recitation of the Qur’an.

Chaste, patient and forbearing, he loved to take the pathways of the indigent and he mixed with and befriended the downtrodden. He would often have gatherings and narrated texts with them and he also gave them dispensations in that regard.

Strong on the Sunnah and an opponent to those who opposed it, his poetry was replete with references to the foundations of the Sunnah, praise of its’ people, condemnation of its’ opposers. A long metre of poetry entitled, Lamiyyah, was compiled by the Imam with the subject being praise of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and his companions.

We have already made mention of some of the metre when giving biographies of the scholars of the school who mentioned it in their own words. One night, Imam Yahya As-Sarsari saw the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in a dream and was given the glad tidings of death upon the Sunnah.

Upon awakening from that dream, the Imam wrote a metre that was very long about theology and began by narrating that dream.

His students include Al-Hafiz Ad-Dumyati, who mentioned taking from him in his Digest, `Ali ibn Husain Al-Fakhri and others. Ijazah was given to Al-Qadi Sulaiman ibn Hamzah, Ahmad ibn `Ali Al-Jazari and Fatimah bint Al-Kamal in his knowledge.

During the time of Hulughu Khan and his unbelieving army’s entrance into Baghdad, the Shaikh was present therein. When some of his army entered his habitation, he fought and killed them. It is said that the amount of people the Imam killed were 8 in number. After that, he was killed, may Allah be pleased with him, as martyr and this was in the year 656 AH at the fortress of the Shaikh `Ali Al-Khabbaz at Al-`Aqabah.

During his funeral, the Imam was carried to his final resting place in Sarsar and interred. I had the opportunity to visit his grave when I was headed to Al-Hijaz once in the year 749 AH. Including among those killed in that year on that day from our pious companions was the Shaikh, the Zahid, the worshipper, Abul Hasan.

[1] The following biography narrated by Imam Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali in his Adh-Dhail `ala Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.4, pp. 212-213.

Shaikh Muwaffaq `Uyun

Figure 1A: Shaikh Muwaffaq at a gathering in the Central Masjid in Duma.
Figure 1A: Shaikh Muwaffaq at a gathering in the Central Masjid in Duma.

He is Muwaffaq Mahmud `Uyun Al-Hanbali Ad-Dumi. He was born in the city of Duma in Syria in the year 1377 AH (AD 1958) and took knowledge from his father in his early years at the Nizamiyyah School of Primary Studies.

Shaikh Muwaffaq went on to memorise the Qur’an and then went to Intermediate School of Engineering at the University of Damascus.

The Shaikh – having already completed the memorisation of Qur’an from the narration of Hafs from `Asim – decided to study the major ten recitations according to the Shatibi methods.

After this, he went headlong into the different branches of knowledge in the Revealed Law with numerous teachers and upon being given permission to teach immediately started his service within the community.

His teachers include:

  1. Imam Ahmad Ash-Shami, the marja` based on Duma. He taught Shaikh Muwaffaq fiqh.

2. Imam `Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami, the marja` based in Duma who also taught Shaikh Muwaffaq additional books in fiqh.

3. Shaikh Muhy ud-Din Al-Kurdi, who gave Shaikh Muwaffaq time in teaching him the different levels of narrations.

4. Shaikh Muhammad Isma`il Al-`Arini, who gave him time to learn the Shatibiyyah in recitation.

5. Shaikh Muwaffaq `Uyun has numerous students and enjoys teaching the Qur’an, hearing it recited and benefiting from the blessings of the faith. We ask that Allah have mercy upon all our           scholars and bless us with good recitation and steadfastness in this month of Ramadan.

 

Until next time,

Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali

Imam Al-Mawahibi: A True Servant to the Knowledge

Figure 1A: One of Ba`labak, Lebanon's many masjids. This is the ancestral home of Imam Al-Mawahibi.
Figure 1A: One of Ba`labak, Lebanon’s many masjids. This is the ancestral home of Imam Al-Mawahibi.

He is `Abdul Baqi ibn `Abdul Baqi ibn `Abdul Qadir ibn `Abdul Baqi ibn Ibrahim ibn `Umar ibn Muhammad Al-Ba`li Al-Mawahibi Ad-Dimashqi. Born Saturday 18 Rabi` ul-Akhir in the year 1005 AH, he came from a family of theologians and judges.

His father, Shaikh `Abdul Baqi Al-Ba`li, was one of the People of Knowledge of his time as well as his grandfather, Shaikh Zain ud-Din `Abdul Qadir, known as the Preacher to the Muslims.

