Tag Archives: ruhaibah

BIOGRAPHY: SHAIKH MUHAMMAD ZANNUB AR-RUHAIBANI

محمد الشيخ زنوب

The Shaikh, Muhammad Zannub Ar-Ruhaibani


محمد حسن علي الشيخ الرحيباني الدمشقي الصيادي الرفاعي الحنبلي, ولد رحمه الله عام (1279هـ) في بلدة الرحيبة من أسرة

تعمل في الزراعة، عمل فيها أسوةً بأبيه وجده.

He is Muhammad Hasan `Ali Ar-Ruhaibani Ad-Dimashqi As-Siyadi Ar-Rifa`ii Al-Hanbali. He was born in the year 1279[1] in the town of Ruhaibah into a family that worked in agriculture, the same agriculture done by his father and grandfather.

Early life


– تعلم القرآن على الشيخ حسين محمد المصري في بلدة الرحيبة.

He began by learning the Qur’an with the Shaikh, Hussain Muhammad Al-Masri while in the town of Ar-Ruhaibah.


– وتعلم العربية والتفسير على الشيخ هاشم رباطة.

He also made a detailed a study of the Arabic language and tafsir literature under the tutelage of the Shaikh, Hashim Ribatah.


– وتلقى علم التجويد على يد المقرئ المعروف في عصره الشيخ حسين قداحة من بلدة الرحيبة .

In addition to this, the Shaikh also came to study tajwid of the Qur’an with the well known Shaikh, Hussain Qudaahah.


– ثم تلقى علوم الحديث والفقه ومعظم علومه على الشيخ محمد حسين أبو زيد: وهو من أهم شيوخه.

Then the Shaikh also exerted himself in the sciences of hadith, fiqh and most of this was done with the Shaikh, Muhammad Hussain Abu Zaid, who was one of the most important of Shaikh Zannub’s influences.


لازم الشيخُ محمد زَنُّوب شيخَهُ الشيخَ محمد أبوزيد فترة طويلة من الزمن حتى أصبح زميلاً له وتلميذاً في وقت واحد، وقد منحه إجازة بقراءة الدرس من كل علم نقلي أو عقلي كما تلقى ذلك عن مشايخه.

Shaikh Zannub kept the company of this teacher for a long time until he became a successor to him in knowledge and a student assistant to him. He was given a license to teach every science they had learned together with chains that had gone back to his teachers previously.

بعد أن تلقى الشيخ (زَنُّوب) علومه بدأ بنشرها في مساجد الرحيبة وفي بيته وتخرج على يده نخبة من العلماء منهم:

After completion of this heady task, the Shaikh and now Faqih, Zannub went about teaching and expounding his lessons in the masjids of Ar-Ruhaibah and his house and a number of scholars would benefit from this teaching.

Scholarly career and students


– الشيخ عبد اللطيف سويدان

The Shaikh, `Abdul Latif Suwaidan[2]


وهو أكثر طلاب الناظم ملازمة له حيث لازمه قرابة عشرين عاماً ونقل معظم علوم الشيخ زَنُّوب حفظاً وتدويناً.

Shaikh Suwaidan was the most regular student of Shaikh Zannub, who accompanied him for some 20 years and narrated most of the sciences of the Shaikh, whether this was by memorisation or written text.


– الشيخ أحمد أبو زيد (ابن شيخه) وإمام وخطيب جامع (زيد بن حارثة) الجب سابقاً.

Shaikh Ahmad Abu Zaid[3] (the son of his shaikh). He was the imam and khatib of the Zaid ibn Harithah Central Masjid.


– ومنهم ولداه الشيخ عمر والشيخ عبد القادر.

Shaikh `Umar Zannub and Shaikh `Abdul Qadir Zannub, the two sons of the Shaikh.


