Raising the voice in dhikr after the compulsory salah according to the Hanbalis is praiseworthy.
مما اشتهر أنه من مذهب الحنابلة الإسرار بالذكر بعد الصلاة وأن الجهر به بدعة .
It is popularly believed by some people that it is from the Hanbali Madhhab to keep the dhikr quiet after the compulsory salah and that doing so aloud is innovation.
بينما المعتمد في المذهب الجهر _ وهو المسنون _ بالذكر بعد الصلاة من للإمام والمأموم ، بحيث يسمع من في المسجد ومن هو خارج المسجد .
This is although the depended upon ruling in the madhhab is that raising the voice – which is masnun – in the dhikr after the compulsory salah is for both the imam and the follower to the degree that the one in the masjid and the one outside could hear it.
قال حنبل: سمعت أبا عبد اللَّه يقول: حدثنا علي بن ثابت: حدثنا واصل قال: رأيت علي بن عبد اللَّه بن عباس إذا صلى كبر ثلاث تكبيرات
قلت لأحمد: بعد الصلاة؟ قال: هكذا.قلت له: حديث عمرو عن أبي معبد عن ابن عباس: كنا نعرف انقضاء صلاة رسول اللَّه -صلى اللَّه عليه وسلم- بالتكبير ، هؤلاء أخذوه عن هذا؟ قال: نعم. “فتح الباري” لابن رجب 7/ 396
Hanbal ibn Ishaq said: “I heard Abu `Abdullah saying: It was narrated to us by `Ali ibn Thabit: It was narrated to us by Wasil who said: I saw `Ali ibn `Abdullah ibn `Abbas when he made salah and he would make takbirs. I said to Ahmad, ‘Was this after the salah?’ He said, ‘Yes, that is so’. So I cited to him the hadith of `Amr from Abu Ma`bad from Ibn `Abbas who said, ‘We would know that the salah of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, had ended by the takbir had ended’. I then said to the Imam, ‘Is this where they are taking the understanding from?’ Imam Ahmad remarked, ‘Yes, that’s where they took it from’. And this is cited from Imam Ibn Rajab in Al-Fath ul-Bari, vol.7, pp. 395-396
وقال القاضي أبو يعلى في (الجامع الكبير): ظاهر كلام أحمد: أنه يسن للإمام الجهر بالذكر والدعاء عقب الصلوات بحيث يسمع المأموم، ولا يزيد على ذلك.
Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la the Ender mention in Al-Jami` us-Sahih: “The dominant speech from Imam Ahmad is that it is the sunnah for the Imam to make the dhikr and du`aa aloud at the end of the compulsory salah whereas the follower might hear him but he should not increase and do more than that”.
وذكر عن أحمد نصوصاً تدل على أنه كان يجهر ببعض الذكر، ويسر الدعاء، وهذا هو الأظهر، وأنه لا يختص ذلك بالإمام. فإن حديث ابن عباس هذا ظاهره يدل على جهر المأمومين أيضًا.
It was also narrated from Imam Ahmad explicitly that he would make some of his dhikr aloud while concealing his du`a and this is the most dominant statement from him. And that is not restricted to just the Imam alone. Indeed the hadith of Ibn `Abbas indicates that the followers would make the dhikr aloud as well.
وذكر مثله الموفق في الكافي ( 1 / 260).
And this was also cited by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah in Al-Kafi, vol.1, p.260.
ونقل البهوتي في “كشاف القناع” (1/366) عن شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية استحباب الجهر : ” قال الشيخ :أي ابن تيمية: ويستحب الجهر بالتسبيح والتحميد والتكبير عقب كل صلاة ” .
Imam Al-Buhuti narrated in Kash-shaf ul-Qina`, vol.1, p.366 from Shaikh ul-Islam Taqi ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah that it is praiseworthy to make the dhikr aloud. He said, “The Shaikh – meaning Taqi ud-Din ibn Taymiyyah – said, ‘It is praiseworthy to make the dhikr aloud, including the statement of Glory be to Allah, Praise be to Allah and Allah is the Greatest at the end of every compulsory salah’.”
