Tag Archives: The Salaf

THE CLEAR AND CONCISE WAY OF MUSLIM ORTHODOXY IN THEOLOGY


وقال الإمام شيخ الإسلام موفق الدين ابن قدامة في قاعدة التفويض:

Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said just this on the topic:

والصحيح: أن المتشابه: ما ورد في صفات الله سبحانه مما يجب الإيمان به ويحرم التعرض لتأويله كقوله تعالى:

“The authentic position is that the allegorical ayat are what was narrated about the Attributes of Allah, Glorified be He, in what is compulsory to believe in and it is impermissible to seek its meaning. This includes examples where the Exalted One has said:

ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱسْتَوَىٰ)  (بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ( (لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلْعَالِينَ) (وَيَبْقَىٰ وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلْجَلاَلِ وَٱلإِكْرَامِ) (تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا) ونحوه.   

(The Most Merciful is above the Throne),[1] (But both of His Hands are outspread),[2] (to the one I created with My Two Hands),[3] (The Face of your Lord shall remain forevermore),[4] (They float under Our Gaze).[5]

فهذا اتفق السلف رحمهم الله على الإقرار به وإمراره على وجهه وترك تأويله.

“And this is what the First Three Generations – may Allah have mercy upon them – agreed in that they would affirm it, pass it by as it was and abandon seeking the meaning.

فإن الله سبحانه ذم المتبعين لتأويله وقرنهم في الذم بالذين يبتغون الفتنة وسماهم أهل زيغ.

“This was on account that Allah, Glorified be He, cast blame upon those who sought its meaning and joined between the blameworthiness of what they did with those who are seeking tribulation and he named them people of division and rancour.

وليس في طلب تأويل ما ذكروه من المجمل وغيره ما يذم به صاحبه بل يمدح عليه إذ هو طريق إلى معرفة الأحكام وتمييز الحلال من الحرام.

“And in seeking out the meaning of what they mentioned before of general ayat and others, there is no blame on someone doing that. In fact it is the opposite. When it comes to the decisive ayat, one is praised for seeking the meaning is this is a way to know the judgements set in the Revealed Law and distinguishing the permissible from the impermissible.

ولأن في الآية قرائن تدل على أن الله سبحانه منفرد بعلم تأويل المتشابه وأن الوقف الصحيح عند قوله تعالى:

“However in the allegorical, it is in this ayah indicators that establish that Allah only has knowledge of the meaning of the allegorical and that a complete stop should be exercised at the place where the Exalted One says:

(وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللهُ) لفظًا ومعنى.

And no one knows its meaning but Allah.[6] This means both the wording and the meaning.

أما اللفظ: فلأنه لو أراد عطف (وَالرَّاسِخُونَ) لقال: (وَيَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ) بالواو

“As for the wording, then if it was intended that those well grounded in knowledge [7]also knew the meaning, it would have mentioned and they say, ‘We believe in it’. [8]

وأما معنى: فلأنه ذم مبتغي التأويل ولو كان ذلك للراسخين معلومًا: لكان مبتغيه ممدوحًا لا مذمومًا.

“In terms of the meaning, this is on account of the fact that the one seeking the meaning is considered blameworthy. If the meaning of it had been known to those well grounded in knowledge, then seeking it would have been praiseworthy and not blameworthy.

ولأن قولهم: (آمَنَّا بِهِ) يدل على نوع تفويض وتسليم لشيء لم يقفوا على معناه.

“And also due to their statement (We have believed in it) proves this is a type of tafwid and submission to something that they did not know its meaning.

سيما إذا أتبعوا بقولهم (كُلٌّ مِنْ عِنْدِ رَبِّنَا) فذكرهم ربهم ههنا يعطي الثقة به، والتسليم لأمره وأنه صدره منه وجاء من عنده كما جاء من عنده المحكم.

“This is especially when the statement is followed up with their words (all of it is from our Lord). Thus their mentioning their Lord hear confirms trusting in Him, submission to him and that it came from Him, from His Presence just as the other decisive ayat had come.

ولأن لفظة (أَمَّا) لتفصيل الجمل فذكره لها في (الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ) مع وصفه إياهم بابتغاء المتشابه وابتغاء تأويله يدل على قسم آخر يخالفهم في هذه الصفة وهم (الراسخون) ولو كانوا يعلمون تأويله لم يخالفوا القسم الأول في ابتغاء التأويل.

“As for the statement (as far as) [9] this is to differentiate the sentences and He mentioned the matter regarding the others when he said (those who have a disease in their hearts) [10] with His Description of them in seeking the allegorical and seeking its meaning and that served as proof on another matter that He mentioned the well grounded in knowledge opposed those who had a sickness in their hearts. So if the well grounded in knowledge had known the meaning, they would not have been differentiated from the first group in their seeking the meaning.

وإذ قد ثبت أنه غير معلوم التأويل لأحد: فلا يجوز حمله على غير ما ذكرناه لأن ما ذكر من الوجوه لا يعلم تأويله كثير من الناس.

“Thus when it has been established that the meaning of it is not known to anyone, it is not permissible to bear the ayah on anything other than what we mentioned as it has not been mentioned that any narratives that many people do not know its meaning as has been said in some narratives.

فإن قيل: فكيف يخاطب الله الخلق بما لا يعقلونه أم كيف ينزل على رسوله ما لا يطّلع على تأويله؟

“If it should be said, “How could Allah speak to the creation in a way that they don’t understand? How could He send down on His Messenger something that one cannot ascertain the meaning?”

يجوز أن يكلفهم الإيمان بما لا يطّلعون على تأويله ليختبر طاعتهم كما قال تعالى: (وَلِنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّى نَعْلَمَ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّابِرِينَ) (وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنْتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ) الآية، (وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِلنَّاسِ)

“It is possible that He would make them responsible for having iman in what they don’t know its meaning in order for them to be tested in their obedience. Like when he said, (So that He might test you as We know the mujahidin from those among you that are patient) [11] (We did not make the Qiblah which you were upon except so that We might know) [12] and also (We did not make the vision which We showed you except as a test to the people). [13]

وكما اختبرهم بالإيمان بالحروف المقطّعة مع أنه لا يعلم معناها والله أعلم.

“And just as He can test them in iman regarding the surahs that begin with the disconnected letters while the fact is that none knows their meaning. And Allah knows best”. [14]


[1] Surah TaHa (20), ayah 5

[2] Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 64

[3] Surah Sad (38), ayah 75

[4] Surat ur-Rahman (55), ayah 27

[5] Surat ul-Qamar (54), ayah 14

[6] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[7] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[8] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[9] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[10] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

[11] Surah Muhammad (47), ayah 31

[12] Surah ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 143

[13] Surat ul-Isra’ (17), ayah 60

[14] Rawdat un-Nazir wa Junnat ul-Munazir, vol.1, pp. 213-217