– ومنهم الشيخ قاسم إدريس والشيخ صالح جريش والشيخ حسن دبين والشيخ محمد عباس عليان والشيخ محمد دبين إمام وخطيب بلدة (البحارية) والخطيب المتجول الشيخ محمود دعاس شحادة

Others students to Shaikh Zannub include, the Shaikh, Qasim Idris, the Shaikh, Salih Jarish, the Shaikh, Hasan Dabbain, the Shaikh Muhammad `Abbas `Ulayyan, the Shaikh, Muhammad Dabbain (who was the imam and khatib of the town of Bayariyyah) and finally the Shaikh Mahmud Da`as Shahadah

. – ومنهم الشيخ عبد الحميد شريف الشيخ.

And there was also the Shaikh `Abdul Hamid Sharif Ash-Shaikh[4] also being from their ranks.

Respect shown to him by scholars


كانت تربط الشيخ (زَنُّوب) ببعض علماء عصره الكبار صداقة ومودة، ويأتي في مقدمتهم:

Shaikh Zannub had the respect and love of numerous senior scholars of his time, the most foremost of them being:

الشيخ المحدث بدر الدين الحسني: المحدث الكبير في دمشق، الذي ألبس الشيخ (زَنُّوب) العمامة بيده، وخلع عن رأسه العقال والحطة- اللباس التقليدي لأهل البلد- بعد أن التقاه وتناظر معه وعرف غزارة علمه.

The Shaikh, the Hadith scholar, Badr ud-Din Al-Hasani.[5] He was a major hadith scholar in Damascus and he took the Shaikh, Zannub by the hand, removed his `iqal and Hattah – as was traditionally worn in his land – and dressed him in the `imamah with his own hands out of respect. This happened after they had met discussed some matters of difference of opinion in fiqh and Shaikh Al-Hasani saw the depth of knowledge of Zannub.


كما التقى الشيخين حسن الشطي وجميل الشطي مفتي الحنابلة بدمشق، وتناظر معهما وأهدياه كتاب كشاف القناع إثر حادثة طريفة.

He met and sat in many meetings with the two shaikhs, Hasan Ash-Shatti[6] and Jamil Ash-Shatti[7] (who was the mufti of the Hanbalis in Damascus). He debated with them in fiqh matters and on account of his knowledge they gifted him the book, Kash-shaf ul-Qina`[8] written out and with a new print.


وممن التقاهم أيضا الشيخ عبد القادر القصاب الديرعطاني: وكان بينهما لقاءات متعددة وتزاور وشهد كل منهما بعلم الآخر وفضله.

And among those who he also met was the great scholar and Shaikh, `Abdul Qadir Al-Qassab Ad-Dair `Attani[9] and there were a number of meetings between them as well as visits and each before witness to the knowledge and virtue of the other.

Later life and death

وكانت وفاته في ليلة النصف من شعبان عام 1362هـ

The death of the great Shaikh Zannub would come on 15 Sha`ban 1362. He would be gathered to his people and buried. And may Allah envelop him with encompassing mercy.


[1] AD 1861

[2] 1321-1393 (AD 1903-1974). He is `Abdul Latif ibn `Abdu ibn `Abud As-Suwaidan Ar-Ruhaibani. Referred to as “the scholar, the Zahid, the doctor, the righteous and the scholar of inheritance law”, he took from the premier scholars of his time in Ar-Ruhaibah such as Shaikh Muhammad Abu Zaid Ar-Ruhaibi, Shaikh Muhammad Hasan Zannub as well as his father, Shaikh `Abdu As-Suwaidan. He is the successor to the knowledge of Shaikh Zannub and was made the imam and khatib of Masjid As-Sahah in Ar-Ruhaibah, where he taught until his death. He went through many trials in his life, fought against the French invasion of Sham in a great jihad and also had many students. cf. Ash-Shatti’s Tarikh A`lam Dimashq

[3] 1322-1406 (AD 1904-1987). He is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hussain Abu Zaid Ar-Ruhaibani Al-Hanbali. Coming from a family of deep knowledge and insight, the Shaikh grew up under the watchful eye of his father, learning the early sciences of the Religion from him. After the death of his father, he would go on to learn from Shaikh Zannub, also visit Damascus and learn from the great scholar, Muhammad Jamil Ash-Shatti (d. 1379). Attempts were made to poison him with Salafiyyah but they failed miserably as he referred back to the earlier books in which the scholars answered the cult in responsa literature. cf Ash-Shatti’s Tarikh A`lam Dimashq.