بهذا يتبين الفرق بين معتمد المذهب في هذه المسألة وأن ما اشتهر خلافه .
So this makes the clear difference between the depended upon ruling in the Madhhab in this issue and what is popularly thought which is in fact the opposite view.
فارس بن فالح الخزرجي
This was written by (Shaikh) Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji
In one of the dark recesses of the nights of Ramadan, in the shadows at the top of the mountain, the dawn of revelation was brought to the illiterate prophet with a simple call: read.
This sudden call established and announced that reading is the means to obtaining knowledge and upon it rests the pillars upon which the culture of human civilisation is built. The highest direction that the new life could take was that which the Angel Jibril, peace be upon him, came down with and carried to Muhammad ibn `Abdullah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
His was the life of one that was guided with sound intellect, sound knowledge, seeking guidance by knowledge on the very farthest horizons of this earthly life.
Is it the case that the life of the human being in his degraded state is the most perfect and correct or is it the life of Islam that is sufficient?
This command to read is clear and it is neither in relation to anything nor any other matter than the one at that time. The question that might come to mind is: how is it that Muhammad ibn `Abdullah was illiterate so that he could not read and did not know the means to learning reading on that very night.
It was this very situation that Muhammad was thrown into and he sought excuse when saying, “I cannot read. I cannot read.” This was said three times on the same occasion and Allah took the responsibility of lifting this difficulty from His Most Chosen One. The Angel Jibril the Trustworthy, peace be upon him, entrusted and strengthened him with the remainder of the first revelation.
Read in the Name of Your Lord who created. He created the human being from a clot.
It is due to this that He taught him that the beginning of reading is firstly by mentioning the Name of Allah, the Possessor of Power over the creation of the human being from the clot. Then he changed the point of discussion from this to the topic of knowledge.
Now knowledge and not doubt is the fruit of reading for the human being and this is realised with the pen as it is the instrument for the perfecting the knowledge, noting down and recording points of information into paragraphs and establishing for perpetual ages things that might normally be missed if not put to pen.
With regard to the Prophet that was sent with this message, the preamble about the pen does not apply as Allah honoured him so that he had no need to have recourse to the pen. He made Himself responsible for the Revelation and raised it high above the charge levelled by the liars and their mockery of him due to what Allah said of him:
And before this time, you did not narrate anything of any book nor did you write anything with your right hand.
So illiteracy in the case of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, is actually a completion of his perfection in this regard and not a shortcoming. So you should consider the following after understanding that:
Is the knowledge sought all of one kind? Or is all of it built from a particular type? That which we are responsible for firstly is that knowledge is merely the acquisition of information by way of Allah and this is the Message of Allah to His Creation by way of revelation to His Messengers and that is the knowledge of the Religion.
Then there is acquired knowledge that Allah guides whoever He so wills towards obtaining. Those who obtain such knowledge have been endowed with abundant talent, superior intellect and minds of steely determination. They go on to make pathways that open the doors of knowledge into many different disciplines.
Possessors of acquired knowledge have based their findings on the five senses, the intellect, empirical testing by experimentation and their desiring to find outcomes by means of travelling to places that could be to the farthest horizons.
So upon attainment of this objective, leadership in these fields is then ceded to them. New findings always come to light in these areas and this is in the sciences around the earthly life and what is connected to it.
There then grows up on the fringes of valid knowledge other details that are neither from knowledge of the Religion nor the earthly life and these things are in reality of a third category, which includes matters such as plant spiritism, divination and sorcery with respect to water or crop fields.
Simpletons think such affairs as these to be subsections of the sciences of horticulture and plant growth when they bear no benefit at all to plants. Another example of such quackery is the divination used by astrologers and soothsayers. This is an ancient pseudoscience and fake inheritance bequeathed to the people and it always causes enmity among them.