The great grandfather, Shaikh `Abdul Baqi, was the Mufti of his time period and one of the premier scholars in research and textual analysis. His great great grandfather was the Shaikh Ibrahim ibn `Umar and his great, great, great grandfather was `Umar ibn Muhammad who was the first one to be known as Ibn Badran but later came to be nicknamed Ibn Faqih Fissah.

Early Life

The author began learning with his father, memorising the Qur’an while still a small boy of ten years of age. He excelled in his efforts and completed not only the narration of Hafs ibn Abi Sulaiman from `Asim ibn Abin-Nujud but also Qalun from Nafi`.

At the age of twelve, he set out to seek knowledge from other teachers, starting with the grand Qadi, Mahmud ibn `Abdul Hamid Al-Humaidi.[1] He then moved onto the great scholar, the Qadi and Shaikh, Shihab ud-Din Ahmad Al-Wafa’ii Al-Muflihi. This continued until the year 1029.

In Egypt

He headed to Egypt in this same year and at 24 years of age was reciting texts by heart, such as the The Satisfaction,[2] Provision for the One Seeking Satisfaction.[3] While in Egypt, he met none other than the grand marja` of his time, Imam and Shaikh, Mansur ibn Yunus Al-Buhuti[4] as well as another great scholar, Shaikh `Abdul Qadir Ad-Danushi. He studied diligently with them and accompanied them frequently.

During his stay in Egypt, he was given the good fortune of coming into contact with two other marja` people, namely Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi[5] and Imam Yusuf Al-Futuhi.[6] Egypt was in a golden period at this time as the main commentaries on texts such as the Uttermost Boundary,[7] the Sufficiency, the Student’s Guide,[8] the Student’s Primer[9] and Provision for the One Seeking Satisfaction were being penned.

Indeed it must have been amazing having the writers and commentators alive in front of you while learning and being able to ask them pithy details about what they wrote in their masterful works.

In the sciences of the recitation of the Qur’an, Hadith study, Inheritance law and poetry, Imam Al-Mawahibi took full advantage, sitting with scholars of repute such as Shaikhs `Abdur-Rahman Al-Yamani, Ibrahim Al-Laqqani – the famed Shaikh of Al-Azhar – as well as Shaikhs Ahmad Al-Muqri Al-Maghribi Al-Maliki, Muhammad Ash-Shamarlisi, Zain ul-`Abdidin ibn Abi Durri Al-Maliki, Muhammad Al-Hamawi, Muhammad Al-Babeli and others.

Leaving Egypt for Damascus

Imam Al-Mawahibi sat in lectures and gatherings of knowledge from his arrival in Egypt until the year 1032, when he returned to Damascus with numerous teaching licenses to more than seventeen teachers in various sciences. He was given permission to teach and give rulings but was still very much dedicated to adding more knowledge to what he already possessed.

So he began to learn syntax, grammar, orthography, hadith verification, principles of fiqh from the Shaikh `Umar Al-Qari. Not long after, he was given a written authorisation in the books, staying on in Damascus until the year 1036.

Makkah, Hajj and then on to Al-Madinah

When he reached the middle of the year 1036, he intended to head to Makkah and complete the obligation of Hajj.

While present there, the author when not engaged with Hajj and `Umrah obligations, sat with a number of scholars to enrich himself with their knowledge. This included the knowledge of the Shaikh, Muhammad `Ali ibn `Allan As-Siddiqi, who gave the author authorisation to narrate his works. Another teacher was the Shaikh, `Abdur-Rahman Al-Murshidi.

Once he completed all of his Hajj and `Umrah rights, Imam Al-Mawahibi headed to Al-Madinah to visit the resting place of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. During his stay, he came to know of the Shaikh, `Abdur-Rahman Al-Khayyari.

Return to Damascus and Becoming Marja`

In the year 1040, Imam Al-Mawahibi left Arabia and returned to Damascus and in 1041, he undertook his writing career and taught extensively, being declared marja` one year after by the scholars present in a gathering. His teachers had been more than 26 in number and he had travelled to invest and absorb knowledge from Makkah, Al-Madinah, Jerusalem, Damascus and Egypt.

The teaching schedule of Imam Al-Mawahibi consisted of lessons in the Umayyad Family Central Masjid in the morning after sunrise and between Maghrib and `Isha’ prayers. He would read aloud in his lessons and often test the students.

He would then head to the Al-Muzaffari Central Masjid, holding two lessons in Hadith a day, two lessons in Tafsir Al-Jalalain as well as reading from the Sahih of Imam Al-Bukhari and completing it every year. He would also read from the Sahih of Imam Muslim, the Shifa’ of Al-Qadi `Iyad, Al-Mawahib of Imam Al-Qastalani.