[4] 1338-1429 (AD 1919-2007). He is `Abdul Hamid ibn Sharif Ash-Shaikh.

[5] 1267-1354 (AD 1850-1935). Famous hadith scholar and fiqh specialist of Damascus.

[6]  1296-1381 (AD 1879-1962). Fiqh scholar and son of the great marja`, Hasan Ash-Shatti (d. 1274), he was one of the great scholars of Syria at the time.  

[7] 1300-1379 (AD 1882-1959). Muhammad Jamil ibn `Umar ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn `Umar Ash-Shatti. Scholar of his time and one of the great muftis of his age, he has a separate biography that has been covered.

[8] This text is Imam Mansur Al-Buhuti’s (d. 1051) monumental commentary on the original work Al-Iqna` by Imam Musa Al-Hajjawi (d. 968) and is one of the authoritative commentaries in the school of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

[9] 1264-1360 (AD 1845-1941). He is `Abdul Qadir ibn Muhammad ibn Hussain ibn Isma`il ibn Ibrahim Al-Qassab. Major and high ranking Hanbali jurist, poet and also teacher of inheritance law, he left behind a large rhyming text of fiqh that summarised Al-Karmi’s classic text Dalil ut-Talib.

Imam Mustafa Ar-Ruhaibani

Figure 1A: A photo of the town of Ruhaibah, the home of the grand marja`.
Figure 1A: A photo of the town of Ruhaibah, the home of the grand marja`.

The marja` is referred to by the scholars as, “the Shaikh, the Imam, the `Alim, the Faqih, the Scholar of Inheritance, the Complete Researcher and Authority, Unique Researcher of his time, former Mufti of the Hanbalis of Damascus.”

Birth and Upbringing

Mustafa ibn Sa`d ibn `Abduh as-Suyuti ar-Ruhaibani ad-Dimishqi. Born in the hamlet of Ar-Ruhaibah in the year 1165 AH, he memorised the Qur’an and then set out almost immediately for Damascus at a young age.

The first teacher of the Imam was the great scholar, Imam Ahmad al-Ba`li (d. 1189 AH), whom he benefited from greatly and strived a great deal before Imam al-Ba`li died and he had to move to another teacher.

Learning and Authority

The next two teachers he moved to in Damascus were also marja` scholars and they were Imams Muhammad ibn Mustafa ibn Al-Lubadi an-Nabulsi (d. 1191 AH) – a marja` from the great hamlet of maraji`, namely Kafr Lubad – and Shaikh `Ali Afanda At-Taghtashani.

After benefiting from these men, he next moved to the Imam, Muhammad ibn `Ali as-Salimi and Shaikh Muhammad al-Kamili.

When looking at the curriculum of Ar-Ruhaibah and Damascus in fiqh and other areas, this is the shape of what the Imam studied after completing his work on the Qur’an and the readings in the six books of hadith:

Fiqh:

Beg: Ad-Dalil ut-Talib Li-Nail il-Ma’arib Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf al-Karmi (d. 1033 AH). This is the standard foundational work in Sham while the scholars of the Gulf, Egypt lean heavily on Ar-Rawd ul-Murbi` by Imam Mansur al-Buhuti (d. 1051 AH).

Inter: Ghayat ul-Muntaha by Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf al-Karmi. This text was a joining between the original text of the author, Al-Muntaha, as well as the work Al-Iqna`, penned by the Palestinian giant, Imam Musa ibn Yahya al-Hajjawi (d. 968 AH).

Well known throughout Sham, Iraq, Egypt but is more dominant in Sham than in Egypt and the Gulf, which usually utilize Kash-shaf ul-Qina` by Imam Mansur al-Buhuti (d. 1051 AH) – top student of Imam Yahya al-Hajjawi (d. 1000 AH), the son and marja` successor of his father, Imam Musa al-Hajjawi (d. 968 AH).

Creed:

Beg. and Inter: Lum`at ul-I`tiqad al-Hadi ila Sabil ir-Rishad by Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah and its’ associated commentaries.  Most authorities and their students tend to study the bare text but to compare it with Imam Al-Balbani (d. 1083 AH) and sometimes progressing to the Nihayah of Imam Ibn Hamdan (d. 695 AH).