If knowledge in its’ absolute sense dependant on the Revelation or it is acquired by sound intellects and reflection, then divination is altogether outside of both forms listed. That which we depend upon to say is that divination -whether ancient or modern – is prognostication of an event or the making manifest of some affair to occur that is in the realm of unseen of which the people are not aware.
In the full light of the Qur’an and the Sunnah, Allah, Glorified be He, is the only One who knows the unseen and He does not make it known to anyone except when He decides and to whom He so wills from His Angels and Messengers.
Thus whenever He reveals some affair of His Unseen matters to His Angels so that one or each one might carry it out in the realms of the earthly life with respect to something or the people, the angels discuss what has been revealed among themselves.
Allah has giving the ability to the demons among the jinn to attempt to listen out for such information – something that he has not granted to the human being – and when they do such they ascend to the heights of the sky and draw near to it in order to listen out for some news coming from the discussion among the angels.
After snatching what they may, these same demons descend down to the most vile of human beings who are decided by them and listen to their words. The demons then relate this to the people that follow them, mixing much falsehood with that which they speak.
These diviners then speak to the people according to what they come to know, either adding to or taking away from what they received or even replacing parts. When the diviners come to be proven right in some of the affairs that they spoke of then those listening to it are deceived into thinking that the people involved in this falsehood know the protected unseen affairs in the sight of Allah.
It is upon things such as this that divination places its hopes and is always accepted among the people but it is from the demonic tribulations that corrupt the creed and life of those who affirm the truthfulness of the diviners and it confirms the belief held by some simple people that the diviners do indeed have knowledge of the unseen.
Such things were widespread before Islam but Allah incapacitated the demons from much of this or actually most of it and the influence of this and other affairs like it has been greatly diminished since the revelation of the Qur’an and the sending of Muhammad ibn `Abdullah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.
Even with the power remaining being a little bit, the people still follow diviners in their affairs and testify to their lies against their Lord.
Allah has declared,
Shall I not inform you of what was brought down by the demons? It was brought down by every lying, sinful one. They stand by what they heard and most of them are liars.
It is also mentioned by Him that the demons remarked:
Indeed we went to the sky and found it full with stern guards and flaming meteors. We used to sit not far from it in groups to steal a listen. Whoever listened now will only find a flaming meteor.
That ayah establishes that the angels are guarding the sky from the demons taking a listen and stealing information. When they do try, as is their habit, flaming meteors follow on and burn them or drive them away. They thus return dejected with nothing.
And it is due to this that we know that Allah has sufficed us and protected us from a great evil in the attempts of the demons. He also taught us that they have many astray methods which they attempt to use and so He preserves us from divination and we do not obey the false doctrines which are given service to by the use of cups,  shells, geomancy or even the presence of the demons
Trans note: This is referring to all things outside of Revelation. This could include affairs such as geology, ethnology, archaeology and so forth.
Trans note: This is the belief that plants bear spirits in them that must be placated.
Trans note: This could be something such as dowsing, water witching or the use of divining rods to aid in locating ground water or the choicest water for irrigating one’s crops. This also includes water pyramiding, in which people may place containers of water under the image or shape of a pyramid in the hope that the water will be changed or made more palatable for priestly rites.
Trans note: This refers to doing things such as crop circle divination, setting aside certain crops for idols or a temple.
Trans note: This could be by reading coffee grounds, tea bags or similar matters.
Trans note: This could be by listening to the roar inside of seashells, moving them around or reading the swirls and coming to conclusions.
Trans note: This is divination by interpreting marks on the ground, soil or even building cities or towns based upon some divination theory. This is used heavily even today by Americans and English people in their building plans.
 Taken from `Ulama wa A`lam Katabu fi Majallat il-Wa`iil-Islam il-Kuwaitiyyah, issue no.3, Rabi` ul-Awwal 1385 AH (July AD 1965).