He would also teach At-Targhib wat-Tarhib by Imam Al-Mundhiri, At-Tadhkirah by Imam Al-Qurtubi, the Commentary on Al-Bara’ah, Al-Munfarijah, the Shama’il by Imam At-Tirmidhi, the Ihya’ of Imam Al-Ghazzali and this would be done solely by him through weekly lessons on a regular basis. The reader is correct if he understands that this easily amounts to between ten to fifteen lessons a day.

He would start by teaching at the prayer niche of the Hanbalis but would then move and teach at the prayer niche of the Shafi`iis so that others would not feel neglected by his teaching solely in one spot.

There would also be large crowds and he would have to make way by moving from one to the other. This would often mean that from his prayer niche, crowds would overflow onto the Shafi`ii prayer niche and he would teach there sometimes to accomodate overcrowding.

Many of his lessons were quite general but he would have other classes for his specialised students in the area of fiqh. Most of his lessons in the morning and afternoon consisted of knowledge of hadith which Al-Mawahibi loved and would give people authorisations in if they showed due diligence and fervency.

As with the large amount of people, he often used sub-readers, to repeat his statements to the crowd as he did not have a loud voice. These sub readers were often given opportunities to take first pick of the chains they wanted to try for and receive authorisation.

Students

Among those eager to take knowledge from the Imam and carry it to the next generation as successors were the following:

Hamzah ibn Yusuf Ad-Dumi, Abul Fallah `Abdul Hayy Ibn ul-`Imad Al-`Akkari, Ahmad Ad-Dumi, Muhammad Abul Muwahibi (the son of the Imam), `Abdul Qadir ibn `Abdul Qadir At-Taghlabi, Burhan ud-Din Ibrahim Al-Kawrani Ash-Shafi`ii.

Other students include shaikhs `Abdul Ghani An-Nabulsi, Mustafa ibn Suwwar, Muhammad al-Batanini, Ahmad Ad-Darani, `Abdul Haqq As-Safuri, Ramadan ibn Musa Al-`Atifi and his brother Hasan Al-`Atifi.

Figure 2A: An example of a combined teaching license and recommendation to another teach written by Imam `Abdul Baqi Al-Mawahibi.
Figure 2A: An example of a combined teaching license and recommendation to another teach written by Imam `Abdul Baqi Al-Mawahibi.

Written Legacy

Although a mountain of knowledge with voluminous knowledge as deep as the ocean, Imam Al-Mawahibi did not pen books copiously. Those he did write were universally accepted, which include:

Sharh ul-Jami` is-Sahih. This is commentary by the Imam on Imam Al-Bukhari’s hadith collection. He was not able to complete this work and the text remains in manuscript form.

Iqtitaf uth-Thamar fi Mawafaqati `Umar. This work covers the rulings given by the second khalifah, `Umar ibn Al-Khattab but also the times revelation was given confirming his decisions.

`Aqd ul-Fara’id fi Nazm min al-Fawa’id. A book dealing with virtues and basic etiquettes that lifts generously from Ibn ul-Qayyim’s Bada’i` ul-Fawa’id.

Riyad ul-Jannati Fi Aathari Ahl is-Sunnah. A series of admonitions and rulings about Muslim Orthodoxy with regard to their theology, etiquettes and practice.

Tafsir ul-Ayat. This is a series of commentary notes on selected ayat from the Qur’an.

Faid ur-Razzaq fi Tahdhib il-Akhlaq. A work covering etiquettes and how to treat oneself and others. There are a few references to theology and fiqh rulings.

Risalah fi Qira’ah `Asim. This work discusses the recitation according to the narration from Asim ibn Abin-Nujud.

Al-`Ain wal-Athar fi `Aqa’idi Ahl il-Athar. A text on theology and comparative doctrines written to answer questions by some students as well as other marja` people.

Death

On Tuesday 17 Dhul Hijjah in the year 1071 AH, Imam `Abdul Baqi Al-Mawahibi died. He was buried in an area called Al-Ghuraba’ which neighbours the graveyard of Al-Faradis in Damascus.

[1] He is the grandson of Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi (d. 968 AH).

[2] Ar. Al-Iqna`. This work is by Imam Musa al-Hajjawi and was later commented upon by Imam Mansur al-Buhuti, may Allah be pleased with both of them.