 Ihsan:

Beg. and Inter: In this area,  Imam Mustafa ar-Ruhaibani consulted the works of Imams Muhammad Ahmad as-Saffarini (d. 1188 AH), Ibn al-Mabrid (d. 909 AH) as well as Badr ud-Din Al-Balbani (d. 1083 AH), may Allah have mercy upon all of them.

Imam Mustafa ar-Ruhaibani, like many of the Imams of his time and Maraji`, had no tariqah in tasawwuf, yet was a paragon of piety according to all accounts and biographies of him by contemporaries.

The Imam eventually was given permission to give rulings by Imam ash-Sharif Isma`il al-Jarra`ii (d. 1202 AH), who was the chief judge in Damascus and their Mufti up until his death.

Imam ar-Ruhaibani had a huge footprint in Islam and was declared to be marja` by his peers in his time and taught numerous maraji`, one of them being Imam Hasan ash-Shatti (d. 1275 AH).

The two maraji` came together and authored a text entitled,  Al-Ghayah, a work dually authored and collected by the two authorities. The original work by Imam Ar-Ruhaibani was entitled Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, which was a large three or six (depending on print size) volume work that was an expansion of Imam Mar`ii ibn Yusuf al-Karmi’s Ghayat ul-Muntaha.

Imam Hasan ash-Shatti’s contribution to the text was his Tajrid Zawa’id il-Ghayah wash-Sharh, which further fleshed out the texts in the two works but also highlighted the differences between these two mountains of knowledge.

The works of the the Imam are some five or more which include the above fiqh text and also the following:

Tuhfat ul-`Ibadi Fima fil-Yawmi wal-Lailati min al-Awrad. This is at text that details the various supplications of a believer in his daily life from authentic sources in the Sunnah of our Messenger, Muhammad, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

Majmu`a Fatawa. A series of collected fatawa on numerous topics that is currently under scrutiny for printing. We ask Allah to speed the process and make these works available to us.

Notable rulings

Imam Mustafa as-Suyuti ar-Ruhaibani stated boldly and without apology that whoever made hajj and thought that this lifted from him the obligation of prayer and zakah should be asked to repent or if he was ignorant taught the truth. If he was to continue after that, the ruling of the Imam is that he is to be killed.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 478-479]

Building on graves and making tawaf around them was seen as impermissible, rather than disliked, the stricter of the two positions narrated from Imam Musa al-Hajjawi.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 146-147]

Women were not to be forbidden from visiting the graves, but it was still disliked as there was a fear that there may be wailing and the tearing of clothing in morning. It is here that the Imam took the more lenient position rather than prohibition.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 159-160]

The dead know of those who visit them every second and not merely Friday, which is the most far ranging of most of the rulings of the scholars.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 161-162]

One should recite Surahs such as Fatihah, Yasin, At-Takathur, Ikhlas, Falaq and Nas upon entering and in the graveyard, a practice that has its’ origins in the first three generations.

Family connections and remembering one’s loved ones was especially important to the Imam during the period of occupation in Sham from the French when sometimes people were stopped from going to the graves due to warfare.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 161-162]

Jihad is a communal obligation and does not become an individual obligation. The point is important as the Imam himself was a warrior but never stated that most, all of the Ummah are obligated as we find today.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.2, pp. 509-511]

Those innovators and people in cults are unbelievers in general but not individually until the judgments have been established and they have been evaluated; but these people in the groups, one is to fear for their souls.

[Source: Matalib Uwl in-Nuha Fi Sharhi Ghayat il-Muntaha, vol.6, pp. 200-203]

Imam Mustafa as-Suyuti ar-Ruhaibani died Friday 12 Rabi` ul-Akhir 1243 AH at 78 years of age and was prayed upon by all the scholars of the Ummayah Family Central Masjid and buried with the family of Imam Ibn `Abdul Baqi ad-Dimishqi.

We ask Allah to reward him and place him in the highest palaces of the Paradise for his leadership.