[3] Ar. Zad ul-Mustaqni`

[4] d. 1051 AH (AD 1656). One of the depended upon sources in the Hanbali School, he studied with many of the Sham fathers, such as the son of Imams Yahya Al-Hijawi, `Abdul Qadir Ad-Danushi and others. He became the leading Hanbali scholar in Egypt, even outranking the senior Subki, Futuhi and Sa`di families in importance. He wrote five large works in fiqh and smaller texts on selected topics. Imam Sulaiman ibn `Ali (d. 1079 AH (AD 1684), upon hearing that he had written his fiqh text, Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` burned his own text on the topic and told all his students in Najd to follow the Imam.

[5] d. 1033 AH (AD 1624). Considered by his peers to be a master of all sciences, he was the premier scholar of Egypt in his time, but studied with the great scholars of Sham as well. Although concentrating his energies on creed and fiqh, he covered many of the most trying issues of his time, such as the widespread use of coffee and cigarettes. He was renowned as a defender of righteouness and an enemy to sin.

[6] He is the grandson of Imam Ibn An-Najjar Al-Futuhi (d. 972 AH)

[7] Ar. Al-Muntaha al-Iradat

[8] Ar. Ad-Dalil ut-Talib

[9] Ar. `Umdat ut-Talib

If You Are Going to Follow Someone…

Figure 1A: Imam Diya' ud-Din Khalid Al-Baghdadi, one of the great marja` people of recent memory.
Figure 1A: Imam Diya’ ud-Din Khalid Al-Baghdadi, one of the great marja` people of recent memory.

I had first encountered the texts of the grand Imam, Diya’ ud-Din Khalid Al-Baghdadi (1193-1242 AH (AD 1779-1826) some 11 years ago through my brothers at Maktabat ul-Haqiqah by recommendation. I was thoroughly impressed by the layout, the diligence of the writing style and also his concern for other Muslims. It is for this reason that I wanted to give a biography of this man, who was a real warrior and a late marja` in the Ottoman period.

He is Khalid ibn Ahmad ibn Hussain Ash-Shahrazuri Ash-Shafi`ii An-Naqshabandi Al-Mujaddidi Al-Qadiri As-Suhrawardi Al-Kibrawi Al-Shishti. Born in the year 1193 AH (AD 1779) in Qurrah Taagh, some five miles from the city of As-Sulaimaniyyah and he was raised there. He was raised there under the authority of his father and recited the Qur’an in the local madrasah with the recitation of Hafs from `Asim.

Figure 2A: The crypt of the Imam in Damascus in Syria.
Figure 2A: The crypt of the Imam in Damascus in Syria.

He studied the texts of Ar-Rafi`ii, the rhyming text of Az-Zinjani in grammar and morphology and some other texts on the topic. He memorised countless texts even though he had not reached adulthood. After fifteen years of age, he traveled on to obtain knowledge. He learned from different Imams such as `Abdul Karim Al-Barzanji, `Ali Al-Manla Muhammad Salih, Al-Manla Ibrahim Al-Byari, `Abdullah Al-Kharbani.

Al-Baghdadi would later head to Damascus and also learn from such stellar Imams such as Muhammad Al-Kazbari and his student Mustafa Al-Kurdi and also took on the Qadiri Way. It was at this time that he also began writing his texts on theology. These would later be collected together in books such as Al-Iman wal-Islam.

Figure 3A: The grave of Imam Al-Baghdadi
Figure 3A: The grave of Imam Al-Baghdadi

By the time he died in the year 1242 AH (AD 1826), he had left behind some twenty texts or more in different languages and had also taken part in wars against colonists, cults and used the pen against them as well. If I was to tell anyone to follow someone or to attach someone to the Naqshabandis, attach yourselves to this one.

Figure 4A: The grave marker of the Imam along with his vital details. If only there was anyone worth their salt in the Anglo sphere that was worth their salt as was this Imam.
Figure 4A: The grave marker of the Imam along with his vital details. If only there was anyone worth their salt in the Anglo sphere that was worth their salt as was this Imam.

This Naqshabandi fought colonialism, preached the faith, recited the Qur’an accurately, broke the back of prostitution in Turkey, wrote extensively, built schools, learned from numerous scholars, left behind dozens of students.

This Naqshabandi made rulings against making people into eunuchs,  was fluent in several languages and used the language of Islamic thought (ARABIC) as the primary resource when he wrote. You should follow this man if you want to attach yourself to someone.

This Naqshabandi was pivotal in understanding the growth of fractional banking – along with another marja`, Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran (d. 1346 AH) – and assessing its’ rapacious impact on society and the bleak future this represents for all countries that indulge in that madness.

I hope that people will follow this man rather than the filth that they have been following in this present age in the Anglosphere. If you are looking for a role model from the past, then look no further.